How and what to fertilize cabbage

How and what to fertilize cabbage

On the influence of fertilizers on the quality of vegetable crops

The quality of vegetables is a whole complex of substances included in them. In vegetable crops, it depends not so much on the absolute content of these substances in the production, but on their ratio to each other.

Given the wide variety of vegetable crops and their different roles in human nutrition, for a complete characterization of the quality of vegetable crops, the first place can be put on the content of dry matter and water. The second place is claimed by mineral elements - potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, copper, selenium, cobalt, iodine and some others.

For many vegetables, the content of sugars, organic acids, protein substances, vitamins, carotenoids and the presence of specific substances such as essential oils (in onions, garlic and other crops), tannins and taste bitterness (cucumber, etc.) are of great importance.


Correctly selected ratios of mineral fertilizers stabilize the bioenergetic balance in plants and significantly increase the content of many biochemical substances in them. Unilateral and accidental application of fertilizers rather causes stress in plants and undermines the balance in their metabolism.

Mineral fertilizers increase, first of all, the content of dry substances, organic acids and sugars, the organoleptic properties of vegetables depend on the ratio of the latter. Carotene content in tomatoes, carrots, pepper increases significantly under the influence of nitrogen fertilizers, and vitamin C - when using potassium.

Complete mineral fertilizer increases the sugar content in cabbage from 2.4 to 3.3%, in peppers and eggplants - by 0.1-0.2%, in green peas - by 0.3, in onion bulbs - by 0, 4, in carrots - by 0.6%. This is a noticeable increase even in taste.

Organic fertilizers also have a strong effect on increasing the sugar content of vegetables and increasing the content of dry matter in them. Thus, the sugar content in eggplants increased from 1.9 to 2.5%, and in zucchini - from 2.3 to 2.9%. However, in most vegetable crops, dry matter and sugar content increase to a greater extent with the use of mineral fertilizers than organic ones.


The quality of vegetables is greatly influenced by micronutrient fertilizers: boron, manganese, copper, molybdenum, cobalt, etc. other vegetable crops, increased the yield, accelerated ripening and accumulated more sugars, vitamins and mineral elements in the harvest. Under the influence of trace elements, the dietary and healing qualities of tomatoes, peppers and green crops are significantly improved.

However, with the wrong use of fertilizers, the quality of vegetable products can deteriorate significantly. For example, when making only one organic fertilizers pickling qualities of cucumbers deteriorate. Where manure was brought in, the cucumbers were soft, without crunch, had an off-odor, and tasted much worse than cucumbers with an area not fertilized with manure. Vitamin C content was also significantly reduced with the application of high doses of manure. With the combined application of organic fertilizers with mineral fertilizers, the situation improved and the quality of fresh and salted fruits improved significantly.

The use of fertilizers when growing cabbage

Cabbage is one of the most common vegetable crops, contains from 5 to 10% dry matter, including 3-5% sugar, 1.5% nitrogenous substances and about 2% ash, is rich in vitamins C and K.

The biochemical composition of cabbage is very variable, therefore the effect of certain types and combinations of mineral fertilizers on the quality indicators of cabbage is manifested in different ways. Nitrogen fertilizers have a noticeable effect on increasing the yield; they can increase the content of dry matter, sugars, and vitamins in cabbage. This changes the yield of standard products and the safety of the heads of cabbage during storage.

On drained marsh soils, moderately supplied with mobile phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, doses of 9 g of nitrogen per 1 m² increased the content of ascorbic acid from 17.04 to 22.71 mg%. With a further increase in the doses of nitrogen fertilizers to 12-18 g, the content of ascorbic acid practically did not change. There was a slight increase in dry matter content - by 0.07%.

Nitrogen fertilizers against the background of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers increased the accumulation of dry matter, proteins, total nitrogen and vitamins. The most favorable conditions for obtaining a high yield and high-quality products are achieved when using 12 g of nitrogen per 1 m² under cabbage, while simultaneously applying 9 g of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers.

An increased dose of 24 g of nitrogen in comparison with a dose of 12 g increased the average weight of the head of cabbage by 0.5 kg. With short-term storage (4 months), the weight loss of cabbage was approximately the same. During long-term storage (7 months), the total weight of cabbage grown against the background of increased doses of nitrogen fertilization was significantly lower than the weight of heads of cabbage grown against the background of optimal doses. An unfavorable effect of high doses of nitrogen fertilizers (above 24 g) on ​​the yield of marketable products both at the time of harvesting and after some storage has been established.

Different forms of nitrogen fertilization have approximately the same effect. However, some preference can be given to urea and ammonium nitrate. Thus, when 20 g of urea was introduced under the cabbage against the background of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, the yield of standard heads of cabbage was 7.18 kg per 1 m², and when the same dose of ammonium sulfate was applied, it was 6.8 kg. The quality of the heads of cabbage was approximately the same in both variants.

Phosphate fertilizers, like nitrogen fertilizers, contribute to a significant increase in cabbage yield. On drained bog soils, well supplied with mobile phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, phosphorus fertilizers increased the cabbage yield from 6.30 to 6.76 kg. At the same time, the content of vitamin C increased from 18.74 to 20.16 mg%, and the content of dry matter - from 6.96 to 7.15%.

