Plant potatoes (Latin Solanum tuberosum), or nightshade tuberous - a species of tuberous herbaceous perennials of the genus Solanum of the Solanaceae family. The modern scientific name of the plant was assigned in 1596 by the Swiss botanist and anatomist, plant systematist Kaspar Baugin, and Karl Linnaeus, when compiling his classification of plants, introduced this name into it. The Russian word “potato” is derived from the Italian tartufolo, which means “truffle”.
A native of the vegetable potato from South America, where it is still found in the wild. The plant was cultivated at least 9-7 thousand years ago on the territory of the modern state of Bolivia, and the Indian tribes not only ate potatoes, but also deified it. The Incas used potatoes to measure the time: it took about an hour to boil the tubers of the plant. In all likelihood, we owe the appearance of the potato in Europe to Pedro Cieza de Leon, the Spanish historian, the first chronicler of the Conquista, who returned from Peru in 1551. From Spain, potatoes spread to Germany, Italy, Belgium, Holland, France and England, and then to other European countries.
However, potatoes in Europe were grown only as a poisonous decorative exotic until the French agronomist Antoine-Auguste Parmentier proved that the tubers of the plant have high nutritional and taste qualities, and this, during the life of the scientist, helped to defeat hunger and scurvy in the French provinces. In Russia, potatoes appeared during the time of Peter I, and in the 19th century, the agricultural policy of the Russian state contributed to an increase in the sowing of a new crop, and by the beginning of the 20th century, potatoes became one of the main food products. And it is not surprising that in 1995, it was the potato that became the first vegetable grown in space.
Planting and caring for potatoes
- Landing: planting tubers in open ground - in late April or early May.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: optimal - black earth, loamy or sandy, with a pH of 5.0-5.5.
- Watering: before the buds begin to form, watering is not needed, then watering is carried out when the soil dries out to a depth of 6-8 cm. The soil is moistened in the evening. Water consumption - 2-3 liters for each bush. In the dry season, 3 to 5 waterings will be required, followed by loosening of the soil.
- Top dressing: in the fall, the soil is fertilized for digging to a depth of 30 cm with humus (3 kg) and ash (100 g) per 1 m². During the growing season, when growing potatoes in poor soil, fertilizing is carried out with slurry, a solution of chicken manure or mineral fertilizers.
- Hilling: 2 times per season after watering or rain: when the bushes reach a height of 14-16 cm and before flowering.
- Reproduction: vegetative - tubers or parts thereof.
- Pests: wireworms, false wireworms, stem and potato nematodes, Colorado beetles, beetles.
- Diseases: phytosporosis, stem rot, rhizoctoniae, macrosporiosis, scab, phomosis, brown spot, cancer, leaf bronzing and others.
Read more about growing potatoes below.
The potato reaches a height of 1 m, its stem is ribbed, bare, and that part of it that is immersed in the ground gives stolons up to 50 cm long, at the ends of which tubers are formed - modified buds consisting of starch cells enclosed in a thin shell of cork fabric. The leaves of the potato are dark green, unpaired, pinnately dissected. The flowers are pink, white, or purple in a corymbose inflorescence at the apex of the stem. The fruit is a poisonous dark green polysperm with a diameter of up to 2 cm, which outwardly resembles a tomato. The green tissue of potatoes contains the alkaloid solanine, which protects potatoes from bacteria and some insects. Under certain conditions, solanine begins to be produced in root crops, so it is dangerous to eat green tubers.
For food and for sale, potatoes are propagated vegetatively - by tubers or parts thereof. Growing potatoes from seeds is justified in the case of a breeding experiment and if you decide to save money, because potato seeds are much cheaper than tubers, and they are easier to store: seeds do not need a cellar. Experienced gardeners, growing varietal potatoes from seeds, thus renew the planting material of the cultivated varieties, which, unlike the old one, does not lend itself to either bacterial or viral attacks. But seed reproduction of potatoes is a difficult process, and not everyone ends up successfully, so we suggest you follow the tried and true path and grow potatoes from tubers.
