"Cucumber Encyclopedia". Part 4
← Read part 3. Prolongation of fruiting of cucumbers, harvesting
One of the popular options for canning cucumbers is pickling - not all housewives succeed. For some reason, pickled cucumbers do not like to stand and explode, and the housewives blame both the cucumbers themselves (it is widely believed that salad cucumbers explode) and salt. In fact, neither one nor the other is the cause of the explosions.
Salad cucumbers can be pickled (I personally have resorted to this more than once, when, due to unfavorable circumstances, pickling cucumbers were not enough). And salt has nothing to do with it - you need to buy the salt that the adapted recipe is focused on, and simply because a tablespoon (which is used in recipes as a measure) contains different amounts of coarse and fine salt. In general, all recipes are given, as a rule, based on coarse salt.
Let's dwell on the reasons for failures in pickling, and we will consider not only the reasons for the explosions, but also the reasons for simply not enough tasty and crunchy cucumbers, which is also relevant.
The main reasons for failure when pickling cucumbers
1. Large, overgrown cucumbers are never crispy or tasty, so the less pickled the better.
2. It is better not to pickle salad cucumbers - you can (at the stage of greens) make them lightly salted. If you pickled them (meaning, of course, the greens), then you will have to come to terms with the fact that the middle of pickled cucumbers will turn out to be empty, and they will not crunch like pickled cucumbers.
3. If the cucumbers were not rinsed well enough, and the slightest grooves on their surface must be thoroughly washed with a rag, then this is a complete guarantee that the cans will explode. As a matter of fact, this is the only reason for the explosions, the second can only be the absence of salt in the brine, if you forgot to put it.
Ground cover roses, care and cultivation in the garden
Roses can be found in every garden. In the article, we will consider only ground cover roses, care and cultivation, we will get acquainted with some varieties. Among the variety of varieties and types of roses, ground cover roses stand out for their versatility and characteristic bush shape. They are famous for their abundant and long flowering, they are more resistant to diseases than their hybrid tea or, for example, polyanthus congeners. They have ...
Since ancient times, with a mass harvest of vegetables, it is customary to start salting them. This method allows you to store products for a long time, giving them their original taste. Skillful housewives are constantly experimenting with cucumbers, tomatoes, bell peppers and other vegetables in order to achieve the most harmonious taste and shape stability of the products.
Sometimes, during canning, problems arise that may seem strange and even frightening to an ordinary person. A product like garlic can turn blue. Searching for answers to the question of why garlic turns blue leads to a variety of information. Agronomists as well as biologists have their own point of view. Some of the suggestions are made by the chefs. But who to believe? Why does one garlic turn blue when preserved while the other does not?
How to pickle cucumbers correctly so that they do not shrivel
On our site you can find a lot of recipes for canning cucumbers, and almost every housewife knows at least one.
We have already decided on the choice of the right varieties, now we will figure out what and how to do in order to crunch deliciously in winter.
Cucumbers are pickled with various spices, so first decide what flavor you would like to get. Cucumbers are canned whole and sliced - it all depends on your tastes.
Try to choose the fruits that are the most even and similar in size: this way they will be salted as evenly as possible. To determine how fresh a cucumber is, look at its color.
Reference! Ideally, a fresh cucumber is bright green, and yellow spots and tough rind indicate that the vegetable has already slowed down.
And here's the first classic way:
For a can of 3 liters you will need:
- 2 kg of cucumbers
- 5 cloves of garlic
- 2 horseradish leaves
- 3 bay leaves
- a couple of dill inflorescences
- 2 tablespoons of salt
- 2 tablespoons of sugar
- 1.5 tbsp. l. vinegar (9%)
- 10 allspice peas.
- Wash the cucumbers. The more carefully you do this, the less likely the can will explode or the solution becomes cloudy.
- Cut off the ends.
- Keep the cucumbers in cold water for at least four hours so that they are soaked in the water and not the marinade.