On the sod-podzolic medium loamy soils phosphorus fertilizers increased the cabbage yield from 9.52 to 9.94 kg per m², while the content of dry matter, sugar and vitamin C remained practically unchanged.

Potash fertilizers, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, significantly increase the yield and quality of cabbage.

The yield, quality and safety of cabbage to a large extent depend on the use of micronutrients, which enhance photosynthesis, accelerate ripening, which ultimately contributes to an increase in yield, an increase in the content of dry substances, sugar, protein and vitamin C. In foliar feeding 0.05% - boron solution in cabbage significantly increased the content of dry matter, total sugar and vitamin C.

Similar results were obtained when soaking cabbage seeds in boron solution. The sugar content in cabbage heads increased to a greater extent under the influence of molybdenum, and zinc contributed to the greatest increase in the content of vitamin C. 0.1 g together with nitrogen, phosphorus and potash fertilizers N12P9K9.

On the acidic soils with early white cabbage, colored, broccoli, kohlrabi be sure to make lime fertilizers 400-800 g and manure 6-8 kg / m². For late-ripening cabbage varieties, the dose of all fertilizers can be increased by 50%.

The cost of buying fertilizers is always fully paid off by an increase in yield. You should not save on fertilizers, as well as on your health. The cost of fertilizing for cabbage is 6-8 rubles / m², while the yield almost doubles. Consequently, half of the harvest 3-5 kg ​​/ m² worth 36-60 rubles / m² will be created through the use of fertilizers. As you can see, the yield increase is higher than all fertilizer costs. Therefore, they pay off with interest. Profit from fertilizers when growing high-quality cabbage can be 29-52 rubles per square meter. meter of sowing. For each ruble spent on fertilizers, you can always get at least 4-6 rubles of profit.

On the influence of fertilizers on the quality of vegetable crops
  • How and what to fertilize cabbage
  • How and what to fertilize tomatoes
  • How and what to fertilize cucumbers
  • How and what to fertilize carrots
  • How and what to fertilize beets and onions

Gennady Vasyaev,
associate professor, chief specialist
North-West Scientific and Methodological Center of the Russian Agricultural Academy,
Olga Vasyaeva, amateur gardener


When and how to effectively feed cabbage

Cabbage is a tasty and healthy vegetable, therefore it is planted on their plots by both experienced and novice gardeners. Most prefer white cabbage, but some grow more exotic varieties - Savoy, Brussels, Peking and others. However, it will not be possible to regularly shoot large and dense heads of cabbage in the fall without proper feeding. Let's figure out how, with what and according to what scheme to feed this vegetable for the growth and formation of a head of cabbage.

What fertilizers does cabbage need

Cabbage needs regular feeding during the entire growing season - from the moment the first true leaves appear until the end of the head formation. Fertilization before ripening is especially important.

The fact that cabbage can be eaten has been known to mankind since the Stone Age. This is evidenced by the excavation data. However, the place where cabbage first began to be purposefully grown for human consumption has not yet been reliably established. Greece, Italy and Georgia are arguing for the right to call themselves the homeland of the first cabbage beds.

Since gardeners are faced with the task of growing dense heads of cabbage, feeding is aimed at ensuring their correct formation, which is almost impossible without stimulating the development of leaves. Therefore, cabbage is especially demanding for the presence in the soil of a sufficient amount of potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus. At the same time, one should not forget about organic fertilizers, which she also needs.

Cabbage is not only food, but also a decoration of the garden. Ornamental varieties are especially highly valued in Japan.

It is important not to exceed the recommended dose when feeding... This will negatively affect both the appearance and the process of forming the vegetable. For example, with an excess of nitrogen in the stalk and veins on the leaves, an increased content of harmful nitrates is noted, because of this, they thicken sharply, the process of ovary and development of a head is inhibited, and such heads of cabbage usually crack.

Pay attention to the appearance of the leaves regularly. It may indicate a lack of certain substances.:

  • Nitrogen... Starting from the lowest, the leaves turn yellow, then acquire a pinkish-lilac hue, dry up and fall off. The head of cabbage that has begun to form reaches the size of an adult's fist and stops growing.
  • Potassium... The leaves turn from smooth to bumpy, the edges become as if corrugated. The color is lighter than usual. The leaves then turn yellowish brown and dry out.

In addition to all of the above, cabbage reacts negatively to lack of water. The leaves turn gray-pink, curving around the edges. And in the case of excessive watering, the heads of cabbage form slowly and crack.

Whether to take into account the type of vegetable

The doctors of ancient Greece and Egypt spoke highly of the medicinal properties of cabbage. And the mathematician Pythagoras even engaged in the selection of this vegetable.

Since the most common cabbage is white cabbage, most of the recommendations are related to its cultivation. In principle, they are suitable for other varieties of this plant, but there are certain features that need to be considered if you decide to plant something more exotic.

