Sunflower husk, meal and cake - how sunflower waste is used

 Sunflower husk, meal and cake - how sunflower waste is used

Sunflowers are valued not only for the kernels that are used to make vegetable oil, but also by-products formed during the processing of seeds are widely used: baskets, meal, cake, sunflower husks.

Sunflower husk use options

That is why the production of sunflower oil is profitable because it is waste-free. From the seeds of modern high-oil varieties and hybrids of sunflower, it is possible to obtain at least 60-70% of edible oil with excellent taste, saturated with vitamins E, A, D, K, and about 35% of the so-called returnable waste, which provide additional profit to agriculture.

The husk is separated during the preparation of sunflower seeds for oil extraction during the hulling process, the meal - during the extraction of oil by extraction, and cake is formed if the oil is obtained by pressing. This sunflower waste, due to its high protein and vitamin content, is considered one of the most valuable and relatively cheap feed for farm animals. Thus, the use of sunflower waste for fattening pigs can effectively increase the productivity of animals and at the same time reduce the consumption of nutrients.

The husk is separated during the preparation of sunflower seeds for oil extraction during the dehulling process

When separating sunflower kernels at oil presses, a large amount of husk is formed - about 14% of the total amount of seeds. It is costly and difficult to dispose of it in such volumes. Fortunately, there are now several options for the profitable disposal of sunflower husks:

  • it is used as a raw material in the production of furfural, fodder yeast and ethyl alcohol;
  • added in crushed form to roughage in animal husbandry;
  • used in horticulture as an organic fertilizer for loosening and improving the soil;
  • sunflower husks are of great benefit when growing mushrooms;
  • decorative heat and sound insulation boards are made from it;
  • used for biogas production.

Sunflower husk fuel video

In addition, granular fuel is produced from sunflower husk, which is convenient for storage and transportation, as well as environmental friendliness. The fact is that when burning sunflower husks, no more carbon dioxide is emitted than during natural decomposition of wood, and a negligible amount of harmful emissions is formed. The ash left after burning is quite suitable for plant fertilization. There have even appeared special boilers of domestic production, which use sunflower husks as fuel.

Valuable animal feed - sunflower meal and cake

Obtained from the extraction of oil from seeds by extraction, sunflower meal It is widely used in animal husbandry in pure form or as a useful high-protein supplement in the manufacture of compound feed for pigs, cattle, poultry, fish, etc. Sunflower meal is produced with husk (content up to 16%) and without it.

Sunflower meal contains up to 35% of high-quality protein, which in its properties is not inferior to proteins of animal origin, but it is much easier to digest. The fat in the meal after processing remains about 1-2%, but vitamins, useful minerals, fiber and important amino acids are preserved, which have a beneficial effect on the development of young animals. It is an excellent source of B vitamins and vitamin E.

Sunflower meal contains up to 35% of high-quality protein, which in its properties is not inferior to proteins of animal origin

One of the significant advantages of sunflower meal is that it is resistant to mitotoxin attack, which minimizes the risk of damage to other feeds.

IN sunflower meal after pressing the oil, more fat remains than in the meal - up to 7%, and about the same amount of easily digestible protein (about 30%). In terms of protein quality, cake is much superior to cereal grains. Due to the high energy and nutritional value of sunflower cake, its introduction into the diet of farm animals has a beneficial effect on their development and productivity. Birds increase egg production, young animals improve growth and strengthen the immune system, improve metabolism.

Video about the production of technical meal

As a valuable high-protein supplement to mixed feed, other concentrated feed or in pure form, sunflower meal can be used in the daily diet of any animal species. However, if the cake contains more than 14% sunflower husk, it is not recommended to add it to the feed for calves up to 6 months old and piglets up to 4 months old.

Granulated sunflower meal

Sunflower cake and meal are sold mainly in briquettes.


Mushrooms in the house are asthma

At exhibitions for gardeners and gardeners, many noticed plastic bags with a substrate seeded with oyster mushroom mycelium. The bag needs to be pierced in the middle with a sharpened stick, put in a basin with a little water, make several cuts on the sides of the bag, and you can pick mushrooms, observing their growth and development. Useful and interesting! But how safe is home mushroom growing?

At exhibitions for gardeners and gardeners, many noticed plastic bags with a substrate seeded with oyster mushroom mycelium. The bag needs to be pierced in the middle with a sharpened stick, put in a basin with a little water, make several cuts on the sides of the bag, and you can pick mushrooms, observing their growth and development. Useful and interesting! But how safe is home mushroom growing?