- Sterilize the jar and lid thoroughly by washing them with soap or even boiling them.
- Put all your ingredients (except sugar, salt and vinegar) on the bottom of the jar and cucumbers on top. More cucumbers will fit when placed vertically.
- Pour boiling water over everything and let stand for 10 minutes.
- Then carefully (you can, for example, through a colander) pour this water and refill it with boiling water. Leave it on for 20 minutes.
- Drain the liquid again, but into the saucepan. Add salt and sugar and bring liquid to a boil.
- Pour the resulting solution over the cucumbers.
- Add vinegar.
- Roll the can thoroughly and check the tightness by turning it over.
The second method is for sweet and sour cucumbers. For a can of 3 liters you will need:
- 2 kg of cucumbers
- 3 cloves of garlic
- 3 cherry leaves
- 3 currant leaves
- 2 bay leaves
- 2 horseradish leaves
- a couple of sprigs of dill
- 2 tbsp. l. salt
- 5 tbsp. l. Sahara
- 1.5 tbsp. l. citric acid.
- Sterilize the jar.
- Place the leaves and twigs on the bottom.
- Lay the cucumbers on top as tightly as possible.
- Pour boiling water over the cucumbers. Let stand for eight minutes, then gently pour out the water.
- Pour fresh boiling water over the cucumbers and leave for 10 minutes.
- Pour the cucumber water into a saucepan, boil it again and add salt, sugar, acid.
- Pour the resulting liquid over the cucumbers.
- Tighten the jars thoroughly.
And one more way - "grandmother". Here, all the ingredients are in a liter jar. If, after reading recipe, if you want to do more, multiply the number of ingredients by three:
- 2 cloves of garlic
- 3 bay leaves
- 2 sprigs of dill
- 2 sprigs of parsley or celery
- 2 allspice peas
- 1 tablespoon salt
- 1 tablespoon sugar
- 2 teaspoons of vinegar.
How we cook:
- Sterilize the jar.
- Spread the leaves and spices on the bottom.
- Place the cucumbers tightly on top.
- Pour boiled water over everything, cover and place in a saucepan to re-sterilize.
- Water should fill the pot up to the "shoulder" of the jar. Preheat the water, otherwise the glass will burst.
- Sterilize this way for about 20 minutes, until the cucumbers and herbs are slightly lighter.
- Add vinegar and roll up.
Any recipe for pickling cucumbers can be changed by adding something to your liking.
- Before planting a variety, you first need to determine its purpose: cucumbers for pickling and for salads have different qualities.
- If vegetables are not grown for sale, then the taste of the fruit is the main factor.
- Self-pollinated, and even some bee-pollinated varieties in the greenhouse give a greater yield than in the open field.
- The highest yield is obtained from hybrid varieties. However, seeds in this case will have to be bought every spring.
- No matter how productive the selected variety is, if you do not follow the rules for caring for plants, you will not be able to get a large number of fruits.
Read about the best variety Masha F1 for growing in a greenhouse in this article.
Reasons for failures when pickling cucumbers - garden and vegetable garden
Leek (also known under the names leek, pras, pearl onion), probably comes from the wild-growing grape onion found in the Mediterranean and Western Asia. Cultivated in Ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. Pharaoh Cheops rewarded those who distinguished themselves with leek bunches.
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF
Leek cultivated as a biennial and annual crop. In the first year, forms a false bulb and leaves, blooms in the second year. It has a cylindrical white bulb 2-8 cm in diameter, formed by thickened leaf bases. On top, the bulb is covered with 1-2 dry white or grayish scales.
Leek tolerates transplanting well and grows until late autumn. Leaves are long, wide, dark green with a waxy bloom, flat, forming a thick false stem - "leg", which is the main edible part.
Leek is a good honey plant. Seeds remain viable for 2-3 years. Of the varieties we have the most widespread early maturing Karantansky. It is winter-hardy, in autumn it tolerates a drop in temperature to -7 ° C. The taste is weak. Keeping quality is good.