  • Red cabbage... All dressings are carried out according to the same scheme as for white cabbage, but the recommended fertilizer rate is doubled.
  • Cauliflower... It especially needs phosphorus, but the rate of potassium and nitrogen should be reduced by 1.5 times. You can use a complex fertilizer (phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen).
  • Kale... Quite unpretentious. If there is good lighting in the selected area, you can limit yourself to regular watering and two additional fertilizing with manure diluted with water per season.
  • Chinese cabbage... The most effective top dressing is complex mineral fertilizers in combination with regular abundant watering.
  • Savoy cabbage... In the presence of suitable soil, it needs feeding only during planting and when the heads of cabbage begin to set. For the first time, use a complex mineral fertilizer, and the second time - a solution of cow dung.

It is believed that the name "cabbage" comes from the Latin "caputum" (head). Perhaps this is due to the characteristic shape of the head of cabbage. But there is also a legend according to which the first cabbage grew out of drops of sweat that fell from Jupiter's forehead.

Fertilizer types

Nitrogen

They are important to form the right amount of green mass.

  • Ammonium nitrate (also called ammonium nitrate). Contains nitrogen, which plants are able to assimilate, at a maximum concentration of 30–35%. In no case should the application rate be exceeded during top dressing. Excess nitrates accumulating in cabbages is harmful to health.
  • Ammonium sulfate. In addition to nitrogen (about 20%), it also contains sulfur. Therefore, it increases the acidity of the soil, which some varieties of cabbage really do not like.
  • Urea (aka the ammonium salt of carbonic acid). It is especially effective for feeding cabbage seedlings.

Potash

Potassium for cabbage is of great importance: with its lack, the roots are weak, the leaves grow poorly, and the heads of cabbage do not form at all.

  • Potassium chloride. Cabbage is able to assimilate up to 60% of the potassium contained in it. The disadvantage of this fertilizer is that it acidifies the soil.
  • Potassium sulfate (potassium sulfate). It contains 45–55% potassium. Replacing the previous option if the plant does not tolerate chlorine well. Cabbage is not included in this category.

Phosphoric

Phosphorus influences the correct formation of the head of cabbage, therefore it is extremely important at the end of the growing season, especially for mid-season and late varieties.

  • Superphosphate. The most common fertilizer. There are two varieties - simple and double. In the first case, the proportion of phosphorus is 20-22%, in the second, it is about twice as much. Keep in mind that it is poorly absorbed if the soil is acidic.

Cabbage dressing

When growing seedlings

Usually, three dressings are enough for cabbage seedlings before planting in the ground.

Seedlings are fed three times

Table: fertilizing cabbage seedlings

Funds Deadline for entering Feeding method Proportions
Potassium chloride, ammonium nitrate, superphosphate 10-15 days after the dive (when the second true leaf appears) Watering with water solution (about 75 ml per plant) For 5 liters of water - 5 g of potassium chloride, 15 g of nitrate and 20 g of superphosphate (or half as much double superphosphate)
Ammonium nitrate or other fertilizer with nitrogen content (increase the amount according to its proportion in the total mass) 12-14 days after the first Watering with water solution (about 100 ml) For 10 liters of water - 35 g of ammonium nitrate
Potassium chloride, ammonium nitrate, superphosphate 3-5 days before planting in the ground Watering with water solution (150-200 ml) For 10 liters of water - 20 g of potassium chloride, 1.5 times more saltpeter and 3.5 times more simple superphosphate

If the seedlings grow poorly, in the intervals between these dressings (when the third and sixth leaves appear), you can spray with a solution of Nitrofoska in a proportion of 15-17 g per 5 liters of water.

Complex fertilizers with microelements in dry or liquid form (Piksa, Kemira-Universal, Polyfid-SL) also give a positive effect. Prepare the solution according to the instructions and water the plants. The norm is about a glass per bush.

When landing in open ground

This stage can be skipped if in the fall the garden bed was dug specifically for cabbage with the addition of all the necessary organic and mineral fertilizers.

If you prepared a bed for cabbage in advance, then you can skip this top dressing.

Table: feeding cabbage when planting

Variants number
Humus or compost, superphosphate (can be replaced with nitrophosphate), and wood ash Mix well with the soil removed from the hole 0.5 kg of humus, 30 g of ash and 2 times less superphosphate (nitrophosphate - 1.5 times less) and fill the hole
Humus and wood ash Pour two handfuls of humus and 3 tablespoons of ash on the bottom of the hole

Pour a spoonful of wood ash into the seedling hole. If not, potash fertilizer, according to the instructions.

For active growth

You will not need to apply these fertilizers if fertilizing was carried out during planting, and the soil is sufficiently fertile. Otherwise, use one of the suggested options. The optimal time is 16–20 days after disembarkation. In any case, it shouldn't be more than those weeks from now.

This top dressing must be carried out no later than three weeks after planting the seedlings in the garden

The procedure is best carried out in cool weather in the absence of the sun or at night, after watering the plant abundantly.

When watering, each plant takes about 0.5 liters of the finished solution. If the weather is very dry, after finishing feeding, walk along the garden bed again and pour the same amount of plain water over the cabbage. After a couple of hours, the plants need to be carefully spud.

Table: fertilizing cabbage 16-20 days after planting

Variants Quantity per 10 liters of water
Fresh cow or horse manure or chicken manure 1 glass
Urea 15 g
Complex fertilizer based on potassium humate (Reasil Universal, Life Force, Prompter) 25 g or as directed
Simple superphosphate and wood ash A glass of ash and three level tablespoons of superphosphate
Urea, potassium chloride and superphosphate 15 g of urea and potassium and 1.5 times more than ordinary superphosphate
Ammonium nitrate Matchbox (15–20 g)

In no case should you water the cabbage with sheep dung.

