Tsikas, or cycad, is one of the few surviving representatives of the most ancient flora of the planet.
Outwardly, the cicassus looks like a palm tree, but it is not a palm tree. Cycad is an intermediate link between ferns and ginkgo.
Growing a cycad at home is a rather lengthy process. There is another complication: an adult plant needs a lot of space, and you must take this into account.
In our article, you will find recommendations for growing cicassa in a room culture. From it you will learn:
- what are the types of cycads;
- how the cicassus reproduces;
- how to care for a cycad;
- what problems can occur in cicas and how to deal with them.
Planting and caring for cicada
- Bloom: the plant is grown as a decorative deciduous plant.
- Lighting: bright diffused light or partial shade.
- Temperature: during the growing season - usual for living quarters, in winter - at least 15 ˚C.
- Watering: in summer it is moderate, in winter it is scarce.
- Air humidity: high - 70-80%. Frequent spraying of the leaves with water and wiping with a damp sponge is recommended, as well as wrapping the trunk with wet sphagnum moss.
- Top dressing: during the period of active growth, once a month with organic fertilizers that do not contain potassium and magnesium: a solution of mullein or horse manure. Mineral fertilizers are not suitable for cicas.
- Rest period: relative, from late autumn to early spring.
- Transfer: young plants - once every 2-3 years, adults are better not to transplant, but annually remove the top layer of the substrate 5 cm thick from the pot and lay fresh soil.
- Reproduction: lateral offspring, if any. Seed propagation is for specialists.
- Pests: scale insects, aphids, mealybugs, spider mites.
- Diseases: root rot, caudex rot, chlorosis.
Read more about the cultivation of cicas below.
Plant cycas (Latin Cycas), or cycad, or sago palm - belongs to the only genus of gymnosperms of the family Cycadaceae, combining, according to various sources, from ninety to two hundred species. The range of this genus extends to Asia - from India to Japan, to the Pacific islands - Fiji, Samoa, Mariana and Madagascar. The remains of these plants were found in the sediments of the earth's crust of the Mesozoic period. And although many representatives of cycads no longer exist in nature, the genus of Cycas continues to live exclusively due to its unpretentiousness. Today, the cicas palm tree at home is a desirable and expensive decorative element.
In appearance, the cicas flower looks like a palm tree - a tree from two to fifteen meters high with a fairly thick trunk. With a three-meter height of a cicassa, its trunk can reach a meter thickness in girth. The trunk is "chained in a shell" from the remnants of dead leaves. Cycas leaves, feathery or doubly feathery, like fern leaves, grow from the top of the trunk. Tsikas lives for more than a hundred years. Domestic cicas grows in height only up to half a meter or up to 80 cm, and in one year it adds no more than three centimeters in growth and releases only one row of leaves, at first soft and slightly pubescent, bright green, and eventually becoming darker. hard, naked and shiny.
The indoor flower cicas looks more like a bush than a tree, and despite the fact that many consider the plant a palm tree - the name itself comes from the ancient Greek word kykas, which means "palm" - it has nothing to do with palm trees, but it is related with ferns. Due to its slow growth, the plant is often grown as a bonsai. Tsikas blooms at home very rarely. In female plants, large orange seeds are formed in the cones at the top of the trunk, reaching 3 to 5 cm in length, but to obtain seeds suitable for propagation, greenhouse conditions and the efforts of an experienced specialist are required.
Caring for cicada at home
Before growing cicas, find a place in the apartment worthy of this plant, and if you decide to buy an already old enough specimen, keep in mind that a lot of space will be required. Indoor cicas is a photophilous plant, but direct sun exposure to leaves shortens their life and deprives them of attractiveness. Cycas grows in partial shade, but the lack of lighting slows down the process of new leaves formation, and the cicas is in no hurry to grow anyway. The temperature regime, usual for our apartments, is quite suitable for cicas, in winter the cicas houseplant prefers coolness, however, the thermometer should not drop below 15 ºC.
Caring for cicas is primarily in the properly organized watering of the plant. In the summer, the soil moistening in the pot should be moderate, in the winter, watering is reduced, and the amount of water required for moistening is directly dependent on the room temperature: the cooler the room, the less water is needed and the less often the cicas should be watered. For irrigation, use soft, settled water at room temperature or a couple of degrees warmer. Try to avoid getting water into the crown of the plant.