Many methods have been developed for growing oyster mushrooms both in the open field as a perennial crop on wood cuts and stumps, and in greenhouses on substrate blocks. The methods of growing it in the open field are simple, cheap, convenient for owners of summer cottages, have been tested by many mushroom growers, and they allow growing mushrooms without large material and labor costs. In the 90s, amateurs began to grow oyster mushrooms in city apartments (in kitchens, balconies, loggias, in bathrooms and living rooms) or in country houses on verandas and in cellars. However, special studies carried out in our country and abroad have shown that in the process of cultivating oyster mushrooms in residential premises, the living and recreation conditions of people deteriorate.

The starting materials for the preparation of mushroom substrates (straw chops, sawdust, sunflower husks, flax flax, bran, etc.) contain a lot of dust and are a source of spores of various microorganisms, including molds. Some of them, entering the human body through the upper respiratory tract, can cause disease. The most susceptible to them are children and people with weakened immunity.

The intensive growth of mycelium is associated with a high rate of metabolic processes and is accompanied by the release of gaseous products of the fungus's vital activity into the environment. If the room is small and insufficiently ventilated, then the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air increases to 2-3% (instead of the usual 0.03% in the atmospheric air), volatile compounds accumulate, causing a stifling specific odor. These compounds are volatile fatty acids, acetaldehyde, acetone, low molecular weight alcohols and their oxidation products. The accumulation of these compounds in indoor air makes breathing difficult and adversely affects the well-being of people.

Microclimate and mosquitoes

Oyster mushroom is capable of bearing fruit in a fairly wide range of temperatures and humidity, but the highest quality fruiting bodies are obtained at high relative humidity (85-90%), low temperatures (14-16 ° C) and sufficient ventilation. Such conditions can be created and maintained only in non-residential premises, since the optimal microclimate parameters for residential premises have completely different values: temperature 22-24 ° C and relative humidity 45-55%. In short, oyster mushroom is good where it is cool and damp, and for a person - where it is warm and dry.

On mushroom substrates and fruit bodies, especially due to their waterlogging, mushroom mosquitoes often settle. These small insects have two pairs of wings, their body length does not exceed 4-6 mm. They are highly fertile and are well adapted for a rapid increase in abundance on substrate blocks when growing oyster mushrooms. The larvae of mushroom gnats feed on mycelium, gnaw at the bases of the fruiting bodies and thereby harm the mushroom harvest. Adult flying individuals scatter throughout the room and create inconvenience for people, as they get into the mouth, nose, and eyes. It is difficult to deal with them. Of non-chemical means of protection, adhesive tapes are used.

Allergen spores

During the growth of mushrooms on the underside of the fruiting bodies, a large number of oyster mushroom spores mature. With insufficient ventilation of the room, they accumulate in the air in the form of fog and gradually settle on the surface of objects in the form of a light gray spore powder. When it enters the respiratory tract, spores cause allergic reactions, which are most often expressed in coughing, lacrimation, runny nose, and sometimes lead to an increase in temperature. Long-term daily stay in rooms with a high content of oyster mushroom spores can lead to the development of chronic diseases, up to asthma.


Sunflower waste - husk, cake, husk, etc. - garden and vegetable garden

Choice of research topic.

Currently, much attention is paid to the issue of processing waste from large factories. But in our city there is also a plant for the production of sunflower oil, from the activities of which waste remains. We asked dad, is it true, when do they make sunflower oil waste remains? Which ones? And how can they be used? Dad replied that he had to go to the factory and ask (Figure 1).

Figure 1 - A trip to the oil extraction plant of the city of Kumertau

We talked with the deputy director of the plant and learned that the waste of sunflower processing is husk, cake, and meal. Oilcake and meal are valuable feed for animals, especially poultry. They burn the husk to obtain heat energy, and they have ash left behind. But where can you use sunflower ash? We would like to find an answer to this question.

Relevance of the research topic.

The topic of this project is relevant, since the plant produces 4 tons of ash per day, and taking into account the fact that the plant has continuous production, this is 1,460 tons per year. Accordingly, you need to know where the ash can be used. Since this is the recycling of industrial waste, which helps to free the territory from blockages.

The purpose of the research work- to study the directions of ash use.