The varieties Gigantskiy and Sizokryl are also of interest. The first is high-yielding, has long leaves (80-90 cm) and a very large thick leg. The second is a late-ripening variety that can winter outdoors.
NUTRITIONAL AND HEALING VALUE
Leek contains fiber, protein, essential oils, vitamins C (more in spring, after storage, more than in autumn), B1, B2, B3, B6, E, H, PP, potassium, calcium, sodium, phosphorus, iron salts. A small percentage of essential oils gives it a pleasant taste, but less pungent than onions and does not leave a strong odor.
Leek increases appetite, improves the functioning of the digestive tract and liver, it is recommended for atherosclerosis, metabolic disorders (including gout), urolithiasis, scurvy, vitamin deficiency, anemia. Green leek leaves contain carotene, chlorophyll and xanthophyll, which regulate blood composition,
In ancient times, leek was prized as a means of preserving and strengthening the voice. Emperor Nero, who was very fond of singing, treated the vocal cords in this way: on certain days he ate exclusively leek, seasoning it with olive oil.
In its raw form, leek is contraindicated in inflammatory diseases of the stomach and duodenum 12.
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROWTH CONDITIONS
Leek is a cold-resistant plant. But the optimum temperature for growth and development is 15-20 ° C. For a better wintering of leeks, it is necessary to huddle or cover it with peat, cover it with coniferous legs and leaves.
Leek is hygrophilous, requires regular watering - at least 10-12 times during the growing season. This is a light-loving plant. For its cultivation, loose, fertile, rich in organic matter, sandy loam and light loamy soils with a deep arable horizon are suitable. They must be weed-free and neutral. Leek grows well on floodplain soils in river valleys.
AGROTECHNICS OF GROWING
Biennial plant. In culture, it is grown as an annual. High-yielding, cold-resistant, loves well-fertilized, moist soils.
Contains dry matter, protein, carbohydrates, trace elements, vitamins. Improves the activity of the liver and gallbladder. It has a beneficial effect on the digestive system. Useful for rheumatism, atherosclerosis, obesity, metabolic disorders (with age-related changes), salt deposition.
Leeks are grown both by seeds and seedlings. When sown with seeds (in June), the plants overwinter. Floral arrows form for the second year. The flowers are small, whitish or pinkish, collected in umbrellas.
The main edible part of a leek is the part of the stem called the leg. At a young age, the leaves are also suitable for food. To obtain bleached legs at the beginning of August, it is spud up to a height of 20-25 cm. The false stem is used in salads, soups, as an addition to main courses in stewed and fried form. It has an unclear aroma, pleasant, delicate taste.
Retains nutritional value for up to six months, buried in the sand at a temperature of about zero.
For early harvesting, leeks can be grown in joint crops between rows of radishes, lettuce, beets, celery, kohlrabi, onions, carrots.
In autumn, the soil is dug deeply and fertilized in the same doses as when growing onions. During autumn processing, manure can be applied in an amount of 4-5 kg / m 2.
Grow leek mainly by sowing seeds in open ground and through seedlings. You can also use a vegetative propagation method, planting small sighting bulbs. To obtain seedlings, seeds are sown in a greenhouse, boxes or pottery pots in late March - early April. The soil mixture is prepared from turf or compost soil with the addition of humus and low-lying peat (in equal parts). If grown on peat, then sawdust and sand are added to it (ratio 3: 1: 0.5). For 5 kg of the moistened mixture add 250 g of dolomite flour, 50 g of double superphosphate, 30 g of urea, 40 g of potassium sulfate and trace elements. Before sowing, the soil is lightly tamped, watered abundantly.