The air humidity for cicassa requires increased - 70-80%, this can be achieved by frequent spraying the leaves with settled water, wrapping the trunk with wet moss and frequent wiping the leaves with a damp sponge.
Caring for the cicas palm tree provides for feeding the plant once a month during the period of active growth with organic fertilizers that do not contain magnesium and potassium salts. The best fertilizers for cicas are mullein or horse manure diluted in water. Cicas does not tolerate mineral fertilizers.
A young cicasa is transplanted every 2-3 years, it is not recommended to disturb adult plants with a transplant once again, so change the pot for the plant only if it is obviously small for the cicassa. The cicassus pot needs only 2-3 cm in diameter more than the diameter of the plant's trunk, and the depth of the vessel should be equal to 2-2.5 of its diameters. That is, if you need a pot with a diameter of 15 cm, then its depth should be 30-35 cm. The cicas soil prefers neutral or slightly acidic, with good water permeability: water should pass through the soil and flow into the pallet in a matter of seconds. To increase water permeability, the soil for cicas is made up of pumice, coarse perlite, very coarse sand or coarse peat.
Here is an approximate composition of a soil mixture that is suitable for cicas: one part of pumice or slag, one part of coarse pine bark, one part of crushed stone or pebbles, one part of coarsely ground charcoal, one part of coarse peat, one part of coarse perlite and one tenth of bone meal - all this must be mixed, and the resulting mixture must be sterilized.
A properly formulated permeable substrate does not exclude the need to place a thick layer of drainage in the pot. You can transplant a plant in any season, but the time before the start of active plant growth is more suitable for this - spring. Refrain from transplanting cicasas when young leaves are forming - they can be easily damaged. Before transplanting a cicasa, remove one third of its leaves, starting with the oldest, and when transplanting, try not to damage the roots of the plant, since deformation or trauma of the thick roots increases the risk of rotting cicas.
Growing from seeds
You are unlikely to be able to grow a cicas from seeds: specialists in greenhouses and nurseries are engaged in seed reproduction of this plant, since the cicas almost never bloom at home, and there is no one to pollinate the blooming cicas in apartments. But if you get good seeds, soak them for a day in warm water, then spread them over the perlite and lightly press into it. Germination should take place at a temperature of at least 25 ºC for two to three months. When, a month or two after germination, the first leaf is formed in the seedling, the cicasa from the seeds can be transplanted into the soil for an adult plant.
Reproduction by separation of the appendix
Under favorable conditions for the cicassus, it gives offspring on the trunk. With a very sharp knife, trying not to damage the trunk, the offspring is cut off, all leaves are removed from it, the cut is treated with a fungicide, then with a root, planted in coarse perlite or very coarse sand and watered. Do not forget to treat the cut on the stem of the mother plant with crushed charcoal. It is necessary to keep the rooting offspring in partial shade at a temperature of about 30 ºC, it is important that the substrate is slightly damp at all times. It can take anywhere from 6 months to a year to take root, but when the roots finally grow back, the offspring can be carefully transplanted into a medium for an adult cicada.
Pests and diseases
Of the pests, the most dangerous for the cicassa is the scale insect, since they are protected from the action of insecticides by a wax coating. Adults need to be collected by hand, and the larvae are destroyed by treating the ground part of the plant with drugs of contact and systemic action: acephate, carbaryl, pyrethrin, pyriproxyfen or other pyrethroids. Treatment is carried out in the morning or evening at temperatures below 30 ºC. Re-treatments can be carried out at intervals of 5 to 10 days.
Cycas is affected by mealybugs, which spread throughout the plant. Pick up the pests with your hands, then treat the entire plant with a preparation containing cypermethrin, not forgetting to moisten the soil in a pot with the composition. If necessary, the treatment can be repeated after five days, the number of sprays - up to four sessions.
If the cicasa is occupied by aphids, the plant will have to be sprayed with phosphorus preparations 2-3 times with an interval of a week. And plant mites that settle in the terrestrial part of the cicas are destroyed by triple treatment at weekly intervals with preparations of acaricidal action.