If the weather is damp, the necessary mineral fertilizers with phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium or one complex fertilizer (Diammofoska, Nitroammofoska, Sulfoammophos) are scattered over the surface of the beds and then loosened. You will need either a glass of each fertilizer, or 0.5 kg of universal fertilizer per 5 m².

Has the cabbage planted in the ground practically stopped growing? Watering with a solution of Nitrofoski or Foskamide will help. Add a tablespoon of the product to a 10 liter bucket and mix thoroughly.

To form a head of cabbage

The second feeding is carried out 12-14 days after the first. This procedure is especially important for cabbage varieties with early ripening periods. The watering rate is doubled - 1 liter of solution per plant. After watering, be sure to huddle the cabbage.

Cabbage varieties with early ripening need a second feeding two weeks after the first

Table: fertilizers for head formation

Variants Quantity per 10 liters of water
Cow dung or chicken manure, Azofoska and fertilizer with a complex of microelements (Kemira-Lux, Solution, Kristalon, Orton, Zirkon, Zdraven-Turbo) A half-liter can of manure or dung, 30 g of Azofoski and half the amount of complex fertilizer
Nitrofoska 50 g
Bird droppings and wood ash infusion A half-liter can of droppings and a liter of infusion. To prepare it, pour a glass of ash with a liter of boiling water, close it tightly and strain after 4–5 days.
Infusion of cow dung or bird droppings The infusion is prepared in the same way as from ash. You will need 1 liter of manure infusion and 700 ml of manure infusion.
Wood ash A glass of dry ash or a liter of infusion

September: fertilizing mid-season and late varieties

Top dressing is carried out only for varieties with medium and late ripening periods 12-14 days after the previous one. 1.2-1.5 liters of solution is poured under each plant. Alternatively, you can pour the solution into the aisles. Then 1 m² will take 6–8 liters. In wet weather, it is permissible to pour the fertilizer rate directly under the root.

Mid-season and late varieties of cabbage need autumn feeding

You should not be zealous with nitrogen-containing fertilizers during this period.

Table: Fertilizers for medium and late ripening varieties

Variants Quantity per 10 liters of water
Cow dung or chicken manure, superphosphate and complex mineral fertilizer (Autumn, AVA, Kalimagnesia) 1/2 liter can of fresh manure or dung, a tablespoon of regular superphosphate, and a heaped teaspoon of fertilizer
Superphosphate and complex fertilizer Two heaping tablespoons of regular superphosphate and a teaspoon of fertilizer
Manure infusion and superphosphate A liter of infusion and a tablespoon of superphosphate
Potassium sulfate and superphosphate A flat tablespoon of potassium sulfate and double the amount of superphosphate

Feed your cabbage with mineral fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium, exclude nitrogen fertilization.

Last autumn feeding

It is carried out only for late-ripening varieties 18-21 days before the planned harvest. The goal is to prepare the heads of cabbage for long-term storage. The watering rate is the same as for the previous top dressing.

The last autumn dressing contributes to better storage of cabbage

Table: Fertilizers for late varieties of cabbage before picking

Funds Quantity per 10 liters of water
Potassium sulfate 45-50 g
Wood ash (infusion) 0.7 l
Fresh cow dung Liter jar
Fertilizers with a complex of microelements Tablespoon

Cabbage grows by yeast - folk ways

Many summer residents prefer to do without chemical fertilizers, considering them extremely harmful to the body, and they successfully use the following options for feeding cabbage:

    Boric acid. A teaspoon of powder is poured into a glass of boiling water and stirred thoroughly. This mixture is poured into a 10 liter bucket of cool water. The resulting solution is sprayed on the leaves.

The procedure is carried out in the first decade of July and aims to stimulate the growth of leaves.

Brewer's yeast. One pack of raw pressed yeast (100 g) is dissolved in a bucket of lukewarm water and the plants are watered. For watering, you need to choose a warm sunny day so that the soil warms up well. The procedure itself is carried out in the late afternoon. Top dressing is carried out no more than twice a summer, with an interval of a month (mid-July and mid-August).

Yeast absorbs calcium from the soil, so after 1–2 days add wood ash under the plants or pour them with an appropriate infusion. You can also feed seedlings with yeast, but then their concentration must be halved.

Baking soda. Watering ripening heads of cabbage from a watering can with a soda solution is carried out in early September. A bucket of water will require 20 g of powder.

It is believed that baking soda prevents cabbage heads from cracking in the garden and during storage.

Nettle. A perfectly acceptable alternative to manure in the absence of it. The younger the plant, the more effective the infusion is. The available container (barrel, bucket) is half filled with nettles and filled to the brim with warm water. Then they close tightly and wait 3-4 days. Filter the finished infusion, dilute with water in a ratio of 1:10 and water the cabbage.

Nettle infusion can replace all four recommended dressings.

Ammonia. It contains ammonia, which means nitrogen. The main thing is not to burn the leaves of the plants, pour the prepared mixture at the very root. A bucket of water needs no more than 3 tablespoons.

