Potatoes to the envy of neighbors: how to plant correctly? Tips from a seasoned gardener

Potatoes to the envy of neighbors: how to plant correctly? Tips from a seasoned gardener

Russia got acquainted with potatoes under Peter I. The new vegetable took root long and hard, but then it was appreciated, deservedly proclaimed the second bread. Now in garden plots, it is grown everywhere, because the Russian climate is very suitable for culture. The vegetable is extremely unpretentious in care, but this does not mean that the tubers can simply be thrown into the holes and forgotten about them. Obtaining a bountiful harvest is impossible if they are planted at the wrong time; it is also necessary to first prepare the garden bed and the planting material itself.

When is the best time to plant potatoes

The main factor that determines the timing of planting potatoes in a particular region are weather and climatic conditions, as well as the group of varieties to which this variety belongs.

In central Russia and the Volga region, potatoes are usually planted in the first decade of May. In the North and North-West region - at the junction of spring and summer. In the Urals and the Far East - in the 20th of May. In Siberia - at the very beginning of June. In the Black Sea region, Crimea, in the North Caucasus - in the first half of April.

The time of planting in the ground depends not only on the climate in the region, but also on the variety of potatoes

Potato tubers are quite sensitive to soil temperature. With too early planting, their development slows down, seedlings appear late, even potatoes, planted a week or two later, are ahead of them. The yield is significantly reduced, on average by 15–20%.

At the same time, the predicted frosts are not an obstacle for disembarkation. Tubers tolerate a drop in air temperature down to -5 ° C. Colds are dangerous only for seedlings that have reached a height of 3-5 cm.

Early potatoes are planted very first, ripening in 55-60 days. This is done no earlier than the soil at a depth of 7–8 cm warms up to 8 ° C. To determine whether the time has come, folk signs will help - the bird cherry begins to bloom, buds on birches bloom (the leaves reach about the size of a penny coin), dandelions appear.

Blooming bird cherry means that the soil has warmed up enough, you can already plant potatoes

Another way to check is to take a lump of earth from a depth of 10–12 cm and throw it on the ground. If it only deforms, the soil is still frozen. And when it breaks down into several fragments, the soil is ready for planting. If it crumbles into small crumbs, the substrate is already drying out, you need to plant immediately. The soil thaws faster if in early spring the garden is cleared of snow, sprinkled with humus or peat chips and tightened with black plastic.

Before planting potatoes, it is imperative to clarify the soil temperature.

Mid-early varieties are planted in early May. The crop can be harvested in 65–80 days. But they are usually not very popular with gardeners. Such potatoes are practically not stored, they are characterized by low starchiness and the absence of a pronounced taste.

Mid-season varieties (ripening period 80–85 days) are planted in the last decade of May. Gardeners appreciate them for their high yields and good drought tolerance.

The deadline for planting medium late varieties (95–110 days) is mid June. Otherwise, in a temperate climate, the harvest may not wait at all until the first frost. Late potatoes are planted around the same time. Its undoubted advantages are keeping quality, portability and very good immunity.

In addition, many gardeners are guided by the lunar calendar, which annually indicates the most favorable and unfavorable days for planting a particular culture. In 2019, it is recommended to plant potatoes:

  • in May - 1, 15, 16, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 31;
  • in June - 1, 18, 19, 23, 24, 28, 29.

And to refrain from this is better:

  • in May - 5, 19;
  • in June - 3, 17.

Of course, you cannot follow these recommendations blindly, without taking into account the weather on each particular day.

There are other signs that many gardeners follow. For example, it is not advised to plant potatoes in Palm week - such tubers often rot. Any planting work is prohibited on Good Friday and Maundy Thursday. And potatoes planted on Wednesday or Saturday have a very low shelf life.

Site selection and preparation of the garden

In most cases, the place for potatoes in the garden is allocated on a leftover basis. But even this extremely unpretentious culture has its own requirements for growing conditions, which it is desirable to satisfy if possible.