Of the diseases of the cicas, most often it is necessary to deal with rot of the roots and caudex - the lower part of the trunk. The plant must be carefully removed from the pot, the roots must be cleaned from the substrate, all blackened and darkened, as well as soft places must be removed with a sharp sterile knife, the cicas must be dipped in a fungicide solution for half an hour, then all the sections must be sprinkled with crushed charcoal and the plant must be allowed to dry for several hours. Then the cicas should be planted in a fresh, sterilized substrate, after dipping its roots into a solution that accelerates the process of root formation.
Do not worry if the cicada sheds all the leaves during rooting - this makes it easier for him to survive. Worse, if rot hits the trunk from the inside, then the plant will die.
Tsikas turns yellow
Most often, in readers' letters, complaints are heard that the leaves of the cicas turn yellow. This is a really common problem that in most cases, thankfully, can be fixed. If you do not know what to do if the cicaste turns yellow, start solving the problem by finding out the reason why the cicaste turns yellow, and, as usual, there can be several reasons:
- lack of trace elements;
- lack of nitrogen in the soil;
- improper illumination;
- trauma to the root system.
In the first case, the problem may be due to the fact that you did not apply fertilizing, or it may be due to the fact that the plant is not able to assimilate the introduced fertilizing due to too low temperature or due to a change in the pH of the soil, which caused chronic hydration with hard water. Because of this, the roots stopped developing. If the fact is that you did not provide the plant with the necessary microelements, the problem will be solved after fertilizing, and the next leaves that appear on the cicada will already be without yellowness.
If the reason is a chronic violation of the conditions for keeping cicas, the plant needs to be transplanted into new soil, and you will have to remember the rules of care. The nitrogen deficiency is eliminated by the introduction of dressings containing this element in its composition, but the old, yellowed leaves from this, alas, will no longer turn green.
As for improper lighting, then here you also have to turn to the rules for keeping a plant, because each type of cicassa has its own requirements for illumination, so the leaves turn yellow not only when there is a lot of light, but in some species this happens precisely because there is little light. Sometimes cicas leaves turn yellow if you take it out to the balcony or yard in the spring without preliminary hardening.
Cycas leaves turn yellow if the plant has not been watered for a long time or, on the contrary, they did it too often, and also if the roots of the cicas are cold or you have applied too concentrated feeding - the root system signals you a serious problem with yellowing leaves, and the sooner you will see the signal, the easier it will be for you to fix the problem.
If the lower leaves of the cicas turn yellow and dry, then this is a natural process, and if the tips of the leaves dry out, then most likely the air in the room is too dry or you have applied the dressing in the wrong dosage. Clarify these issues and correct any errors. Tsikas is too expensive a plant to be taken lightly.
Most often, the following types of cicas are grown in culture:
Cicas drooping, or rolled cicas, or cicas revoluta (Cycas revoluta)
Homeland of which is South Japan. The trunk of this plant is up to three meters high, columnar, thick - up to one meter in diameter. Leaves are odd-pinnate, up to 2 meters long, their numerous narrow-linear, slightly bent leathery leaves are densely arranged, pubescent at a young age, but darken over time, become glabrous and glossy. Cones of male plants are narrow-cylindrical, up to 80 cm long and up to 15 cm in diameter, female cones are loose, covered with a reddish downy. The seeds are large, orange in color. This species is most often grown in room culture, and it was the care of the cicas that was the basis of our article.
Curled cicas, or cicas snail (Cycas circinalis = Cycas neocaledonica)
A plant with a columnar trunk up to three meters high and leaves reaching two meters in length, growing several pieces in one bunch, pointing up in youth, and later lying horizontally. On pinnate leaves there are up to 50-60 densely spaced narrow-lanceolate leaves on each side of the central vein, their length reaches 25 cm, and their width is 1.5 cm.
Cicas medium (Cycas media)
It is a palm tree up to seven meters high with feathery leaves reaching a length of 180 cm. The leaves are collected in a rosette at the top of the trunk. Male cones are small, only up to 25 cm long, female cones look like a bunch of ears. In Northern Australia, in the 19th century, the seeds of this cycad were used for food, but previously, due to their toxicity, they were subjected to special processing.