Planting potatoes in open ground
When to plant
Potatoes are planted in the ground in good weather in late April or early May, when the birch leaves reach the size of a small coin. At the time of planting, the soil should warm up at a depth of 10 cm to about 10 ºC. Before planting potatoes, it is necessary to process the planting material and bring the soil on the site in accordance with the agrotechnical conditions of the species. It is better to select tubers for planting even in the fall, when harvesting. The best planting material is tubers weighing 70-100 g from healthy bushes.
Do not select small potatoes for planting - this endangers the future harvest and contributes to the degeneration of varieties. The potatoes selected for planting are kept in the light so that the tubers turn green: such potatoes are stored longer and better, they do not even care for rodents.
By the end of winter, check the seed potatoes and remove the sprouts that have appeared on it in the dark (you can grow seedlings from them, if you want), and a month and a half before planting, you need to get the seed and place it in a bright place for germination at a temperature of no higher than 12-15 ºC. You can sprinkle it in a single layer on the floor or fold it into boxes sprinkled with wet sawdust or peat. Potatoes are ready for planting if thick sprouts 1-1.5 cm long have formed on the tubers. If the sprouts have reached the desired size before the potatoes can be planted, transfer them to a dark place before planting. Before planting, tubers are treated with a solution of Zircon or Epin to stimulate growth.
If you bought tubers for planting and are not sure of their quality, treat them just in case from infection by placing them in a 1% boric acid solution for 20 minutes, or immerse them in water at a temperature of 40-43 ºC for the same time.
Potatoes are planted in a bright area from north to south. The optimal soil pH for potatoes is 5-5.5 units, although it can grow in acidic soil. Potatoes love medium and light soils - loamy, sandy, sandy loam and black earth. On heavy clay soils, tubers develop poorly due to high density and lack of air, and if there is also high humidity, the plants are affected by rot.
Soil for potatoes is prepared in the fall: it is dug up to a depth of 30 cm, the layer is turned over, weeds are removed and 3 kg of humus and 100 g of wood ash are added to each m².
Then you can plant potatoes
The best precursors for potatoes are beets, cucumbers, cabbage, greens and green manures. Don't plant potatoes where nightshades grew last year - tomatoes, bell peppers, eggplant, and potatoes.
How to plant in the ground
Potatoes are planted in moist soil. Planting depth depends on the composition of the soil: the denser and heavier the soil, the shallower the hole should be. For example, in clay soil, the planting depth should be no more than 4-5 cm, and in sandy loam or sandy soil - 10-12 cm.The method of planting also depends on the composition of the soil: on light soils (sand, sandy loam, loam or black soil), tubers are planted in holes or furrows, and on dense, poorly warmed up moist soils, a ridge planting is used.
With a smooth planting, the tubers are laid out in holes or furrows, having thrown into them the best potato fertilizer - a handful of wood ash. The distance between the holes or tubers in the furrow is about 35 cm, and between the rows - at least 70 cm, so that there is where to take the land for hilling.
On heavy soil, the cultivator cut ridges no more than 12 cm high and about 65 cm wide. Tubers on sandy loam soils are sealed to a depth of 8-10 cm, and on loamy soils - 6-8 cm from the top of the ridge.
Recently, the method of growing potatoes under straw has become popular: the tubers are simply laid out on the surface of the site and covered with a thick layer of straw. As the bushes grow, straw is added. The advantage of this method is that the potatoes grow excellent, clean, and easy to dig, but there are also disadvantages: the straw is too dry, and besides, mice quickly start in it.
Growing potatoes in the open field requires careful maintenance of the crop, and it begins even before germination. In order for tubers sprouting in the ground to be sufficiently supplied with air, the site must be loosened and cleaned of weeds. Until the shoots appear, this can be done with a rake, then, when the potatoes rise, the aisles are loosened after watering or rain, preventing the formation of a crust on the surface. In addition to loosening, watering and weeding, the list of measures for caring for potatoes includes hilling, feeding and treating diseases and pests.
Before budding begins, the potatoes are not watered, but from the beginning of the budding phase, the soil must be kept moist all the time. Before watering the potatoes, make sure that the soil in the area is dry to a depth of 6-8 cm. Moisten the potato field in the evening, pouring 2-3 liters of water under each bush. In dry summers, potatoes have to be watered 3 to 5 times during the growing season. After watering, the soil is loosened
As the potatoes grow, it is necessary to huddle, shoveling the soil from the row spacing under the base of the bushes. As a result, even with a smooth planting method, the potato field looks ridged. Hilling does not allow the bush to fall apart and contributes to the formation of stolons by the plant, which form the crop. Hilling is carried out at least twice a season: the first time, when the bushes grow to 14-16 cm in height, the next time - after 2-3 weeks, before flowering. It is more convenient to carry out this procedure after rain or watering.