Research objectives:

1) Study additional literature, Internet sites and determine what types of ash exist

2) Study the composition of ash and its elements

3) Make recommendations for the use of ash

4) Make an analysis of the work performed and summarize the result.

We assumed that sunflower ash can be used in various spheres of life.

Object of study:sunflower ash, which is a waste product during the combustion of sunflower husk at the oil extraction plant of the Kumertau city.

Subject of study:properties of sunflower ash oil extraction plant GO Kumertau.

Research methods:

The research methods used in the work can be divided into empirical and theoretical.

Theoretical methods include:

Empirical methods include:

- questionnaire survey (do they know about the beneficial properties of ash as fertilizer)

Information sources:

- Results of polls and conversations.

1 Theoretical aspects of the study of sunflower ash

1.1 Characteristics of the operation of the oil extraction plant GO Kumertau

Mayachny MEZ is part of the Sigma group of companies. Sigma was registered in 1991 as a manufacturing and trading company. September 28, 2017 in the village of Mayachny, g. Kumertau, Republic of Bashkortostan, the grand opening of the Mayach Oil Extraction Plant took place. The volume of sunflower oil produced by Mayachny MEZ will amount to 14,000 tons of sunflower oil per month.

1.2 Characteristics and types of ash

Ash is a non-combustible residue, consisting of a mixture of mineral salts, and is obtained by burning plant matter or coal mass. During the combustion of organic matter, wood, straw, their nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon are converted into volatile compounds (carbon dioxide, water, etc.) with the assistance of atmospheric oxygen. Mineral substances, as non-combustible, remain, undergoing only some decomposition, so mineral bases, combined in plants with organic acids.

Sunflower ash. Ash obtained by burning plants. This ash contains 30% potassium, 15% calcium, another 8% phosphorus and a great variety of different trace elements. Ash obtained by burning sunflower or dry buckwheat straw is also rich in potassium.

Plant ash. It is obtained by burning the leaves of trees, dry grass.

Wood ash. It is obtained by burning solid wood species. Particular attention should be paid to birch logs - the ash after them is the most useful. It is rich in calcium, potassium and phosphorus.

Coal ash. The ash obtained after burning coal is not rich in potassium and phosphorus, but it contains a large percentage of silicon oxide. If you want to properly loosen wet clay soil, use this type of ash.

Table 1 shows the physical properties of sunflower ash.

Table 1 - Physical properties of sunflower ash

Soft, loose, no viscosity

Sunflower ash will effectively and quickly reduce the acidity of the soil if it needs liming. Therefore, sunflower ash is used as an alkaline fertilizer.

2 Practical aspects of the study of sunflower ash

2.1 Sociological online survey of the population

Purpose - find out what the population knows about sunflower ash.

To achieve this goal, we conducted an online survey both among residents of the city of Kumertau and residents of neighboring districts and cities (Figure 2).

Link to the online survey: https://www.survio.com/survey/d/Y3R1N9M5S6D9R7U4J

Figure 2 - Dialog box of the online questionnaire

112 people took part in the survey.

The results of the survey are presented in Figure 3.

Figure 3 - Results of the population survey

Output: 112 people took part in the survey, 94 people know about sunflower ash, 18 people do not. Ash is used by 24 people, 17 people are used as fertilizer, 5 people are used as protection against aphids, 2 people are replacing sand in the manufacture of foam blocks.

2.2 Sociological survey of classmates and parents

Purpose - find out what classmates and our parents know about sunflower ash.

To achieve this goal, we conducted a survey among the students of the 2nd "G" class MBOU Gymnasium № 1 named after N.T. Antoshkin GO Kumertau, only 24 students, and among their parents (Figure 4).

Figure 4 - Interviewing students of the 2nd "D" class and parents

Figure 5 shows the results of a survey of parents and classmates. Only 10 people.

Figure 5 - Results of a survey of parents and relatives

Output: Our classmates know nothing about sunflower ash and where it can be used. Parents and relatives are aware of ash and suggest that it can be used as fertilizer.

2.3 Determination of the chemical composition of sunflower ash

purpose - find out the chemical composition of sunflower ash.

At the beginning of the research, we decided to find out what chemical elements the sunflower ash contains. And for this we went to the chemical laboratory and talked with the candidate of chemical sciences Sharipova Svetlana Gaizullovna (Figure 7).

