Tuberose, or Polianthes tuberosa, is a perennial tuberous plant from the Asparagus family. The natural habitat is concentrated in Mexico. Further, the plant began to spread to the countries of Asia, Africa and Europe. The flower does not tolerate low temperatures. For this reason, gardeners are engaged in breeding only indoor tuberose crops or planting it in flowerpots, and with the arrival of cold weather they are transferred to a closed room.
The tuberose flower is famous for its dense lush inflorescences and waxy buds, exuding a delicate sweetish aroma, which is somewhat remotely reminiscent of blooming gladioli, lilies, and daffodils. Even such global brands as Gucci and Dior have perfumes with notes of tuberose in their arsenal.
Tuberose: plant description
Tuberose has a root system of a nodule type. The size of the brown bulbs does not exceed 6 cm. The surface of the tubers is scaly. Long root filaments, painted white, extend from below. The bulb has a lifespan of several years. Tubers are gradually overgrown with shoots and foliage. The flowering phase occurs in biennial and 3-year-old seedlings. When the inflorescences wither, the underground nodule part also dies off. Many small children are formed in the old place.
All the vegetation that rises above the ground is renewed every year. These are dense, straight stems and dense sessile leaves. The height of an adult polyanthes bush reaches about 40 cm. Above, the shoots are devoid of greenery, and in the lower tier they are densely covered with foliage. The length of the dark green linear leaf blades ranges from 30-45 cm.
The opening of the buds falls in mid-summer and lasts until late autumn. The top of the shoot during this period blooms with a spike-shaped inflorescence. Tuberose bushes get even taller thanks to flowering arrows. The color of the buds is presented in light pink tones. They sit heaply next to each other and are attached to drooping pedicels. The tube of the buds is elongated, and the white petals are arranged in several rows. Buds 5 to 6 cm long form spikelets. The petals are covered with a waxy coating, which gives density to the structure.
When opened, the inflorescences are fragrant throughout the garden. The Mexicans have a tradition of decorating the bride's wedding dress with tuberose flowers, making bouquet arrangements for the holidays and decorating houses with the help of polyanthes. Each inflorescence grows from 10 to 30 small buds. After two or three days, new flowers appear in the place of old flowers. The lower tier of buds blooms first. From the pollinated inflorescences, seed pods are obtained, stuffed to the brim with small flat grains.
Types and varieties of tuberose with a photo
The genus of polyanthes tuberous includes about 13 different species. Breeders in our area have adapted to grow only two types of tuberose.
The flower grows from an oblong tuber up to 5 cm in size. The stem in the center of the bush has wide linear leaves, shining in the sun, gathering into a rosette and enveloping the base of the stem. The spikelet inflorescence looks like grouped white flowers 4 cm long. The aroma is barely caught during the flowering of the species. The opening of the buds occurs in the middle of spring.
This is a tall flowering perennial, which consists of a basal rosette of sessile leaves, a bare peduncle and a loose spike-shaped inflorescence. The leaf blades are narrow. Their length does not exceed 6 cm. Tubular white buds, exuding a pleasant aroma, cling to the arrow of the peduncle. One peduncle contains from 10 to 30 buds. The decorative modifications of tuberous polyanthes include the following varieties:
- Pearl is a medium-sized plant with double white inflorescences. Prefers warm climates and is planted in pots;
- Sensation - mauve perennial tuberose variety;
- Pink sapphire - at the peak of flowering, it is covered with lush beautiful flowers. The heart is painted in a delicate shade of pink, and the petals are framed with lilac edging.
Cultivation of tuberose
To grow tuberose, use the seed method or propagate the plant from daughter bulbs. It is quite difficult to achieve success from sowing, since the crop is very weak in the early stages of development. Without greenhouse conditions and careful care, seedlings often die, not having time to acquire even a couple of leaves.