Potatoes are fed with slurry or a solution of chicken droppings. If necessary, then apply in the form of a solution and mineral fertilizers. However, before fertilizing potatoes, analyze the composition of the soil, calculate the amount of fertilizer you have already applied to the soil before planting the potato, and try not to disturb the nutritional balance, observing moderation in fertilizing, since an excess of fertilizer will almost certainly worsen the quality of the crop.
When growing potatoes, be prepared for the fact that you will have to face such a problem as the Colorado potato beetle on potatoes, and you should know how to process the potatoes in this case. Of the folk remedies for dealing with an uninvited American guest, the most reliable measures are such as treating the site with sifted wood ash or growing potatoes interspersed with calendula. Beans or beans planted along the perimeter of the potato field protect the potatoes from the beetle.
There is such an ingenious way to deceive the Colorado potato beetle: several tubers are planted in the field in a couple of weeks after planting potatoes, and by the time the first potato shoots appear, the previously planted tubers have already formed bushes, on which beetles will flock like bait. These bushes are removed from the site along with the Colorado beetles. If all these measures failed to prevent the invasion of pests, treat the potatoes with Prestige, Aktara or Confidor.
Pests and diseases
What is the problem with potatoes? Sometimes it is affected by late blight, rhizoctonia, macrosporiosis, scab, cancer, stem rot, phomosis, brown spot and bronze leaves. We offer you a description of the first signs of these diseases so that you can diagnose them in a timely manner:
Rhizoctonia damages the vascular system of the stems and roots of potatoes, which is why tubers begin to form in the axils on the tops. Seedlings weaken, thin out and acquire a reddish color.
When phytosporosis brown spots of various shapes with a light green border appear on the stems and leaves of potatoes; a light bloom with spores of the causative agent of the fungus forms on the underside of the plate.
Stem rot can be determined by wilting of the leaves and shoots of potatoes, dark spots appear on the lower part of the stem, and with the further development of the disease, necrotic spots with a yellow rim are formed on the ground parts.
In case of illness brown spot concentric dark spots appear on the lower leaves, which eventually become covered with a black bloom with fungal spores. The disease develops more actively on rainy hot days.
Scab affects the underground part of the potato, on the surface of the tubers, growing and corking ulcers are formed with the development of the disease.
Macrosporiasis determined by brown concentric spots on the leaves and putrefactive formations with a black bloom on the tubers.
When phomose vague elongated spots with pycnidia appear on the stems, which become discolored over time. After harvesting, dry rot forms on the tubers, covering the surface with spots from 2 to 5 cm in diameter. Sometimes in tubers voids with gray mycelium are formed.
Potato cancer affects all parts of the plant, except for the roots, and is manifested by tissue overgrowth and the formation of growths resembling cauliflower.
Bronze of leaves caused by potassium starvation. Its symptoms are too dark green leaves, which subsequently become covered with necrotic dots and acquire a bronze tint. Most often, the disease affects potatoes growing on sandy and peaty soils.
The development of leaf bronzing can be suspended by feeding potatoes with potassium fertilizers, and the rest of the diseases described by us are caused by various fungi, to combat which it is easiest to use the fungicides Maxim, Skor, Topaz, copper oxychloride and other drugs sold in specialized stores. However, before treating potatoes with a chemical, think about the fact that this trouble could have been avoided if you correctly and conscientiously carried out the pre-sowing treatment of the planting material, followed agrotechnical conditions, observed crop rotation, and carried out care measures on time and conscientiously.
Of the pests, except for the notorious Colorado potato beetle, wireworms are dangerous for potatoes - the larvae of the click beetle, which live in the ground for several years. In order to get rid of them, dig several holes up to 50 cm deep on the site, leave sweet root vegetables (chopped carrots or beets) in them and cover with sheets of metal, wooden or plywood boards. After a couple of days, check the traps, and if you find a cluster of wireworms there, destroy them.