In the same place, potatoes are grown for no more than three years. Then a break of the same duration is desirable. The first thing to consider is predecessors and neighbors. It is strongly not recommended to plant potatoes after and next to other plants from the Solanaceae family (tomatoes, bell peppers, eggplants, tobacco, physalis). Otherwise, you increase the risk of infection with late blight, fusarium, attacks of the Colorado potato beetle. Pumpkin seeds (cucumbers, zucchini, squash) also suffer from late blight, so it is also advisable to place them further away. And the presence of a bed with garden strawberries nearby makes the invasion of a wireworm and nematode almost inevitable.

Eggplants, like any Solanaceae, are undesirable as neighbors and predecessors of potatoes - they suffer from the same diseases and pests

The neighborhood with any Legumes, especially with bush beans, has a very positive effect on potatoes. These plants saturate the soil with nitrogen, which the Colorado potato beetle and wireworm do not like very much. It is better to plant beans and peas along the perimeter of the garden, and not in the aisles, so that they do not take away nutrients from the potatoes.

A good option and Cruciferous (all types of cabbage, radish, turnip, rutabaga, radish). Mustard mustard belongs to the same family - one of the best siderates. Other root vegetables (beets, carrots), spicy herbs, as well as onions and garlic do not interfere with potatoes. The latter emit phytoncides, which effectively repel many pests.

Mustard leaves planted in a potato garden not only improve the quality of the soil, but also discourage the wireworm

Potatoes absolutely do not tolerate any celery and parsley. Their presence nearby automatically means a sharp decrease in yield. He himself has a similar effect on the apple tree - the fruits become much smaller, their taste deteriorates. Potatoes planted next to raspberries, chokeberries, cherries, and sea buckthorn grow poorly.

The presence of parsley nearby has a very negative effect on the yield of potatoes.

Like many other horticultural crops, potatoes love warmth and sunshine. The place for the garden bed is chosen even, open, as far as possible protected from drafts. The garden bed is oriented from north to south.

For potatoes, most often they take a place that is not suitable for other garden crops, but it also has its own requirements for growing conditions

The culture prefers a light soil, with good aeration, in which water does not stagnate. Potatoes will not grow in a salty, heavy clay substrate, any lowlands. Areas with groundwater standing close to the surface are also excluded. They can be identified by the sour smell emanating from the soil, its bluish tint and the presence of a large amount of moss.

The most suitable soil for it is loam, sandy loam, forest gray soil, sod-podzolic soil and, of course, black soil. The extent to which this substrate suits the potatoes can be judged by the weeds growing in this place. Soil of similar quality is preferred by wheatgrass, coltsfoot, dandelions, and clover. If the acid-base balance differs from the neutral one, it is brought back to normal by introducing dolomite flour, eggshell powder into the acidic substrate, and peat, needles or fresh sawdust of coniferous trees in the alkaline one.

Dolomite flour is a natural soil deoxidizer, if the dosage is observed, it has no side effects

In the fall, the future potato bed is dug up, in the spring, about two weeks before planting, it is loosened to a depth of 12-15 cm. superphosphate and 15–20 g of potassium sulfate per 1 m² of fertilizer, and also get rid of all plant debris. Potassium helps to increase the mass of tubers, phosphorus - their number.

Humus is a natural remedy for increasing soil fertility

Often, gardeners, as part of the preparation of a potato garden, practice planting siderat plants in late summer or early autumn. After about two months, they are mowed down and greens are embedded in the ground. It is a natural fertilizer with other beneficial properties. For example, legumes in combination with Asteraceae repel nematodes.

Video: preparing a potato garden

Choosing tubers for planting

Most often, the next year, gardeners plant potato tubers of this crop. But this practice leads to the fact that after 5-7 years the varietal characteristics are eroded, the yield decreases, as does the size of the root crops. The planting material needs to be regularly updated.

To ensure its best quality, the most powerful multi-stem bushes are noted during the active growing season. In the fall, they look at their yield. If the number of tubers is the same or more than the typical variety, this is a suitable planting material. And it is not necessary that they be very large.

When selecting planting material for the next season, they are guided by the yield of the bush this year

New tubers are purchased exclusively from reputable suppliers - in nurseries or specialized stores. They can provide the necessary documents confirming the quality of potatoes - certificates and licenses for the right to sell it. Shopping at various agricultural fairs, and even more simply hand-held, is a big risk. It cannot be guaranteed that this is the desired variety. In addition, the planting material may be contaminated.