Typically, tuberose is grown by planting the bulbs in the ground. During the season, the maternal tuber is overgrown with several dozen small children. They are detached from the bulb and grown as new seedlings. It is important to wait until the corms are fully ripe. The wilting of the leaves is considered a sign of ripening. Then the bush is dug up, the tuber is dried and the outlet is disconnected.
In order to avoid drying out of the bulbs, planting material is stored in moist moss, peat in a dark, cool place. It is not necessary to divide the nest annually, but it is still recommended to do the procedure at least after 3-4 years. Otherwise, the flowering will not be as abundant, and the bushes will become low and unattractive.
For regions located in temperate climatic latitudes, it is common to grow perennial tuberose in pots. With the onset of the first frost, they are rearranged indoors. For planting tuberose, it is better to choose fertile, drained soil. Before planting a flower in a garden plot, the hole is filled in by a third with sand. When planting tuberose in open ground, the roots should be directed downward, and the neck should be at surface level.
Getting ready for planting tuberose
Caring for tuberose is quite difficult, the plant reacts sharply to all kinds of changes. However, the effort spent on growing a flower will definitely bring results. Tuberose will reward you with beautiful and abundant flowering and fill the garden with a fragrant aroma.
Location and lighting
Without bright diffused light, the plant will quickly lose its decorative effect. During the midday sun, the pots are placed in the shade to avoid burns on the leaves. In the morning and in the evening, the rays touching the leaves are harmless to the flower. If the pots are in the shade, the bushes will practically stop blooming.
The perennial is kept warm, away from drafts and the air temperature is maintained within + 20 ° C, otherwise the budding process will be disrupted, and the growth of the culture will slow down. Low temperatures lead to the death of the plant. In the summer months, the tuberose flower is allowed to be grown outdoors, on balconies and verandas.
Watering and spraying
Air humidity should be no more than 80%. Spraying the foliage is recommended daily, but it is important to take into account the fact that splashing water can provoke the appearance of burns, so the procedure is best done in the absence of the sun.
Watering tuberose is provided in moderation, they use settled and purified water, heated to room temperature. If the soil is well-drained, moisture will not accumulate in the root zone, but will be absorbed evenly by the entire surface of the substrate. Stagnation of water near the tubers leads to decay and death of the plant.
For active growth of green mass and bright flowering, tuberose is periodically fed. Dissolved mineral complexes and organic matter fertilize the soil every month, from May until the end of the growing season.
Dried inflorescences and deformed leaves must be removed from the shoots as they grow. Adult bushes are tied up so that the stems do not break in the wind, and the drooping and wilted processes are cut off. After the ground part dies off, the bulbs go into hibernation mode.
How to distill
Forcing tuberose tubers is best done a few weeks after digging up. They are laid out in a bright place and sprinkled with water. For planting tuberose, compact pots are chosen and garden soil mixed with sand is poured into them. Green sprouts soon appear. After six months, the mature seedlings will be able to bloom.
Diseases and pests
Corms of polyanthes are sometimes affected by fungal diseases. The smell that inflorescences and leaves exude is pleasant to humans, but insects are afraid of him. Because of this, pest attacks on the ground parts of the plant are rare. The leaves are eaten by aphids, spider mites. To cope with tuberose diseases and stop the spread of insects, insecticidal spraying allows.
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Tell us about tuberose: where is it better to plant them, what varieties are there, how to care for and propagate? V. A. KOSHCHENKO
I drink the bitterness of tuberose, the bitterness of autumn skies ... Boris PASTERNAK.
The poet was right: the beauty of this sunny beauty is unique, and the smell is indescribable. Tuberose, or tuberous polyanthes, has earned legends about it. The reason for this is the heady sweet aroma of the plant, which is now used in the perfume industry.
French perfume includes tuberose scent. She received many other names. She was worshiped by the ancient Aztecs, people from the Middle Ages and the modern population of India, Bangladesh and Singapore. She is sung in Byron's poems. In the Middle Ages in Italy, girls were forbidden to enter the gardens where tuberose blooms, so as not to succumb to the temptation of love, inhaling its scent.