The solution is suitable for the first feeding for all varieties or for the first and second for mid and late ripening.

Banana peel. The banana fruit contains potassium. There is even more of it in the peel, so any potash fertilizers are substituted for it. The peel is dried, crushed and infused for 3-4 days, flooded with water (1 peel per 1 liter of water). The infusion is filtered and watered with cabbage beds.

Sometimes a freshly cut banana skin is simply put on the bottom of the hole when planting cabbage.

  • Fresh fish. The method is rational, but dubious at best. Of course, everyone knows that fish is a source of phosphorus. But not everyone will dare to dump fish waste on the beds. Firstly, your garden will become the object of increased attention of all neighboring (and not only) cats, and secondly, imagine a characteristic "aroma", especially in hot weather. As a last resort, you can try to bury it in the holes when planting on small fish such as sprat.
  • Jam and yeast. 9 liters of water are poured into a 10-liter glass bottle, 0.5 liters of sour or simply unnecessary jam and 300 g of pressed yeast (or 3 dry bags) are added and removed in a dark place for 7-10 days. After this period, a glass of the contents of the bottle is stirred in a bucket of water and watered or sprayed with cabbage. The procedure is carried out every 7-12 days, depending on how intensely it rains.

    It is believed that this top dressing will help the leaves develop and tie up large and strong heads of cabbage.

  • Eggshell. It is a source of calcium and an alternative to slaked lime, which neutralizes the increased acidity of the soil. The shells of fresh eggs are dried for 3-5 days, crushed in a coffee grinder and stored in paper bags or cardboard boxes. Pour about a handful into the hole during planting.
  • Potatoes. Peeled and cut into small pieces or grated potatoes are placed in the hole when planting (one small potato each). Of course, it contains trace elements necessary for cabbage that feed the soil during decomposition, but it is worth knowing that such fertilization can attract pests, primarily wireworms and slugs.
  • I have been using yeast dressing for more than 30 years, I water all the plants.

    Video: feeding cabbage

    On a personal plot, it is impossible to regularly get a large harvest of cabbage without the use of dressings. Apply chemical fertilizers or folk remedies - it's up to you. Both options are not devoid of advantages and disadvantages. Most importantly, remember that during the period of the most intensive growth of leaves, cabbage especially needs nitrogen, and for the formation of a dense and large head of cabbage, the plant needs potassium and phosphorus. I wish you a rich harvest!


    We fertilize the garden and vegetable garden - right

    Fertilization and measures to improve the composition of the soil

    Sandy soils poor in humus can be improved by regular application of organic fertilizers. The texture of light sandy soil can be improved by adding crushed clay to it.

    Heavy loamy, clayey and uncultivated soils can be easily improved by applying organic fertilizers, loosening materials, and liming.

    Autumn digging of soil - this is the most suitable time to apply the bulk of organic, phosphorus and potash fertilizers, lime materials and mineral additives in the form of sand or clay.

    Autumn is a good time to apply phosphate fertilizers to the soil. In order for them to reach the roots of plants, a long period of time is needed. These fertilizers are not washed out of the soil for a long time, but if they are applied in the fall, then the earth will be saturated with them all winter. At the same time, potash fertilizers containing chlorine are applied. Until spring, the movement of soil water will move chlorine to deeper soil horizons.

    The formation of a fertile soil layer is favored by the digging of the entire free surface of the site, on which such a natural fertilizer as wood ash has been previously applied.

    If it is supposed to grow on the site such garden crops as zucchini, cabbage, cucumbers, lettuce, celery, then during the autumn digging, manure, humus or compost must be added to the soil. If on the site where it is supposed to grow carrots, beets, scorzonera, radish, organic fertilizers were sealed in the previous season, then it is enough to apply mineral fertilizers. You can limit yourself to a small amount of humus or compost. Organic fertilizers include manure, poultry manure, slurry, humus, peat and compost.

    Manureenriching the soil with microorganisms, at the same time improves its structure, increases looseness, reduces acidity and makes the soil "warm". Cow dung is the most common to use. It contains almost all the nutrients needed by plants: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and trace elements. However, even more nutrients, in particular nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, are contained in horse manure. Horse manure is regarded as the optimal organic soil-improving fertilizer to be applied to the soil in the fall. When using fresh horse manure, it should not be embedded very deeply. When it gets into deep layers of heavy soil, it practically does not decompose. Horse manure embedded in the upper layers of the soil during the winter, before the spring cultivation, will decompose somewhat and serve as food for soil microorganisms. It is better to use half-rotted manure for autumn processing, then during the winter it will practically mature. The rate of its decomposition depends on the presence of moisture in the soil, on its temperature and the degree of aeration. It is recommended to apply 3-4 kg of horse manure or 5-8 kg of cow dung per 1 m2 of soil. In more detail about fertilizing the soil with manure - when and how.