Seeds are sown in grooves, at a distance of 6-7 cm. Seeding rate: 6-10 g per 1 m 2. Seeds are germinated in the same way as on onions, which accelerates the emergence of seedlings by 5-7 days. The seeds sown in the grooves are covered with a small layer of light soil, then the surface is slightly tamped, covered with a film and kept in a warm place (20-22 ° C) until shoots appear. As soon as shoots appear, the boxes are transferred to a cooler place. When growing seedlings, the temperature is maintained at 17-20 ° C during the day and 8-14 ° C at night.
At the end of April - the first half of May, the seedlings are planted in a permanent place in grooves 10-15 cm deep. This depth is needed to obtain elongated bleached "legs". The distance between the rows is 40-45 cm, between the plants in the rows - 10-15 cm. It can be planted even thicker: 20-30 cm - the distance between the rows and 8-10 cm - between the plants. In order for the seedlings to take root well, the leaves and roots are cut to 1/3 of the length. Then the roots are dipped in a dung-clay mash.
After planting, the grooves are mulched with humus with a layer of 1-1.5 cm and watered abundantly. It is recommended to plant seedlings in cloudy weather or after rain, preferably in the afternoon. The seedling method increases the yield by 30-50%. To get a harvest in autumn and for winter storage, seeds can be sown directly into open ground in early May (at a soil temperature of at least 7 ° C) in shallow grooves at the same distance as when planting seedlings. Seeds are soaked before sowing. The sowing depth of seeds is 1-1.5 cm, the seeding rate is 0.8 g per 1 m 2. Leaving is traditional.
|CLEANING AND STORAGE|
Leeks are dug out of open ground for winter storage at the end of October and even at the beginning of November. It is cleaned of soil, dried, the roots are cut to 1 cm (without damaging the scales of the bulbs), and the leaves are cut by one third. The dug up leek is sprinkled with sand in the storage, leaving only the ends of the leaves uncovered.
During the storage period, nutrients outflow from the leaves into the false stem, as a result of which it thickens, and the amount of vitamin C in the "stem" almost doubles.
FOR HOME PHARMACY
Numerous recipes are given in his poem "On the Properties of Herbs" by the French scientist Odo from Men (XI century). For example, he advises to apply to wounds and ulcers leeks, pounded with honey, take leek juice with barley broth when coughing, and mixed with wine - for back pain. Avicenna in his work "Canon of Medicine" (XI century) reports on methods of treating warts, skin ulcers, boils, nosebleeds, asthma, bloody diarrhea, etc. with the help of lesions. Many ancient recipes are adopted by traditional medicine.
TO YOUR TABLE
Leek use in raw, stewed and boiled form for salads, sauces, soups, dishes from vegetables, meat, fish, cereals, eggs, for cold snacks, as a filling for flour products.
For long-term storage, leeks are frozen (leaves), salted (leaves and "legs"), pickled and dried. When marinating, usually “legs” are used, but daughter bulbs can also be preserved (in sweet and sour marinade).For drying, we recommend early ripe leek varieties with a long "stem", which is cut into rings. When dried, leek retains its aromatic properties well.
Delicious (and rare) recipes
Vegetable puree soup. Chop 2-3 leek plants, 3-4 carrot roots, a little parsley, celery and simmer with 2-3 etc. tablespoons of butter. When the vegetables are soft, pour them with hot water or broth, add 3-4 potato tubers and salt to taste. Rub the prepared vegetables through a sieve, dilute with vegetable broth and let it boil, then season with butter. Serve with croutons sprinkled with grated cheese.
Milk soup with leek. Rinse the leeks cut into slices, put in boiling milk, add salt to taste and cook for 10-15 minutes. Along with the leek, you can add grated or diced potatoes or carrots to the boiling milk.
Why are there a lot of barren flowers on cucumbers
Cucumbers are always tied to female flowers after pollination. This is a biological feature of cucumber plants. Most of the female flowers grow not on the main stem, but on the lateral shoots. The main reasons that contribute to the formation of a large number of barren flowers are as follows:
- Sowing with fresh seeds (last year's harvest). Seeds of varieties should be used at least 2-3 years ago, warmed up before planting.