Now the flower is still called the "queen of fragrances" or "queen of the night". When dusk falls, the aroma of tuberose becomes much more noticeable. It resembles the smell of blooming acacia, hyacinths and has its own uniqueness.
In Latin America, tuberose is used to decorate wedding ceremonies. She is very suitable for this celebration, her flowers are white on long bright green stems. Would you like to breathe in the aroma of tuberose? Then let's dwell on her agricultural technology.
Although tuberose, or polyanthes, you can not call it capricious, after all, she loves more soil rich in organic matter, as well as well-drained loams. It will also grow in partial shade, but it will delight you with flowering with a delay, and it will not be as intense as in the sun.
But at first, tuberose tubers germinate at home and only later are transferred to a flower bed. The flowers planted in peat are placed in a warm, dark place and regularly watered, and with the appearance of the first shoots, they are transplanted into pots with soil from the garden.
Starting from the 20th of April to 10 May, tuberose is transplanted into open ground. But first, the flower beds are carefully cultivated. It is necessary to put the onion on a small layer of sand, which will save the roots from stagnant water and decay - it is because of this that tuberose most often dies. Mineral fertilizers with a predominance of phosphorus and potassium are applied to the soil and then the roots of the bulb are immersed in it for about 1-2 cm. Usually polyanthes tolerates transplantation well. The tubers themselves do not need to be covered with earth.
Varieties and types of Tuberose
The genus Poliantes has 13 species. In decorative floriculture, polyanthes tuberosa is most often used, it is this species that is called tuberose. Its leaves are similar to those of cereals: 1-2 cm wide, 35-50 cm long. Peduncles in garden forms are usually tall. 80 100 cm. Flowers are very graceful, like porcelain, collected in 18-20 pieces. in a spike-shaped inflorescence.
Tuberose blooms 4-6 months after planting, in July-August or September. Flowers in the inflorescence bloom from the bottom up, each of them remains fresh and fragrant for 3-4 days, in general, the inflorescence is decorative for three weeks. We sell mainly white tuberose, but in general there are varieties with cream, pink and even purple flowers.
The most common variety with white double flowers The pearl, new varieties: Pink sapphire with pink double flowers, Sensation - with simple pink, Cinderella - with lilac-pink, the edges of the petals are purple.
Many gardeners consider tuberose with simple rather than double flowers to be more effective for the garden. The "queen of aromas" is planted in curtains in the middle plan of the flower garden, it goes well with gladioli, mallow, delphiniums. Looks great in container landing.
And this is how tuberoses grow in the open field in the wild.
Tuberose in the garden
If you decide to grow tuberose in the garden, then know that this plant does not winter outdoors. In the middle zone, tuberose is grown in winter gardens and greenhouses. If you want to have tuberose in your garden, in Russia, it is customary to grow tuberose in 2 stages.
The first step is planting the bulbs in pots. The bulbs are planted in pots in January-February (in the south of the country, in February-March). The planting depth of tuberose bulbs is about 1 cm, the neck of the bulb may be on the soil surface. The planted bulbs are recommended to be illuminated with fluorescent lamps.
The second stage is planting in a flower garden. In late May, early June, when the threat of return frosts has passed, and the average daily temperature rises to +15 degrees Celsius, the grown tuberoses are planted on the sunny side of the flower garden. The plant is thermophilic, so the presence of a large amount of sun is a must. The distance between adjacent plants in one row should be 25-30 cm, and the distance between rows should be 30-40 cm.
In southern Russia, before planting in open ground, it is recommended to separate the babies from the mother's bulb. This procedure is performed no earlier than the end of April, while, until about mid-May, it is advisable to cover the planted plants with a film.
Tuberose flowers. Photomillerharris.blogspot.ru
We planted a flower in the country - tuberose, but we do not know anything about it at all. What is known about this flower?
Tuberose, or polyanthus (Polyanthus) of the Amaryllidaceae family, is an undeservedly forgotten flower that used to be very popular in Russia and used for forcing, and in the southern regions - for growing and wintering in the open field.