Figure 7 - Chemical laboratory

Chemical composition of sunflower ash:

calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) - 17% sodium chloride (NaCl) - 0.5% calcium silicate (CaSiO 3) - 16.5% sodium orthophosphate (NaPO 4) - 15% magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4) - 4% magnesium carbonate (MgCO 3) - 4% potassium orthophosphate (K 3 PO 4) - 13%

calcium chloride (CaCl 2) - 12% magnesium silicate (MgSiO 3) - 4% calcium sulfate (CaSO 4) - 14%.

Output. Sunflower ash is an organic waste that is obtained as a result of burning sunflower husk and contains useful trace elements such as: calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium. There is no chlorine in sunflower ash.

2.4 Study of scientific and special literature on the properties of ash

purpose - study special and scientific literature to identify ways to use ash

After studying the literature on gardening and going to the chemical laboratory, we realized that ash can be used as fertilizer (Figure 8).

Figure 8 - Study of special literature

Ash hinders the development of root and foliar rot, pathogens. As a fertilizer, it does not contain chlorine. It is excellently used for feeding agricultural crops that are sensitive to chlorine. The form of potassium in ash is contained in the form of potash (potassium carbonate) and is highly soluble in water. Helps microorganisms in the process of decomposition of organic substances, turning them into readily available substances. Possesses the property of aftereffect, the duration of such an effect on mineral soils is 2-2.5 years, and on peat soils - up to 4 years.

Simultaneously with the enrichment of the soil and a decrease in its acidity, ash improves its structure, contributes to its loosening, creates a favorable soil microflora, which has a beneficial effect on the health of plants, their survival rate, productivity, and decorative qualities. Sunflower ash is applied to almost all vegetable crops, fruit bushes and trees, flowers, greenhouse and ornamental plants. Most often, this is done directly into the holes or grooves during sowing.

Ash application methods are presented in table 2.

Table 2 - Methods for introducing sunflower ash

Output: Ash can be used as fertilizer and protection against plant pests, but ash application as fertilizer is not possible for all types of soils, but only for acidic soils.

2.5 Experiment to determine the acidity of the soil for the introduction of sunflower ash as fertilizer

purpose - to determine the acidity of the soil of the Kuyurgazinsky district, the Kugarchinsky district, the Fedorovsky district and the city of Kumertau for the possibility of introducing sunflower ash into it as a fertilizer.

After studying the scientific literature, we found out that sunflower ash as an organic fertilizer is not suitable for all types of soil, but only for acidic soil.

The most common way to measure soil acidity is litmus paper. It can be purchased at a store that sells chemicals. This is a yellow-colored strip that has a scale with divisions of various colors.

For the experiment, we took soil samples from the areas of the Kuyurgazinsky, Kugarchinsky, Fedorovsky districts and the city of Kumertau and added small amounts of distilled water to them. (10 g of soil per 25 g of water), shaken thoroughly and allowed to settle.

Figure 9 - Conducting an experiment to determine the acidity of the soil

The indicator (litmus test) was impregnated with the solution that we got.

Acidity indicators can be determined using the following scale, shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10 - The scale for determining soil acidity and the results of the experiment

Municipal District Kuyurgazinsky District - pink stripe, medium acid soil.

GO Kumertau - pink strip, medium acid soil.

Municipal District Fedorovsky District - pink stripe, medium acid soil.

Municipal District Kugarchinsky District - pink stripe, medium acid soil.

It is recommended to apply ash as fertilizer when acidity values ​​are less than 6. Thus, ash can be fertilized in the soil from all regions that participated in the experiment. But it must be borne in mind that the level of soil acidity may be different in different parts of the garden. Weeds can help with this. If certain types of weeds grow in certain areas of the garden, then one copy must be taken from them, as this indicates a different acidity of the soil. If the same weeds grow throughout the site, the acidity of the soil is the same throughout the site.

2.6 Experiment on the use of sunflower ash as fertilizer in the cultivation of cucumbers

purpose - to find out whether the introduction of sunflower ash has a beneficial effect on the yield of cucumbers.

We conducted an experiment in the garden of my grandmother in the Kuyurgazinsky district (the village of Ermolaevo). For the experiment, we used a variety of salad cucumbers. We sowed 2 cucumbers in the same garden on May 2. One seed was without fertilization, and the second we covered with ash (a tablespoon).

As a fertilizer, sunflower ash was added before digging the beds and before sowing for one seed. To draw moisture to the seeds, we slightly compacted each seed. We took care of the sowing: two-time thinning, loosening, weed control, the introduction of sunflower ash (Figure 11).