Cleaning and storage
When to dig out potatoes? The main sign that potatoes can be harvested is yellowing and drying of the tops. This usually happens 70-100 days after planting. When in doubt, it is worth removing the potatoes, or it is better to wait a little, dig up a few bushes and see if the tubers are ripe.You should not delay harvesting, because from a long stay in the soil after the wilting of the tops, the weight of the tubers decreases, and their storage capacity deteriorates.
If you have the opportunity, then a couple of weeks before harvesting, mow the tops at a height of 10 cm from the ground and remove them from the site so that pests and pathogens that have accumulated in the tops over the summer do not penetrate the tubers. The harvest of potatoes is carried out on a fine day. You can dig up potatoes with a shovel, a pitchfork with blunt arrows or a walk-behind tractor. Tubers extracted from the ground are left on the field to dry until the end of the harvest, after which they are collected in bags and transferred to a dark place (dry shed) for two weeks. During this time, the potato peel will become denser, and diseases, if any, will have time to manifest themselves. You can keep the potatoes in bags all this time, but if possible, sprinkle them on the floor with a layer of no more than 50 cm.
Two weeks later, the potatoes are sorted, rejecting damaged and diseased root crops, as well as tubers of varieties that do not lie for a long time, after which they lay the potatoes for storage, and the selected seed for next year is left in the light until it acquires a green tint, after which it too dropped into storage. It is best to store potatoes in a dark, dry and cool basement or well-ventilated cellar, well protected from frost and rain.
For storing potatoes, you can use lattice wooden pallets, from which large bins are built - potatoes are poured into them with a layer of no more than 1.5 m, but the lattice bottom and walls do not block air access to the tubers. You can store potatoes in small wooden apple crates, stacked on top of one another.
Better stored potatoes, shifted to rowan leaves. The optimum storage temperature for potatoes is 2-3 ºC with an air humidity of 85-90%. At higher temperatures, potatoes sprout too early and accumulate poisonous solanine, while at lower temperatures they freeze and become sugary sweet.
If you do not have a utility room or is not designed to store potatoes, you can keep the tubers on the balcony by folding them in cloth bags and placing them in wooden containers with ventilation holes. Do not place the container close to a wall or on the floor; leave a gap of 15 cm at the sides and bottom so that air can circulate freely. If severe frosts hit, you can always cover the container with an old carpet or blanket: covered potatoes can withstand frosts down to -15 ºC on the balcony.
Potatoes can be stored in a closet, hallway or living room for no longer than three months.
Types and varieties
For economic purposes, potato varieties are divided into technical ones, in which the starch content is more than 16%, universal, with a starch content of 16 to 18%, fodder, with very large starchy tubers and a high protein content, and table ones, with a high content of vitamin C, protein and in which starch is not less than 18%.
In turn, table varieties of potatoes are divided into four types:
- type A - potatoes are not boiled, with dense pulp;
- type B - slightly boiled, with firm pulp, mealy;
- type C - medium powdery, with soft pulp, very boiled;
- type D - fully boiled potatoes.
Type A is used for salads, types B and C are for fries, mashed potatoes and chips, type D is for mashed potatoes only.
The varieties of potatoes differ in the color of the tubers - white, red, yellow, pink and purple.
According to the ripening period, potato varieties are divided into six groups:
Super early varieties
Which can be harvested 34-40 days after planting, for example:
- Ariel Is a high-yielding table variety with a yellowish skin and tasty creamy pulp. Average tuber weight 170g. After cooking, the potatoes do not darken;
- Riviera - high-yielding variety, capable of bearing fruit twice a season, with light brown, large, smooth oval tubers with yellow flesh of excellent taste;
- Minevra - a high-yielding variety of long-term storage, resistant to scab and cancer, with white tubers and yellow pulp with a rich taste with a starch content of 17.5%;
- Bellarosa - high-yielding drought-resistant unpretentious potato with oval reddish tubers and excellent taste of light yellow pulp. Stores well.