The most suitable option for planting is tubers of the correct round or ovoid shape, weighing 50–90 g, not sluggish or wrinkled. They should be firm to the touch, and the skin should be smooth, uniform, without traces of peeling, signs of mold, rot and black specks. The latter may turn out not to be particles of adhered earth, but to rhizoctonia. The presence of a large number of eyes is encouraged, but it is not recommended to purchase already sprouted potatoes. All the same, a significant part of the sprouts will break during transportation. If there is no choice, be sure to pay attention to the color of the sprouts - they should be mauve, lilac, salad green, but by no means black. Healthy tubers have smooth, firm sprouts. Their threadiness means they are infected by viruses.

Potatoes for planting are selected very carefully, this is a guarantee of a future bountiful harvest.

In addition to the appearance, you need to pay attention to the description of the variety, its suitability for cultivation in a particular region. Varieties that yield equally good yields in both northern and southern regions are extremely rare.

Agronomists claim that potato varieties bred in Russia and the CIS countries show the best resistance to pathogenic fungi. And root crops of foreign selection are less likely to suffer from nematodes and viral diseases.

Preplanting potato tubers

Before planting, potato tubers must be vernalized. This is a whole complex of agrotechnical techniques, therefore, they begin to carry out activities in advance, about 30-40 days before the planned landing. If everything is done correctly, the yield increases by about 20-30%, the roots ripen faster.

The planting material is removed from the storage area and examined. Shriveled tubers are immersed in water heated to a temperature of 25-28 ° C for 10-12 hours. Existing sprouts are neatly broken off. Tubers are treated with fungicides to prevent the development of fungal diseases. Biological products that are harmless to human health and safe for the environment are best suited. These are, for example, Gamair, Baktofit, Fitosporin-M, Agat-25K.

Fitosporin-M is one of the most common fungicides of biological origin

Then they are scattered on the floor in a room where a constant temperature of at least 20 ° C is maintained, spreading a soft cloth closer to the window. You can also use artificial lighting, for example, fluorescent lamps, but then the potatoes need to be covered with paper or light-colored cloth. In the light, potatoes produce solanine, acquiring a greenish tint. This substance is toxic to many pests, it is also a natural fungicide. Once every 5-7 days, the tubers are turned over and sprinkled moderately with water from a spray bottle. After about 10-15 days, the temperature is lowered to 15 ° C to wake up the eyes.

Greened potato tubers suffer less from pests and diseases

If there is no suitable room, the potatoes can be placed in light-colored plastic bags, having made several holes in them for ventilation, and hung from the walls or ceiling.

If there is no other suitable place, potatoes can be germinated at home in plastic bags.

The so-called wet vernalization is also practiced - the germination of tubers in boxes or boxes filled with perlite, vermiculite, sand, peat chips or sawdust. The first two options are preferable - these substances absorb water well, the risk of rotting tubers is minimal. The substrate is constantly kept in a slightly damp state, the temperature in the room is at 15 ° C.

With wet vernalization, potatoes are not greened, but the sprouts are more powerful and stronger

Both methods can be combined. First, the potatoes are greened, then sent for germination in containers filled with a suitable substrate.

About a week before planting, potatoes are sprayed with biostimulants - this has a positive effect on their immunity, increases their adaptability to far from optimal climatic and weather conditions, and reduces the ripening time of the crop. They use both store preparations - potassium and sodium humate, Epin, Emistim-M, Zircon, and folk remedies - honey diluted with water, baking soda solution, succinic acid. If potassium fertilizers (3-5 g / l) are added to the solution, the potato's stress resistance improves, the tubers develop faster.

Video: preparing potato tubers for planting

Planting potatoes by hand and using special tools

Everyone must have planted potatoes by hand. Therefore, the procedure does not need a detailed description. The tubers are planted in separate holes or furrows, then covered with earth. The interval between them is 25–40 cm (depending on the size of the root crop and the size of the bush), the row spacing is 65–70 cm. The depth of the hole depends on the quality of the substrate - the lighter it is, the more they need to be buried. Usually 8-10 cm is enough. In addition to the tuber itself, a handful of humus, a little sifted wood ash and onion husks are placed in it. Its smell repels many pests. At the end of the landing, the surface of the bed is leveled with a rake. When using the old-fashioned way, it is more convenient to work together. One digs holes, the second puts tubers in them. To make the rows even, you can first mark the bed, for example, with a cord, if there are reasonable doubts about your own eye.