    It is not recommended to embed in the soil during digging. fresh bird droppings, rabbit, sheep and goat manure. It must be punched first. Many vegetable growers generally prefer to apply only rotted manure to the soil. From autumn, they pile fresh manure in layers in a compacted pile on a dry, well-tamped area, which is covered with a thick layer of clay so that the manure does not come into contact with the ground. Layers are shifted with turf or peat, covering the top of the stack with the same turf, sawdust, straw or peat. To prevent moisture from atmospheric precipitation from penetrating inside the stack, it is covered with a film. Manure that has lain in the winter cold is used for planting early vegetable crops. After adding rotted manure to the soil, greens, onions, carrots, cucumbers and pumpkins can be grown on it. If manure was used in sufficient quantities on the site as fertilizer, then it is permissible not to use other organic fertilizers.

    In particular, a bountiful harvest is given by vegetables in the 2nd year after the application of manure. Good onions grow after incorporating horse manure into the soil, while beets and parsley grow after sheep manure. More radishes are obtained in those areas that have been fed with cow dung.

    Bird droppings considered strong and fast-acting fertilizer... It contains a large number of nutrients and decomposes soon. Usually bird droppings are stored together with peat, combining them in equal parts. The droppings are most effective as part of liquid dressings together with mullein solution.

    It is advisable to collect and store chicken manure in the same way as ordinary manure, insulating the heaps with it with peat chips, sawdust or foliage. If the heaps of droppings are frozen, the droppings will stop decomposing, and many plant nutrients will be lost.

    ➣ All remnants of damaged plants and vegetables, infected with diseases tops must be carefully collected, dried and burned in dry weather. The resulting ash can be used as fertilizer when digging.

    The introduction of a large volume of manure compost into it significantly increases the humus content in the soil. In addition, such an event inhibits the activity of pathogenic fungi and bacteria. The manure compost contains antibiotics, they are secreted by individual soil microorganisms that suppress pathogens.

    The readiness of the compost laid in the previous year should be checked on the eve of winter, in November. It must be shoveled and then insulated. Before freezing, compost heaps should be covered with branches and earth with a layer of up to 50 cm, which will protect them from freezing.
    A more detailed separate article was devoted to fertilization with chicken manure.

    Peat used as fertilizer in peat-manure mixtures... Peat is used independently to improve the structure of the soil as a loosening material.

    Some gardeners fertilize the soil with leafy soil, considering it a relatively good fertilizer. The foliage is collected in a bunch in the fall, covered so that the wind does not blow it around the site, and left for the winter. In the spring, if the leaves are decomposed, mix them with the soil. If they have not decomposed by the spring, then they are dug up and left until autumn.

    Often, gardeners collect the bulk of plant waste, garden leaves, tops with a rake and lay them in a compost heap, considering this as an ideal material for humus. Plant residues and debris from spring greenhouses and greenhouses are also placed there. However, such fertilization increases the likelihood of contamination of the soil with one or another fungal disease. If there is the slightest suspicion that weeds, grass, vegetable shoots are infected with pathogens or eggs of various harmful insects, then they cannot be used as future fertilizer. Pathogens of plant diseases and harmful insects usually settle in the pre-winter period precisely among plant debris, dry tops, on dry branches and trunks of old trees. Still, it is better to burn foliage and other plant residues and feed the land with the resulting ash.

    During the autumn digging, many gardeners on heavy soils apply manure mixed with sawdust, which was used as bedding for livestock. Sometimes clean sawdust is also used, having previously scalded them with boiling water. Sawdust on heavy soils is useful as a loosening material. But wood decomposes very slowly in the soil, consuming too much nitrogen, which is highly undesirable. This process must be prevented by wetting the sawdust with a solution of carbamide (urea) or a solution of mullein (3 liters of mullein per 10 liters of water). For 3 buckets of sawdust, you will need 10 liters of solution with a mullein. For preliminary processing of sawdust, it is permissible to use a special solution: dissolve 150 g of superphosphate, 100 g of ammonium nitrate and 50 g of potassium chloride in 10 liters of water. When digging in autumn, it is enough to add half a bucket of sawdust "and each 1 m2.

    During digging the soil for the garden on the newly developed areas of the non-chernozem strip, where it is necessary to create a humus layer, approximately half a bucket of organic fertilizers should be applied per 1 m2 of the cultivated area. On uncultivated, previously uncultivated areas, the roots of old plants must be removed from the soil, stumps and driftwood must be removed, and stones must be selected. When working with a shovel or a plow, such soil should be cut into thin layers and an additional 3-4 cm of podzolized soil or subsoil ore clay should be added. During the autumn digging into heavy clay soil, loosening materials and organic fertilizers should be embedded in larger volumes than when cultivating cultivated land. Peat, manure, compost should be applied at least half a bucket for each 1 m2, supplementing them with wood ash.

    In the autumn processing of virgin clay soil, it is required to add, respectively, 1 or 2 liter cans of coarse river sand and slaked lime to organic fertilizers.

    Loam, river sand, fallen leaves, potassium and phosphorus should be introduced into the peat soil. Every year, such lands need to be applied in sufficient quantities. organic fertilizers.

    When embedded in the soil, organic fertilizers or plant residues must be thoroughly mixed with the soil and covered with a layer of soil on top. This simple agronomic method will prevent the spread of weeds, pests and pathogens of garden plants.