Early potato varieties
Ripening in 50-65 days. The best varieties of early potatoes:
- Impala Is a well-known high-yielding variety with yellow, smooth oval tubers that quickly gain mass. The pulp is firm, light yellow. Up to 13 potatoes can be obtained from a bush;
- Red Scarlett - Dutch variety with a low semi-spreading bush, with large red tubers weighing up to 140 g with light yellow pulp;
- Dnipryanka - a long-stored fruitful variety of Ukrainian selection with yellow oval tubers, a small number of eyes and creamy pulp that does not turn black after cooking. This variety can produce two harvests per season;
- Rosalind - a high-yielding variety with reddish tubers, yellow flesh, shallow eyes. The average tuber weight is 100 g, the starch content is 17%.
Medium early potato varieties
It takes 65 to 80 days to ripen. Popular varieties of medium early potatoes:
- Sineglazka - unpretentious high-yielding variety with gray tubers, lilac eyes and white pulp of excellent taste;
- Fun - a high-yielding variety of Ukrainian selection with medium-sized tubers with pink skin and tasty white pulp with a reduced starch content. The weight of one tuber is about 120 g;
- Mriya - a high-yielding variety, resistant to rot, cancer and other diseases, with a taste similar to Sineglazka. The tubers are pink, the flesh is light yellow, tasty, the starch content is high;
- Nevsky - a variety with white oval roots with a blunt top and reddish eyes, white flesh, not darkening in the cut. The starch content is low - 11%. Tuber weight up to 130 g.
Mid-season potato varieties
Requiring 80 to 95 days for full maturity:
- Picasso - a prolific Dutch variety that does not require frequent watering with white tubers with red spots and creamy flesh. One bush can produce up to 17 tubers;
- Santa - a fruitful, unpretentious table variety with large, smooth oval yellow roots in small eyes and tasty creamy pulp with a low starch content;
- Peter's riddle - a high-yield, long-stored variety with a pink skin and creamy pink flesh of excellent taste.
Medium late varieties of potatoes for the winter
Ripening from 95 to 110 days:
- Desiree - high-yielding, long-term storage drought-resistant variety with red tubers and yellow flesh of excellent taste with a starch content of 21.5%;
- Kuroda - resistant to diseases and does not darken after cooking, a Dutch selection with reddish oval tubers and yellow flesh with a high starch content - up to 21%;
- Zdabytak - one of the best varieties of this group of Belarusian selection with oblong yellow tubers and yellow pulp with starch content up to 25%. One bush forms up to 22 tubers.
Late varieties of potatoes
They need to ripen from 110 days or more:
- Orbit - resistant to scab and viruses, round tubers with a yellow skin and white flesh of good taste with a starch content of up to 19%;
- Zarnitsa - a variety resistant to scab, late blight and viruses with red-violet tubers and yellow pulp of low starchiness;
- Cardial - disease-resistant, long-term, high-yielding drought-resistant variety with elongated red tubers with superficial eyes and light yellow flesh of good taste.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Solanaceae
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
Sections: Garden plants Solanaceous plants on K Root crops Potatoes
Sowing parsnip, or meadow, or ordinary (Pastinaca sativa) is a perennial herb, a species of the Parsnip genus of the Umbrella family. Parsnip is an extraordinary vegetable perennial with a fragrant and tasty white fruit, very similar to ordinary carrots. The homeland of this unusual vegetable is considered to be the Mediterranean.
Parsnip is very useful, it contains many useful substances, vitamins, macro- and microelements. minerals necessary for the normal development of the human body. It is about this vegetable that will be discussed in more detail in this article. About the rules of growing and caring for parsnips. How and when to harvest, store the crop and what it can be used for.
It is necessary to plant a daikon in a seedling way, which has rounded fruits, since varieties with a long root crop do not tolerate picking and transplanting well. The best time to plant white radish seeds for seedlings is the second half of March and early April. Daikon seeds need pre-planting preparation. To begin with, they must be immersed in fifty-degree water for twenty minutes, then in cold water for the same time. After this procedure, the seeds should be placed in the refrigerator for a day.
The best soil for planting is a mixture of peat and humus. You need to plant 2-3 seeds in one pot, after they ascend, choose the strongest of them, and pinch the rest at the root, so that they do not waste useful substances and do not interfere with each other's growth and development. You need to deepen the seeds into the soil a couple of centimeters. After planting, the soil should be watered abundantly and the pots should be covered with plastic wrap to create a greenhouse effect and placed in a warm, well-lit room. Then, before sprouting, it is necessary to ventilate the soil daily by removing the film for about 15 minutes.