The genus polyanthes includes 13 species that grow in Mexico and the island of Trinidad, so tuberose is not very hardy.
Tuberose is a perennial herbaceous tuberous plant with an erect leafy stem and broad-linear leaves. Its flowers with dense waxy petals are collected in an inflorescence, a cluster of a fruit - a box. Tuberose propagates more often by corms and children, less often by seeds. It can also be propagated by cuttings - young shoots that have grown from the lateral buds of the tuber.
Tuberose tuberous, or tuberous polyanthes (P. tuberosa) is used for forcing, landscaping winter gardens, as well as for soil planting in flower beds and near lawns, in containers. Tuberose has bulbous tubers covered with a brown film, which form an abundance of children. Tuberose tuber suitable for flowering and forcing should be large (more than 2 cm in diameter) and have a high (not flat) outline. The slender stem of tuberose tuberose reaches a height of 30 cm, bright green grass-like leaves 1.5 cm wide and up to half a meter long. Its very fragrant flowers, located on a high peduncle in pairs (up to 6 cm in diameter), are collected in a loose spike-shaped inflorescence. The original type of tuberose has white flowers as a result of selection, double forms with cream, pink, lilac, purple flowers were obtained. The intensity of the aroma of tuberose flowers changes during the day. The number of flowers (about 30 or more) depends on the size of the tuber, the characteristics of the planting site and agricultural technology. Flowers bloom on inflorescences from bottom to top, each flower retains decorativeness and aroma for 3-4 days. The inflorescence as a whole is decorative for 3 weeks, and in the cut it costs up to 2 weeks.
Corms and tuberose babies are planted in open ground (on average - to a depth of 2-3 cm, children are smaller) in May, and in the southern regions and under film shelters - earlier, in April. Well-drained and fertile soil is desirable for planting tuberose. Children are planted separately from adult tubers. When planting, tubers are not placed too often (no closer than 5 cm, row spacing in the ridges of at least 15 cm), because each tuber (including the baby) will give numerous offspring. The time of emergence of tuberose seedlings (usually in a month) depends on the temperature and humidity of the soil, the decomposition of organic matter in the soil (manure, straw, etc.) with the release of heat accelerates the seedlings. For early spring planting in pots, tuberose tubers can be germinated in March in a warm place (25 degrees) by placing them in moist moss. The pots are filled with a substrate (turf, greenhouse soil, humus, sand in equal parts) and the sprouted tubers are planted in open ground, the grown plants are transplanted after the end of the spring frost. During the season, tuberose is fed 3-4 times. An excess of nitrogen causes stretching and lodging of plants, provokes the appearance of pests (mites, slugs, etc.) and diseases.
The flowering of early-planted adult tuberose tubers begins in July, and those planted later - takes place in August-September (in regions with a warm climate, flowering continues in October) after flowering, tuberose is no longer watered. Some tuberose babies that have grown well during the season can also bloom in the year of planting. Having dug them out with a lump of earth and placed them in a pot, there is a chance to get tuberose flowers in the winter garden in December-January.
In the open ground, tubers usually ripen by the end of September, they are dug up in October (after the first significant frosts). With a prolonged cold snap with temperatures below -2 degrees of frost, tuberose tubers can freeze out.
The dug out plants are dried at a high temperature (about 40 degrees), using ventilation. Then the dry leaves are cut off, leaving a "stump" of about 2 cm, the roots are cut to 0.5 cm. The baby is not separated from the mother tubers so that it does not dry out during storage. In autumn, tuberose planting material is dried and stored at room temperature, and then it is sprinkled with dry sand and removed to a cool dry place with a temperature of 10 degrees until spring. In regions with a mild climate, tuberose tuberose winters well in the open field.
Broadleaf tuberose, or polyanthes broadleaf (P. platyphillus) has wide glossy leaves and drooping single flowers (3 cm long) with a weak aroma. Blooms from the second half of April during the month.
Prepared the answer by E.Yu.
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