Planting potatoes by hand is a procedure that is familiar to every gardener.

Video: how to plant potatoes in the traditional way

When using the standard scheme, 14 rows can be planted on one hundred square meters (10 * 10 m), each row contains at least 25 tubers. Accordingly, a total of 350 potatoes will be needed, the total weight of which is 25-28 kg. If you need to fill a hectare, then there will be 250 bushes in a row, and a total of 142 rows. The number of planted potatoes in this case is 35,500 pieces, their weight is about 2.85 tons. The average yield in central Russia is 100-150 kg per hundred square meters. Provided that all the nuances of agricultural technology are observed, this indicator can be raised to 200-250 kg.

In addition to the traditional one, there are other schemes for planting potatoes:

  • Square-nested. The garden bed is turned into a lattice, with cells of 50–70 cm. The tubers are planted at the crosshairs.
  • Chess. The holes in two adjacent rows are staggered relative to each other.
  • Two-line. The rows are arranged in pairs with an interval of not more than 30 cm. The distance between the double rows is about 1 m. The holes are staggered.

Planting potatoes in double rows is one of the modern schemes

But recently, more and more gardeners prefer not to bother themselves, mechanizing the process to the maximum. For this, there are walk-behind tractors with hillers and special potato planters. The latter are mainly used for processing very large areas.

A standard walk-behind tractor consists of a hiller, which first loosens the soil and then fills the furrows, a container-hopper, where the tubers are filled, and a distributor-conveyor that feeds potatoes at regular intervals. The optimal track width for planting with a walk-behind tractor is about 60 cm. Before filling the furrows with the tubers with soil, you need to change the lug metal wheels to ordinary rubber ones, leaving the same track width.

When planting potatoes with a walk-behind tractor, the whole process is mechanized, only the tubers are manually filled into the bunker

Video: planting potatoes using a walk-behind tractor

Planting methods

The gardener does not always have enough planting material. Therefore, not whole tubers are often planted, but their individual parts. Here, too, there are nuances that you need to know about in advance so as not to spoil the future harvest.

Eyes

The essence of the method is that the tubers are cut into several parts immediately before planting in the ground. Each must have one peephole - a growth point. Exceptionally large non-frozen potatoes of the correct shape are suitable for this without the slightest traces of disease and pests. There are few eyes on them, but they are large and well developed. The tubers are cut into pieces with a sharpened, sanitized knife, which must be re-sterilized after each cut. Sections are immediately sprinkled with crushed chalk or sifted wood ash. The eyes in the grooves are placed sprouts up. The minimum weight of a wedge is 5–8 g.

Potato tubers are cut exclusively with a disinfected knife to avoid the spread of infections

The preparation of planting material has its own specifics. Approximately 20 days before planting, the selected tubers are sprayed daily for a week with water with the addition of store biostimulants (0.5 l ampoule). This contributes to the formation of powerful, developed shoots.

In the future, seedlings from the eyes need increased doses of fertilizers. After all, usually everything they need is provided by the tuber.

Particles of potato tuber with eyes should not be very small

Another option is to grow seedlings from the eyes. To do this, they are cut out together with the pulp so that a cone is obtained and planted in advance in a mixture of rotted sawdust and wet peat chips. The seedlings are transferred to the garden bed when 3-4 true leaves are formed.

Video: potatoes from the eyes

Sprouts

A fairly old technology, nowadays it is rarely practiced. In addition to saving tubers, this method allows for a couple of seasons to breed expensive elite potatoes and update the planting material, getting rid of diseases. There are also disadvantages - you will have to pay more attention to caring for the bushes, because they are initially weaker due to a lack of nutrients. They also need a highly nutritious substrate.

Mid-early, mid-season and mid-late potatoes are best suited for this. It must be germinated in the light, but without direct sunlight. In place of each eye, 2–5 shoots suitable for planting are formed.