Tsikas rumphii (Cycas rumphii)
One of the tallest species native to Sri Lanka, its trunk reaches a height of 8 to 15 m. Feathery leaves, up to 2 meters long, grow in bunches. Leaflets are linear-lanceolate, up to 30 cm long and up to 2 cm wide.
Siamese cicas (Cycas siamensis)
From the savannah forests of Indochina, it grows only up to 180 cm in height, and the trunk is thickened from the roots to the middle, and then becomes thinner. The leaves are pinnate, slightly more than a meter long, with narrow-linear pointed leaves up to 10 cm long and half a centimeter wide of a bluish-white hue.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Cycad family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Indoor Plants Information
Sections: Indoor plants Ornamental deciduous Indoor trees Palms Plants on C Cycadaceae
Hamedorea bamboo palm: home care, photo of a flowering plant, useful recommendations for flower growers
Hamedorea (Chamaedorea) is a flowering plant from the Palm family (Arecaceae). It is also called bamboo or mountain palm. In the wild, it is found in the tropical forests of Central and South America, East Africa, Madagascar. Cold-resistant species grow in the South of Europe, in the Caucasus and in the Crimea. In total, about 130 species of chamedorea are known.
The plant has thin bamboo-like green trunks that grow directly from the rhizome. They can be single or multiple, depending on the species. This palm tree grows very slowly. Despite this, it is popular as a room culture. Culture is not capricious and can be a decoration for any interior, regardless of size.
- Types and varieties of hamedorea for growing at home
- Graceful or elegance
- Home care
- Location and lighting
- Soil and drainage
- Planting and transplanting
- Temperature and humidity
- Top dressing and fertilizers
- By dividing the bush
- Seasonal care
- Care errors and their elimination
- Diseases and pests, control methods
- Palm of hamedorea in the house: signs and superstitions
In appearance, the plant resembles a palm tree. The tree reaches a height of 2-15 m and has a fairly thick trunk. If the cicasus grows up to 3 m, its trunk can reach 1 m in girth. The trunk is covered with the remains of dead leaves.
Tsikas has feathery or doubly feathery leaves that resemble a fern in appearance. Foliage grows from the top of the trunk. The lifespan of a palm tree reaches 100 years.
The size of a domestic sago palm does not exceed 50-80 cm. For 1 year, the culture grows by a maximum of 3 cm and produces only one row of leaves. They usually have a soft texture and are covered with fluff.
After some time, they acquire a darker shade and a rigid structure, becoming naked and glossy.
Indoor cicassus looks more like a shrub than a tree. The slow development of the plant allows it to be grown as a bonsai. Blooming at home is extremely rare.
Female crops form cones with large orange seeds at the top of the trunk. But only specialists can get planting material for reproduction.
Room paintings. Views
Not all types of bamboo palms are suitable for home cultivation (this is another common name for rapes). Consider only those that grow well in indoor conditions. Rapis and its care is not laborious at home and at home.
High rape - eksepsa... You can find out what this palm tree looks like by examining the following picture:
In the natural environment, you will not find tall rapeseps: the palm is the result of the hard work of breeders. Plates of fan-shaped foliage of high painting have a deep dark green hue. They are formed from segments, the number of which ranges from 6 to 10 pieces. Leaves are characterized by a shiny leathery surface. In height, a room palm tree, a tall rapis, sometimes reaches 3 meters. Its bushiness is formed by numerous shoots of the root system. Unfortunately, at home, high rapeseed practically does not bloom, no matter what kind of care.
Rapeseed low - humilis.
Its foliage, cut to the base, is also glossy with a deep dark green tint. All records have a maximum of 8 beats. The indoor palm tree, low rapis, grows to a height of no more than one and a half meters. A photo of this plant is below.
The stems are thin, reed-like (similar to bamboo), densely fibrous, with a diameter of 1 to 2 cm. I note that on sale there are low domestic rapeseeds with variegated leaves.
There is no consensus among botanists. Due to the fact that the low rapeseed indoor palm is similar to the high rapeseed, scientists write this as a cultivar, and not a separate species.
Transplant cicas palm
Transplanting cicasas should be very rare, as this procedure causes stress on the plant and its severe depletion. If the indoor palm grows one tier of leaves annually, it should not be replanted. They also do not disturb the plant during the dormant period. Sufficient regularity for soil changes is once every five years. In order for the plant to painlessly endure this procedure, it should be carried out correctly:
- Dry the prepared soil inside the pot.