- Bushy planting. Plants begin to crush each other, fight for the area of food and light. The main stem develops where the male flowers are formed.
- Planting cucumbers, even in slightly shaded places, causes indignation in plants. Cucumber is a big lover of light and sun. Arrange the plants so that they are illuminated from all directions.
- A sharp cold snap, watering with cold water, i.e. stress.
- Manual removal of male colors. Without these flowers, fruits on female flowers will not be tied.
For the appearance of more female flowers, you need to pinch the main stem over 4-5 leaves. After pinching, the cucumbers stop growing and lateral shoots begin to grow, on which the main crop will be formed. Cucumber plants with short lashes in the open field do not need to be pinched. They branch well themselves and form many feminine flowers.
Short-term drying of the soil under the plants (a short interruption of watering) also causes stress, which can be used to form ovaries - female flowers. If the plants start to wilt slightly, this is a signal that they need to be watered.
In warm weather, watering is best done in the evening with water heated in the sun. Then feed, add fertile soil. This will be a good stimulus for feeding the ovaries - cucumbers.
Frequent harvests of young fruits force the plants to produce more female flowers. And overgrown cucumbers intercept many nutrients that are so necessary for young ovaries. Plants age prematurely.
Cooking pickled cucumbers (gherkins) in Swiss style without salt and sugar
- 10 kg of small cucumbers (or gherkins)
- 1 kg of onions
- 300 gr of green tarragon
- 8-10 grams of lavrushka
- 8-10 gr black peppercorns
- vinegar 9% for pouring cucumbers in jars
Step 1. Wash cucumbers (gherkins), cut off the ends. Medium cucumbers can be peeled and cut into 4 pieces.
Step 2. Wash the jars with soda and sterilize in a way convenient for you. Wash the lids and boil for 2-3 minutes.
Step 3. Peel the onion and cut into rings. Rinse the tarragon greens and spread them on a towel, allowing them to dry slightly.
Step 4. Put the cucumbers tightly in jars, shifting with tarragon greens and onion rings. Add black pepper and lavrushka.
Step 5. Pour 9% cold vinegar into the jars. Roll up the jars and put them in a cold place for pickling. The cucumbers will be ready to eat in 1.5 months.
Enjoy your salting and see you soon!
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Dedicated to those who are categorically against the use of sugar and salt! I have selected excellent recipes for cucumber blanks without using the "white death". Enjoy, friends!
Pickles are the alpha and omega of our table!
• Wash cucumbers, blanch for a few seconds in boiling water. Then put in a three-liter jar along with pine twigs. Pine twigs take 7-10 cm long (the most delicate tips). Boil the apple juice for pouring. Pour the jar with boiling solution for a few minutes, drain the solution, bring to a boil again. After the third pouring, seal the jar.
Cucumbers in grape leaves
• Wash selected cucumbers, pour over with boiling water, and then rinse with cold water. Wrap each cucumber in a grape leaf and place tightly in a three-liter jar. The leaves of the grapes will preserve the green color of the cucumbers and give them a special flavor. Prepare a filling of apple or grape juice. Pour the cucumbers with boiling pouring, pour into a saucepan after 3-5 minutes, bring to a boil again and pour over again. Repeat this process two times, then immediately seal the jar.
1 kg of small cucumbers,
150 g onions
1 bunch of dill
2 tbsp. l. 6% wine vinegar
350 g dry mustard,
1 bay leaf
1 tsp pepper.
• Wash small cucumbers, wipe dry. Chop the onion and dill and, together with dry mustard, put in vinegar and heat, add pounded bay leaf and pepper, then, stirring, bring to a boil, gently turning them over, into a liquid, let it boil, remove from heat and put in jars while hot with liquid. Cans immediately.