When they reach a length of 10-15 cm, they are separated from the tuber, gently twisting, and planted in small cups filled with moist sphagnum moss or coconut fiber, deepening by about 2/3. The room temperature is maintained at 16–20 ° C, the substrate is not allowed to dry out by spraying with a biostimulant solution. Seedlings with 4-5 leaves can already be planted in the ground.

Growing potatoes from sprouts allows you to greatly save on planting material and renew it

Once used tubers can be sent back for germination. Thus, you can get 20–45 sprouts from each potato. To fill one hundred square meters, it will take no more than 1 kg of planting material.

You can plant sprouts directly in the garden, but you need to break them out on the same day or at least the day before. Previously, they are immersed in a solution of any root formation stimulator (Heteroauxin, Kornevin) for 6–8 hours. In this case, it takes 15–20 days more to ripen the tubers than indicated in the description of the variety.

Seedlings obtained from potato sprouts need particularly careful care

The tubers from which the sprouts are broken off are also suitable for planting, but the bushes will develop a little slower. They are placed separately from the sprouts, in no case mixed. Otherwise, these bushes will simply strangle the initially weaker plants.

Video: growing potatoes from sprouts

Mini tubers

Mini-tubers are small-sized potatoes grown in vitro from cellular tissue. They are initially sterile, so you can guarantee that the planting material is not contaminated with anything. Their only drawback is their high cost. The first generation of tubers is a super elite, then there is an elite, the first reproduction, and so on.

The closer such a potato is to the test tube, the higher its yield and the better the quality of the tubers. After about 6–8 years, varietal traits are largely lost, the planting material again needs to be updated.

Mini potato tubers - elite planting material

Mini-tubers should be purchased exclusively from well-known and reliable manufacturers. Very few gardeners in appearance can distinguish them from ordinary small potatoes.

The vernalization procedure and direct planting in the ground in this case is no different from that of standard size tubers. The only caveat is that fungicide treatment can be excluded.

Seeds

More and more gardeners have recently resorted to the propagation of potatoes by seeds. In addition to the low cost of planting material, the method has other undoubted advantages - seeds take up much less space than tubers, they cannot be infected with fungi or viruses. The experience of gardeners shows that potatoes grown from seeds give large yields, are less likely to be affected by late blight, and suffer less from the vagaries of the weather. The seeds can be purchased or harvested by picking a few berries that look like miniature green tomatoes.

Green berries on potato bushes are considered by many to be useless, but they can provide the gardener with seeds.

The method is not devoid of disadvantages. First of all, the labor intensity and duration of cultivation, as well as low germination, can be noted. Plants obtained from seeds are very capricious; at the slightest deviation from optimal conditions, the development of diseases, especially black leg, is very likely. Seedlings are extremely fragile, you need to be as careful as possible when transplanting.

Potato seed germination is quite low, planting material needs to be stocked in excess

The best time for sowing seeds is the end of March or the first decade of April. They are pre-hardened and allowed to hatch by wrapping them in a damp cloth. They are planted in very loose and light soil, the container must be turned into a greenhouse, provide heat.

The emergence of seedlings will have to wait at least two weeks. In the phase of the second true leaf, the seedlings dive. Caring for them consists in regular watering and treatment with biofungicides to prevent fungal diseases. Also, after diving, 1-2 additional fertilizing with mineral nitrogen fertilizers will be required.

Potato seedlings tolerate diving pretty well

The seedlings are transferred to the ground at the very end of May. During the first month, it is tightened with white covering material on the arcs. During the season, at least two hilling are carried out. Watered moderately, but often, once every 2-3 days, regularly loosened and weeded. Fertilizers are used exclusively mineral.

In the first season, the gardener will receive a harvest of mini-tubers weighing 10-50 g, which vary greatly in shape, skin color, and so on. They are stored like regular potatoes. Of these, the best are selected, which are planted next year, taking off an already full harvest.

The first potato tubers obtained from seeds vary greatly in size, shape, skin color, and other characteristics.

Video: from planting potato seeds to harvesting

Planting potatoes before winter

Many have noticed that potato tubers accidentally missed during harvesting sprout next spring. Accordingly, they have very good frost resistance. This property can be used to get a very early harvest. Research by agronomists testifies that tubers planted to a depth of 10–15 cm can easily tolerate freezing of the substrate down to -10 ° C. That is, the method is not suitable for regions with a sharply continental climate, but it is successfully practiced in central Russia and to the south.