Water the seedlings regularly. After each watering, the soil should be gently loosened. It is necessary to ensure that the daylight hours at the daikon do not last too long, as this can affect the roots. Before planting in open ground, it is necessary to fill up the seedlings, for this you need to take out the pots to fresh air, gradually increasing the time spent outside. This will help the daikon seedlings to be transplanted outdoors more easily.
Features of growing vegetable physalis
Ornamental physalis ordinary propagates by seeds and rhizomes, it is enough to plant it once and it will grow for many years. But the plant is very aggressive, so you need to constantly weed out excess seedlings or bury the restraints. In all other respects, planting and caring for it are similar to vegetable physalis.
- Seed preparation
- Land preparation
- Sowing in a seedless way
- Growing seedlings, terms
- Landing in open ground, care
- Ripening, harvesting
1. Seed preparation
Physalis has small seeds, therefore, in order to choose the best ones, you need to pour them into a glass with a 5% salt solution and stir. We remove those that float, and the best seeds that have settled to the bottom are washed and dried. They are ready for sowing.
If you want your seeds to germinate faster, see How to speed up seed germination for a variety of ways.
It is also good to hold the seeds a little in pink potassium permanganate before sowing.
2. Preparing the ground
The seedling soil should be light, fertile. Dig up the earth in the garden two weeks before planting seedlings with the addition of humus and ash. No need to add fresh manure!
Choose a bright, sunny place. Physalis does not like shadow and lowlands! As well as acidic soils.
The best precursors can be cabbage or cucumbers. In second place are any other cultures.
You can not plant after eggplant, tomatoes, peppers, potatoes, physalis itself, as they suffer from the same diseases.
3. Sowing in a seedless way
Physalis vegetable is not afraid of the cold and reproduces well by self-seeding. Therefore, it can be safely sown before winter or in early spring in open ground. In this case, the seedlings turn out to be stronger, healthier, harder than home, but the beginning of fruiting is postponed until later. Therefore, if you want to get an early harvest, then you need to use the seedling method.
5. Growing physalis through seedlings terms
It grows quickly, the age of ready seedlings for planting in the ground is 30 days. Therefore, we plan to sow seedlings in early April, in order to plant them in the garden in the second half of May. These are temporary recommendations for the South Urals and the Middle Belt. Naturally, you need to look at your weather. Vegetable physalis can be planted two weeks earlier than tomatoes, here's another guideline for determining the date of planting in open ground. But strawberry physalis is best planted with tomatoes, it loves warmth.
Growing physalis seedlings is similar to sowing tomato seedlings. You can first sow seeds in a small container and open them when two real leaves appear. Or sow seeds shallowly in separate cups at once to reduce damage to the root system during transplantation. Water abundantly, but infrequently.
Seedlings can be sown in a greenhouse or under a film on the beds. In any case, the seedlings need to be hardened, taken out into the street, gradually accustoming them to the sun. Young plants can get burned if they are abruptly moved from indoors to the sun. At air temperatures above 13 ° C, you can leave the seedlings outside overnight.
Top dressing of seedlings and planted plants is carried out every three weeks with a solution of mullein (1 in 10) or bird droppings (1 in 20). Water with fertilizer under the root so as not to burn the leaves.
6. Landing in open ground, leaving
About 30 days after germination, the plants will have 5-6 leaves and are ready to be planted in open ground. Physalis strongly branches and grows, so you need to plant it in a checkerboard pattern with a distance of 50 cm between the rows and plants. If the variety is tall, then you need to tie it to a support.
When planting, physalis is watered abundantly and then watered in dry weather. Mulch the planting and you will do many procedures much less often - loosening, weeding, watering. When pouring the fruits, it is better to stop watering so that they do not crack.
7. Maturation, harvesting
The lower fruits ripen first. They may start to fall to the ground.
It's okay, collect them and recycle them!
Unripe fruits are well stored and ripen at home. But for long-term storage (4-5 months) they are removed to the cellar with a temperature of + 2 + 3 ° C, laid out in boxes in two or three layers.