    Acidic soils are neutralized by liming them. The introduction of lime reduces the acidity and fatigue of the soil, enriches it with calcium, thereby increasing fertility. Heavy clayey soils after liming become looser, which significantly improves their water-air regime. Calcium in lime improves the structure and general properties of the soil. Carried out liming activates the activity of various microorganisms that assimilate nitrogen or decompose organic matter. Improving air access to the roots favors the vital activity of these microorganisms. Their activity contributes to the improvement of plant nutrition. Due to the introduction of lime, the yield of all vegetable crops increases.

    Carried out liming improves the conditions for processing heavy soils, after which it is much easier to dig them up. After liming, light soils become water-consuming, and bonds between particles are strengthened in them.

    It is imperative to lime the upland boggy soils and apply organic fertilizers to them. Low-lying swampy soils are not so acidic, but they still need to be limed.

    The productive organs (mother plants) of biennial vegetable crops must be stored along with the roots in winter piles or storages, and planted in the spring of next year to obtain seeds.

    Autumn liming of the soil is a reliable prophylactic agent in the fight against wireworms: beetles with an elongated oval body up to about 15-16 mm long. The larvae of this beetle destroy many vegetable crops: cabbage, onions, carrots, beets, tomatoes, etc. Beetles look like pieces of wire by their appearance, which is why they got their name. They choose low-lying places for habitation, hibernate in the soil, and lay their eggs in it.

    The amount of alkaline materials introduced into the ground depends on the calcium content in them, the degree of soil acidity and its mechanical composition: clay, loam or sand. In autumn liming, all kinds of alkaline materials are used, such as slaked lime, dolomite flour, wood and peat ash, chalk, meadow marl, ground limestone, cement dust, etc. Only very finely ground lime can be used for adding to the soil. Therefore, it is advisable to sift all lime fertilizers before using them directly. Experts recommend adding 0.5-1 kg of slaked lime for every 1 m2 of soil.

    The main condition for liming is that the material chosen for it must be scattered evenly over the area. After applying it, the soil should turn white. Usually this event is done every 5-6 years and only during autumn tillage.

    Lime is quite acceptable to replace ash or use eggshells, which contain a large amount of lime, as a lime material.

    The shell should be thoroughly crushed before embedding in the ground. Why do you need to put it in a strong solid bag and trample on it. Eggshell lime is preferred by carrots, cucumbers and cabbage.

    Ash reduces the acidity of the soil, which is useful on light sandy and peaty soils. To lower the level of their acidity, ash from peat combustion can be used (up to 7 kg of ash per 10 m2). More valuable ash is obtained from burning hardwood brushwood than from coniferous brushwood.

    Lime materials are not recommended to be applied together with fresh manure: in such a neighborhood, a large amount of nitrogen is lost. If it is necessary to liming the soil, it is more expedient to transfer the application of organic fertilizers to the spring period. Although such materials for liming as dolomite and bone meal are quite compatible with manure. It is permissible to apply them during autumn tillage, they are especially good for sandy or sandy loam soils. On heavy clay soils, it is preferable to carry out liming with slaked lime. But in everything you need to observe the measure: with excessive liming, the soil can become neutral. If it has become alkaline with an acidity level of pH above 7.5, the plants begin to grow poorly.

    Along with organic fertilizers, during autumn soil cultivation, it is necessary to make the necessary mineral additives. In heavy clay soil, it is recommended to apply 1 or 1.5 buckets of coarse river sand for every 1 m2 annually. To close up peat chips in about the same volumes.

    In the autumn processing of peat soils, an equal amount of river sand and powdered dry clay should be added. Although this technique is labor intensive, it has a significant effect. The introduction of significant volumes of sand and organic matter into the soil during autumn cultivation makes it possible to transform the upper arable layer of clay soil 15 - 20 cm thick into loam within 5 years.

    Mineral fertilizers it is more expedient to embed it in the ground, taking into account which crops were grown in a certain area. Cabbage and potatoes absorb nitrogen and potassium from the soil, radish prefers to draw out almost all the phosphorus. Therefore, during autumn tillage, it is necessary to apply different sets of fertilizers to different areas.

    Mineral fertilizers should be used with restrictions, at a very strict rate. When an excessive amount of mineral fertilizers is applied to the soil, all microorganisms and earthworms die. Gradually, in such areas, the yield decreases sharply. In addition, the excess of applied mineral fertilizers is harmful to humans.

    During the autumn digging of the site, the introduction of ash is of great benefit: it is a very valuable fertilizer and contains a lot of potassium and phosphorus. In addition, the ash contains calcium, magnesium, iron, boron, manganese, sulfur and other elements useful for plants. As a mineral fertilizer, wood ash should be applied, 2-4 kg for each 1 m2. You can sprinkle ash on the ground when processing it or put it in holes and grooves. But if the soil has been liming, then the ash can be left out for 1-2 years.

    Wood ash Is a universal fertilizer that is recommended for all crops and is available to every gardener. Most of all, eggplants, zucchini, potatoes, cucumbers, peppers, tomatoes and pumpkin need it. Many trees begin to bear fruit only after feeding them with wood ash. Dry ash does not lose its properties over long years of storage. However, wet ash loses almost all of its calcium. Therefore, the ash must be stored in boxes or drums for storage in a dry place.

    In conditions of high humidity, densely planted plants often suffer from various fungal diseases; mosses and lichens can settle on the bark of branches of trees and shrubs.