Absolutely healthy tubers weighing at least 150 g are selected for planting. It is desirable that the variety be early and cold-resistant. They must be kept in the light for 7-10 days so that the skin turns completely green. This will protect the landings from bears and rodents.

The garden is prepared as usual. The site is chosen so that it will not be flooded in the spring for sure. Tubers are planted in the fall, when at night the substrate in the garden is already freezing and thaws during the day. They are placed in a checkerboard pattern with an interval of 25-30 cm and a row spacing of 45-50 cm. The depth of the hole is 15-20 cm. In addition to potatoes sprinkled with ground red pepper (from mice), compost is placed in it (rotted manure attracts a bear), ash and onion skins.

From above the bed is covered with spruce branches, covered with straw mixed with fallen leaf, creating a layer 25-30 cm thick. Then it is tightened with several layers of any breathable covering material.

For the winter, the potato garden must be insulated

In early spring, all the mulch is removed, the beds are again covered with covering material on the arcs. Seedlings 4–5 cm high are watered with a solution of any biostimulator. When they stretch up to 10-15 cm, the shelter is removed, the potatoes are spud. Then they are looked after as usual. Such plants rarely suffer from phytophthora; the Colorado potato beetle does not have time to attack them.

Cultivation of potatoes in a greenhouse

As a rule, the greenhouse is set aside for other horticultural crops. Indoor potatoes are rarely grown. This makes sense only if there is a goal to get the harvest at an inopportune time. Only early maturing varieties are suitable for cultivation in a greenhouse. If it is not heated, the frost resistance of this variety is also important.

Potatoes are planted in heated greenhouses either at the end of summer in order to harvest by the New Year, or at the junction of winter and spring, then they ripen by the first days of June. In the first case, it is also necessary to have artificial lighting, otherwise the plants develop very slowly.

Tubers for planting in a greenhouse should be slightly larger than for open ground (80-100 g). They must be greened. The vernalization process proceeds as usual. They begin to heat the greenhouse about a week before planting.

The soil temperature at the time of planting should be at least 5 ° C. Two schemes can be used - standard (row spacing of about 60 cm and an interval between bushes of 25-30 cm) and with double rows (the interval between them is about 30 cm, between pairs of rows - up to 80 cm, potatoes are located every 25-30 cm in checkerboard pattern). The depth of the hole is 6–7 cm. Only whole tubers are planted, the smell of juice attracts rodents and other pests.

The temperature during the entire growing season is maintained at the level of 18–20 ° C, increasing to 21–23 ° C only during flowering. Water 3-4 times, for the first time - when the seedlings reach 7-8 cm in height. The most suitable method is drip irrigation. Immediately after that, complex mineral fertilizers are applied. Before flowering, the bushes are spud or mulched.

Plants with the slightest suspicious signs resembling late blight are immediately dug up and destroyed. In the confined space of the greenhouse, this fungus spreads almost at lightning speed.

It makes sense to grow potatoes in greenhouses only on an industrial scale.

If the greenhouse is unheated, potatoes can be planted to it exclusively in spring, not earlier than daylight hours reach a duration of 10 hours or more. In the southern regions of Russia, this is the beginning of spring, in the Urals and Siberia - mid-April. It is advisable to orient the greenhouse itself from west to east and provide it with a gabled roof - this way it will warm up faster. After planting, the soil must be covered with straw (layer 10-15 cm) and tightened with black spunbond, lutrasil, agril. The tubers are pre-planted, but in no case are they germinated. Humus is placed in the hole, and it is poured with it.

Video: cultivating potatoes indoors

Almost all gardeners are engaged in growing potatoes. Its agricultural technology, at first glance, is very simple, but there are many nuances here. If you pre-prepare the bed and process the tubers, you can harvest a much more bountiful harvest than usual. And the existing along with the traditional methods allow saving planting material. The tubers are distinguished by very good frost resistance, they can be planted even before winter, thus obtaining a superearly harvest.