Collected for storage until frost in dry weather and always with a cover. Then an intact wax coating remains on the fruits, thanks to which they are stored for so long. Physalis ripeness depends on the specific feature of the variety. Some are painted yellow or lilac, the cap may be larger than the fruit or burst when growing, but when it becomes dryish and brightens, the physalis has ripened.
I suggest watching a video about the cultivation of decorative physalis - "Chinese lanterns".
These are the features of growing vegetable physalis and its other species, as well as planting and caring for it.
Preparation of squash seeds
To get friendly shoots of squash, it is better to buy seed material in a store or trading companies licensed to sell seeds.
When self-harvesting squash seeds, they must be prepared for sowing:
- Disinfect for 15-20 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate. Rinse and dry.
- After 2-3 days, to increase germination, treat the seeds in a solution of boric acid (20 mg / 1 l of oxen). Withstand - 24 hours, rinse, dry.
- Before sowing, soak in water so that the seeds of the squash swell or hatch. Dry seeds can also be sown.
Remember! For sowing, only the seeds of squash 2 - 3 years ago are used.The seeds should be well dried. Underdried, raw seeds form male flowers.
Cleaning and storing daikon
Different varieties of daikon take different time to ripen:
- early varieties can be harvested at the end of spring
- mid-season - harvested in summer
- late - ripen by the beginning of autumn.
The main thing is that the roots do not freeze, so the latest harvest time is usually in October. Choose a day without precipitation so that the roots can be easier to pull out of the ground. If you still can't get the root crop, use a shovel or pitchfork.
How to store the crop? Be sure to rinse, dry and cut the tops from the vegetables. Put the daikon in prepared boxes with sand so that the fruits do not come into contact with each other. Place the boxes in a basement or any other cool place with a stable temperature from 0 to +5 ºC. Under such conditions, root crops are stored for several months.
How, Consider how to properly care for potatoes. To comply with this, the main agrotechnical methods are:
- Loosening. Before the first emergence of shoots, this is done 2-3 times to ensure normal air exchange. Further loosening after watering is carried out.
- Weeding. In beds with young plants, weeds are constantly removed. When they are bushes, they will grow up to cope with them on their own.
- It. Hilling is an obligatory stage in growing potatoes, allowing a rich harvest. The soil is raised 6 cm 3 season at a time. For the first time, the bushes are spud when they reach 15 cm, then 2-3 weeks before the buds appear and as the potatoes grow up to 20-25 cm in height.
- Watering. In dry planting, summer is moistened 1 time in 2 weeks. For 1 bush of water, up to 3 liters are consumed. Watering is not necessary during the rainy season.
the soil is mulched when planting or in the fall.
Pests and diseases
Basic preventive measures:
- observance of crop rotation rules
- treatment of the culture after cold snaps with antifungal agents ("Fitosporin", disinfection with a light pink solution)
- potassium permanganate soil, planting material and garden compliance
- watering mode tool
- timely introduction of Potatoes.
feeding affects a number of diseases. common Most of them:
- Late blight. On the tubers, or hard gray spots appear, which are spread throughout the plant throughout. Leaves wilt and turn black.
- PotatoAre characteristic. cancer discoloration and swelling on tubers and ground bush parts. Later, dark growths are formed.
- spot dry... The greens are covered with dark brown spots, which soon dry out in spots. Alternaria appears in the leaves.
- holes. The tubers are covered with rounded depressed leaves, and spots with black formations.
- Infectious wilting. group These are diseases in which the terrestrial bush part withers. Brown brown spots or spots appear on the tubers.
Fungicides are used against fungal diseases listed above. Viral infections are not important.
are being treated! It is more difficult to cure potatoes than other plants, since the disease affects which tubers are in the ground.
Harm to culture and Colorado:
- insects beetles. They eat potato greens. pests are removed by hand. Spreading leaves or ash with special preparations ("Barrier") helps.
- Wireworms. larvae These are click beetles that eat For. tubers of prevention soil are watered with boiling water by planting in front of vegetables, create a slightly acidic environment.
- Similar. Leafhoppers on aphids, feed on the sap of the leaves of the field. In potato lesions are formed dry brown Against. insect stains use chemicals (Karate, "for example Zeon").
- Potato flea... Adults infect individuals with greens, and larvae - the root system. This leads to wilting of the bush. To combat planting pests, spray with 0.2% phosphamide.