300 g of cranberries (viburnum),
800 ml water
• Wash the cucumbers, immerse them in boiling water for 2-3 seconds, then put them in a three-liter jar. Boil cranberries (you can take viburnum berries) in water, rub through a sieve and boil. Pour the cooked boiling mass over the cucumbers for a few minutes, then drain. After the third pouring, seal the jar.
Cucumbers in pumpkin and apple juice
1 liter pumpkin juice
300 ml of apple juice.
• Wash small cucumbers well, pour over with boiling water, put in a three-liter jar. Prepare a pumpkin and apple juice filling. Only apple juice can be used. Pour cucumbers with boiling solution, after 3-5 minutes pour the solution into a saucepan, bring to a boil again. Repeat two more times. After the third time, seal the jar.
Cucumbers with sorrel
300 g sorrel
800 ml of water.
Wash the cucumbers, immerse them in boiling water for 2-3 seconds and put them in a three-liter jar. To prepare the filling, sort out the sorrel, boil it in water and rub it through a sieve. Boil the resulting mass. Pour the cucumbers with a hot mixture for a few minutes, then drain. Bring the mixture to a boil again and pour over the jar. Repeat three times, then seal the jar.
5 kg of cucumbers,
1 liter of 9% vinegar,
5-6 peas of white and black pepper,
2-4 pcs. carnations,
3-5 peas of allspice,
1 horseradish root,
1-2 heads of garlic,
4 tbsp. l. mustard.
Peel the green fresh cucumbers, cut them lengthwise into 4 or more pieces, wash them, and wipe them gently with a napkin. Place the cucumbers in a saucepan and pour over the hot vinegar to cover all the vegetables. Let stand for two days. Then drain the vinegar, boil it and pour the cucumbers hot again: repeat this again after two days. Take white and black pepper, cloves, English pepper and crush it all. Finely chop horseradish, onions and garlic, add mustard, mix all the ingredients and roll cucumbers removed from vinegar in this mixture, put them in jars, sprinkle with horseradish, onions and garlic, pour hot vinegar. Cork banks.
Sourdough of tomatoes and cucumbers without salt.
Probably, each of us once ate pickled cucumbers and tomatoes. Only now rarely does anyone cook them now (among the supporters of a raw food diet for sure), and the fault is the salt and vinegar, which are required in the classic recipe for this dish. It would seem that with such a "load" of harmful ingredients, cucumbers and tomatoes will have to be forgotten forever. However, it's not all bad. Now I will reveal to you one very simple and affordable recipe in which you can cook all the same pickled cucumbers and tomatoes, only without the use of salt and vinegar!
First, let's deal with tomatoes, they will have to be a little easier. We take one bucket of tomatoes at once
Horseradish, namely - its root
Garlic - one head
Allspice peas - about 30 pieces
The same amount of black peppercorns
About 3-5 bay leaves
And also herbs for pickling. Cherries, dill are suitable (you can also use oak or currants).
It's all simple to prepare: greens are placed in a bucket, tomatoes are pierced (best with a fork) and laid out there. The whole thing is sprinkled with grated horseradish and garlic, which you pressed in advance. All other ingredients - bay leaf, two types of pepper and cloves, we grind in a coffee grinder and sprinkle our tomatoes with it.
Then just fill it with water and install the load. 4-6 days and the dish will be ready. Pour the brine into jars, put the tomatoes there and leave in the refrigerator.
Cucumbers will be a little more complicated.
They are in no hurry to sour, and instead take on an indigestible look. But there is still a solution. Remember how to ferment cabbage? So, if you want to get good pickled cucumbers, you have to combine these two things, and slightly change the recipe.
As soon as the cabbage has started up the juice, add water there, and wait a little longer - the process will take longer with water.
The cabbage is fermented - pour the brine into a separate container and cook the cucumbers according to the same recipe as the tomatoes. Only instead of water, you use this brine, which perfectly keeps the cucumbers beautiful and gives them a slight sourness. We store them in the same way in the refrigerator. Useful preparations and winter quarters!