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How to plant potatoes correctly to get a good harvest

Surely every farmer wants to get the best possible harvest of potatoes. Very often adopting the experience of our neighbors, we remain illiterate in many issues and instead of a good result we get the result of their often not entirely correct experience. Therefore, it will be best for you if you independently study this issue, draw your own conclusions and draw up an action plan.


When to plant potatoes in the spring in open ground in 2021 according to the lunar calendar

All gardeners and gardeners know that the best thing when planting any vegetable or plant is to focus on the timing recommended by the sowing calendar.

So, this also applies to planting potatoes. Experts say that work in the garden should be carried out during the waxing or waning moon phase. New and full moons are not suitable for planting.

For potatoes, the waning moon phase is ideal: during this period, you can carry out any activity related to planting, watering and hilling a vegetable crop, as well as feeding.

In 2021, for planting, it is recommended to focus on the following dates: in April, these are the numbers from 1 to 5, from 8 to 11 and from 28 to 30 in May 1 and 2, from 5 to 10 and from 27 to 29 in June, you need to plant potatoes with 2 to 9 numbers.


How to plant potatoes correctly to get a good harvest

The technology of planting potatoes has long been worked out, you just need to adhere to it. Subject to all the rules, plants will have strong immunity. Crop health to a large extent affects yield indicators.

Preparation of planting material

You cannot do without the preparation of planting material. Thanks to this stage, awakening processes begin in the tubers, the growth of roots and shoots is stimulated. At the same time, it becomes possible to reject the material if the sprouts are too weak or foci of diseases appear on the potatoes. By planting sprouted tubers, you will protect yourself from the appearance of bald spots on the site, since potatoes with sprouts give 100 percent germination.

Preparation begins 30 days before planting. Vernalization can be carried out in the light and in the dark. Each summer resident chooses the most convenient way for himself:

  1. In the first case, the tubers are laid out in one or two layers in a bright room and kept at a temperature of 18-20 ° C. You can spread the potatoes on the floor, windowsill or table. Some people use plastic trellis boxes, replacing them periodically to get even light onto the tubers. After 2 weeks, the room temperature should be reduced to 10-14 ° C, then the sprouts will be stocky and strong.
  2. Using the second method, the tubers are laid out in boxes, sprinkled with wet sawdust or peat. The containers are placed in a warm basement (temperature 12-15 ° C). The moisture content of the substrate must be kept under control, if necessary, water is gradually added to the boxes. With this method, the roots develop at the same time as the sprouts of the potato. The germination period is also reduced, it takes only 15-20 days. If at the time the tubers are ready, the weather does not allow planting, you need to lower the temperature of the content by 5-7 ° C in order to slow down the development of shoots and roots.

If vernalization was not possible, a warming up procedure is used. Having taken out tubers from storage, they are kept for 1-2 days at a temperature of 10-15 ° C, and then transferred to a room with room temperature. If cold tubers are planted right away, seedlings will appear with a long delay.

Tubers weighing 40-60 g are planted whole. Large potatoes can be cut in half, so that 2-3 eyes remain on each part. You need to divide the potatoes one day before planting. Sections for disinfection are dusted with wood ash and left in the air to form a dry crust. At the same time, potatoes are treated for diseases and pests:

  1. Strawberries in boxes are sprayed with Tabu or Prestige preparations. This measure will provide protection against the Colorado potato beetle and wireworm.
  2. You can protect plants from rot and scab with a solution of "Fitosporin" prepared according to the instructions.
  3. The simplest method of disinfection involves processing sprouted potatoes with a saturated solution of potassium permanganate. The tubers are soaked in the composition for 30 minutes.
  4. For the same purpose, you can use a solution of copper sulfate (1 matchbox of powder per 10 liters of water). Tubers are allowed into the composition for 1-2 minutes or sprayed from a spray bottle the day before planting.

If you wish, you can process the planting material with growth stimulants ("Epin", "Zircon"). This contributes to the emergence of early and friendly seedlings.

How to choose and prepare potatoes for planting - video

Choosing a site for planting

Potatoes love fertile and moist soil. It is best if it is sandy, sandy loam or loamy soil. If possible, a ridge for potatoes is broken into an area with a slope to the south. In any case, the landings should not be shaded. The culture grows well in the same place for several years in a row, but it is still better to change the site from time to time.