    Those vegetable crops and potatoes that are planted on acidic podzolic and sandy soils respond well to the introduction of ash. For these crops, it is better to apply ash to the holes and furrows as the main fertilizer.

    However, in no case is it allowed to use ash from peat or shaleif it has a rust color. It indicates that harmful impurities are present in the ash. Particularly harmful is the ash from the burned trees that grew on the roadsides.

    Ash can be replaced by additional introduction of potassium sulfate into the land. If the garden is laid on acidic soil, then it is advisable to add about 150-200 kg of lime to the entire plot. Ash also serves as a valuable prophylactic agent in the fight against many pests and diseases of vegetable crops... On light soils, it is advisable to apply it in spring and summer. On clay soils, it is advisable to cover the ash also in autumn.

    Many experts and experienced gardeners believe that in order to get a good harvest of vegetables, it is quite enough to add to soil rotted manure or compost, ash, as well as timely feed the garden plants with liquid organic fertilizing.

    It is important to make the irrigation system correctly, which, in principle, is not difficult and has already been discussed on the site.

    On tired, depleted soil that needs loosening, enrichment with nitrogen, it is quite acceptable to sow legumes: vetch, peas, lupine or beans - as catch crops. On light sandy soils, yellow lupine grows best, while white lupine prefers loamy soils with a neutral acid reaction.

    If in soil too large amounts were applied on the site organic fertilizers, an excess of nitrates accumulates in it. It is possible to relieve the soil from these undesirable substances by crops of winter rapeseed or mustard.

    It is very important to attract earthworms to the garden, which process organic matter introduced into the soil into humus. At the same time, they release calcium carbonate, which reduces the acidity of the soil. Organic matter processed into humus becomes many times more useful for plants. It is well absorbed by the root system of plants.

    For worms, it is easy to arrange a kind of "apartment": a small hole with a shovel's bayonet depth and an area of ​​1 m2 must be filled with plant waste, eggshells, food waste, mullein, manure or peat. The pile should be about 30-40 cm high and shade slightly from the sun. Earthworms will rush to occupy the dwelling prepared for them. In addition, they gladly settle in high beds and work in them for the benefit of the gardener.


    Top dressing of the lawn in spring

    Every summer resident, immediately after the snow melts, dreams of finding an ideal green meadow on his site. Alas, in our latitudes this will remain a fantasy, and the lawn itself will wake up for a long time. In order to stimulate its growth, you will need to "feed" the grass with nitrogen and other substances.

    You can feed the lawn in the spring as soon as the snow melts.

    Lawn fertilizer in spring can be used both solid and liquid. Most often used:

    • nitroammofosku "16:16:16" - in a dry form, scatter 20-40 g per 1 square meter, and then diligently watered
    • Fertiku (Kemiru) "Universal 2" - in a dry form, scatter 40-50 g per 1 sq.
    • Bona Forte (liquid) - dilute 80 ml in a bucket of water and watered 6 square meters of lawn, repeat after 2 weeks.

    However, just one spring application you will not be able to provide your lawn with a long and bright life - you need to take care of the grass carpet throughout the season.


    Why yeast is good for plants

    Yeast is very useful for cultivated plants:

    • it is a good growth stimulant and a source of beneficial bacteria
    • yeast feeding activates root formation: the results of experiments showed that the substances secreted by yeast cells into the water accelerate the appearance of roots by 10-12 days, increase their number by 2-10 times! And where there is an active growth of roots, there the greens develop powerful and healthy
    • plants fed with yeast solution become stronger and more resilient
    • seedlings fertilized with yeast in early spring, stretch less and tolerate picking better
    • a very good watering effect was noted when rooting strawberry rosettes.

    Yeast dressings are useful for all vegetable crops, strawberries, flowers. The use of a yeast solution has also proven itself excellently as a foliar feeding.


    This is what it means to grow by leaps and bounds


    Natural fertilizers

    Many are wondering if there is a more natural fertilizer for the garden in the spring? If you prefer organic, you can use animal by-products as well as vegetable waste. Today there are unique mixtures with the addition of chicken manure, seaweed and other organic substances. Despite the rather unpleasant smell, such fertilizers are considered one of the most useful and environmentally friendly both for the plants themselves and for our health.

    If you have pets, especially cats, it is recommended that you bury organic fertilizers well, as they are especially sensitive to odors and some of the ingredients may be of interest to them.

    If you are looking for a good garden fertilizer in the spring, you can compost yourself. If you know a farmer, ask him for a bag of horse manure, put it in a barrel of water and after a while you will have an excellent liquid fertilizer. Compost can also be made from sheep manure, fishmeal or seaweed. If you are a fisherman, you do not need to worry about fertilizing your garden with vegetables in the spring. Just save the fish leftovers and crush them into small particles.

    You can also breed worms, which help to loosen the soil, thereby promoting better moisture penetration and providing good access to the root system of plants.

    Healthy plants better resist various diseases and negative environmental influences, so the issue of fertilization is vital for your plants. And although there are many adherents to fertilizing the soil in the fall, it is equally important to pay attention to this before planting in spring. The best way, useful for the garden, is to fertilize twice a year.

    For those who are interested in how to fertilize a vegetable garden in spring, a table with a schedule and the exact amount of necessary substances for a particular soil can help.


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