- Select a new flowerpot of the correct size.
- Prepare the soil mixture correctly.
- Place a drainage layer about 5 cm thick on the bottom of the pot.
- To painlessly pull out the root system, use a firm, straight object to detach the soil from the sides of the pot.
- Tsikas should be transplanted by transshipment, placing a whole earthen lump together with the root system, without crushing it.
- The voids are filled with a substrate in such a way as to get rid of air chambers.
- The soil is moisturized and compacted.
Before transplanting, a special nutrient substrate should be prepared, which is mixed from clay-sod and humus-leaf soil, peat, manure and sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 1: 1: 1 with the addition of a small amount of charcoal. This soil mixture has good moisture and air permeability and is ideal for growing indoor palm. It should be borne in mind that the root system most often grows in the upper layers of the soil, so the next container must be selected wider. However, if you have a variety of cicas that grows in depth, choose a deeper pot.
After transplanting, moderate moistening and dust removal from the leaves of the flower should be carried out for two weeks. Before placing the soil in a new pot, it should be sterilized. This is done by placing the earth in a metal container, which is then immersed in a larger container filled with water. Steam the soil in a water bath for one and a half to two hours. Thus, all pathogenic viruses and bacteria, as well as eggs and larvae of pests, will be destroyed.
How to choose a healthy bamboo palm tree in the store
Pay attention when examining the external decorativeness. If the leaves are juicy, rich in color, without dry tips and spots, then this is a healthy plant. The presence of cobwebs, streaks, dry areas and yellowing are reasons to refuse to purchase. The size of the flowerpots matters. Incorrectly selected height or width can cause hidden diseases.
After transportation, they must be transplanted, because the store substrate with an excess of nutrients is destructive.
Diseases and other problems when caring for cicas
What to do if your cicada leaves turn yellow
The most common reason why the cicassus turns yellow is low humidity. If its indicator is below 50%, the tips of the leaves begin to dry out and turn yellow, which must be done as described in the section on caring for the plant.
Another possible reason for this behavior of the indoor flower is the insufficient amount of lighting that the cicassus needs so much. In the case of a small amount of light, the leaves of the palm tree grow long, but underdeveloped, and soon, turning yellow, fall off. Tsikas, which lacks the sun, can stop growing and not release a single leaf for the whole year.
In addition, among the possible causes of leaf fall: excessive watering, too abundant fertilization of the soil, improper soil composition, lack of any important elements in the soil, excess alkali in the ground. All this is fixable.
But the yellowing of the old lower leaves signals only the impending appearance of new leaves, so there is nothing to worry about. However, in any of the above cases, yellowed or brown leaves must be removed.
What to do if cicada leaves curl
The most common reason for curling leaves is excessive dryness of the air or earth, which can be fought with banal spraying or more frequent watering, respectively. By the way, you can add special preparations to the water for spraying that increase the protective properties of the foliage.
Common diseases of cicas
If the trunk has softened at the base and covered with brown spots, this is sure signs of decay... Remove the plant from the pot as soon as possible, clean off the soil from the roots and cut off any rotten ones. Then carefully cut out any rot on the trunk with a sharp, sanitized knife.
The wound must be soaked in a fungicide solution, then thoroughly dried and covered with garden varnish. Treat the base of the trunk with a root former and plant the cicasa in new sterilized soil at a shallow depth. If new roots do not start to appear, then rotting has not stopped - try repeating the procedure.
If the leaves turn brown, there are two most likely explanations. Or they give their energy to the development of new leaves - then everything is in order. Or there is too much fertilizer in the soil, then the soil needs to be washed. However, brown spots can be burns (if the plant is immediately placed in bright sun without gradual adaptation), then just rearrange the pot with a palm tree. Brown spots can also be signs of decay - the necessary steps are described above.
If you want to know about the magical properties of cyclamen, we will tell you about it.
For a detailed step-by-step guide on transplanting cyclamen, see here.
Caring for a cicada is not too difficult, but requires patience due to the slowness of the plant. But such an exotic plant with a long history will be an impressive decoration for any interior.