Compliance with the rules of crop rotation:

  • cucumbers and cabbage are best suited as precursors to potatoes
  • vegetable can also be planted after carrots and beets
  • tomatoes are categorically unsuitable as precursors for potatoes, since both crops have common diseases.

From autumn or early spring, organic fertilizers are applied for digging. It can be manure, compost, peat. For 1 sq. m is supposed to make 3-4 kg of organic matter. Additionally, mineral fertilizers are added (per 1 sq. M):

  • 20 g ammonium nitrate
  • 30 g superphosphate
  • 30 g of potassium sulfate.

The land for planting potatoes must be well cultivated and clean. On the eve of planting work, the site is harrowed with a rake. If the bed is located on heavy soil, the soil is dug twice (in autumn and spring), and then loosened.

Landing

First of all, early varieties of potatoes are planted. First you need to decide on the depth of planting. This indicator depends on the composition of the soil, the level of moisture, the quality of the planting material, and the tillage. It is customary to embed tubers to the following depth:

  • with a ridge planting - 8-10 cm
  • on peat bogs - 6-10 cm
  • in arid regions - 14-16 cm.

The distance between tubers can also vary. Early potatoes are planted densely. Late varieties require more rare planting. The spacing between small tubers should be less than between large ones. On average, the following parameters are accepted:

  • between small tubers - 20-22 cm
  • between medium tubers - 25-27 cm
  • between large tubers - 30-33 cm.

In a classic planting, holes are made with a depth of 8-12 cm. A tuber is placed in each groove, sprouting up. Then the holes are filled with earth and the area is leveled with a rake.

In large areas, it is convenient to plant potatoes in 10 cm deep grooves made by a walk-behind tractor in advance. After planting, the tubers are covered with earth using a rake. To save space, you can plant potatoes using the Meatlider method. In this case, the tubers are planted in a checkerboard pattern. Hilling of such potatoes is not carried out, but the culture needs more frequent watering and feeding.


How to care for potatoes after planting

Hilling is a very important care element when growing potatoes outdoors. Thanks to the manipulation, the risk of green tubers will decrease, the bushes will develop a powerful root system, the bushes will stand stronger in the ground, they will be protected from the cold in case of a sudden cold snap, the air and moisture exchange near the roots will improve, and it will be much more convenient and faster to harvest. And also weeding will be done during hilling.

Important! If you have planted a crop under agrofibre or film, under straw, or are growing a crop in a region with hot and dry summers, then you do not need to huddle.

You can huddle with a hoe (hoe), walk-behind tractor, cultivator, disc hiller, plow.

It is better to carry out the procedure in the morning or evening on wet soil (for example, after precipitation or watering).

Below is a photo-diagram of the correct hilling of potatoes in the open field:

Note! Each hilling of potatoes must be accompanied by piercing of the weed beds.

Hilling potatoes is divided into 3 stages:

  • First hilling produced two to three weeks after planting. The seedlings of the plant should be about 10 centimeters high. It is necessary to cover the bushes with earth, leaving two to three centimeters of the top of the shoot. Manipulation will stimulate the growth of the root system, protect plants from cold snaps.
  • Second hilling not necessary, it is recommended to produce it with clay, heavy soil on the site. It takes place about two to three weeks after the first. In this case, the tops should have a height of 12-15 centimeters. The bushes are covered with soil, five centimeters of a green bush must be left above the ground.
  • Third hilling potatoes are carried out at the moment when the bushes grow up to 30 centimeters, that is, in about a month. The bushes are huddled in such a way that the stem is covered with soil by 20 centimeters. At this stage, it is recommended to do hilling with a hoe with your own hands, that is, without using a cultivator. Because during this period it is impossible to damage the plant, the slightest damage can cause infection with destructive diseases. It is necessary to fill in the earth with high quality so that the tubers do not open, otherwise they will turn green.

Important! Potato bushes should not be disturbed too often (that is, too often hilling, loosening, etc.). Otherwise, you take more land from the mother root, which provokes lower yields, and also increases the likelihood of infection with scab and other infections.


Watch the video: How to grow potatoes in water