Figure 11 - Top dressing of salad cucumbers with sunflower ash

The harvest took place on July 9th. The experimental results confirmed our assumptions. The cucumber, which we fertilized with ash, grew long and very tasty (Figure 12).

Figure 12 - Harvesting salad cucumbers

Output. We performed our work in order to study the effect of the introduction of sunflower ash on the yield of cucumbers, but we can also conclude that with the help of fertilization of sunflower ash, the harvest is better and significantly different in taste.

2.7 Experiment on the use of sunflower ash as fertilizer for growing indoor flowers

purpose - to find out whether the introduction of sunflower ash has a beneficial effect on the growth of indoor flowers, protects against pests.

We also performed the same experiment with indoor plants. We placed two violets on the windowsill, one of which we fertilized with ash, and the other not. We also fed a room rose with ash. The result was visible after a few months (Figure 13).

Figure 13 - Top dressing of indoor plants with sunflower ash

Output: Flowers that we fed with ash grow better than flowers without feeding. The flowers are brighter, they are not tormented by pests.

2.8 Preparation of a lubricant for cutting trees based on garden varnish and sunflower ash

Our grandmother mixes sunflower ash with garden varnish to heal tree cuts. In the spring, dad cuts the apple trees, and so that the wound heals faster and there is no infection, we treated the incision site with a solution with our ash (Figure 14).

Figure 14 - The use of sunflower ash as part of a lubricant for tree cuts

2.9 Preparation of an ash bath for poultry

Ash baths are intended for bathing chickens and treating them from pests (ticks, downy eaters, etc.). For filling the ash baths, river or quarry sand and ash are used. For baths, it is not recommended to use fresh ash, because of the substances it contains, harmful to the chicken's body, since chickens can peck ash when bathing. To reduce the impact of hazardous substances on the body, the ash is kept in a dry room for at least 3 months (Figure 15).

Figure 15 - Ash bath for poultry

The ash bath is installed in the hen house, and in the spring-summer period and on the walking area, in a place protected from precipitation.

2.10 An experiment on the use of sunflower ash as an anti-slip agent on a winter road

Purpose - to check whether it is really possible to use sunflower ash on a slippery winter road instead of sand and salt.

To achieve the goal, we conducted an experiment. They took sunflower ash, poured it on a slippery sidewalk along M. Gorky Street 12. After 15 minutes, walked along the sidewalk. The sidewalk does not slip at all (Figure 16).

Figure 16 - The use of ash as an anti-slip agent on a winter road

Output: Ash works like sand. Previously, in the villages, rolls were sprinkled like that. On ash-strewn places and in the spring sun, it begins to melt faster.

2.11 The use of sunflower ash in the manufacture of foam concrete

The main difference between foam concrete and standard concrete can be considered a porous structure, lightness. The composition of foam concrete plays an important role in obtaining a breathable, waterproof, lightweight material. Sunflower ash can partially or completely replace sand in foam concrete, about thirty percent of the cement is saved. Thermal and moisture treatment can increase the strength of ash-based foam blocks. A friend of my dad from the village of Chishmy uses sunflower ash as a binder in the manufacture of foam concrete.

2.12 Manufacture of lye and soap based on sunflower ash

Purpose - find out whether it is really possible to get a natural detergent from sunflower ash.

We poured two-thirds of the ashes into a glass jar and poured hot water (or cold water). Stirred, large particles and debris were removed from above with a sieve. Left for 3 days. A clear liquid, soapy to the touch, has collected in the upper half of the dish. This is lye. It will last for a long time, since it should be diluted 1 to 10 for dishwashing and washing (Figure 18).

Figure 17 - Process for the manufacture and use of liquor

We also made soap on the basis of lye. For this we needed lye and fat. All this was mixed and cooked for at least 8 hours, stirring constantly. First came liquid soap, and then we added salt. All the dirt floated to the surface, and the soap separated. The result is the so-called sound soap. We caught him and put him in shape. We have added useful ingredients: glycerin and Lavender essential oil.

Output: Sunflower ash can be used to make a natural detergent. They can be washed not only by hand, but also poured into the washing machine.

2.13 Development of booklets on the use of sunflower ash

Having studied the main properties of sunflower ash, we have developed recommendations for the main directions of its use. The booklet is presented in Appendix A. Also in Appendix B, basic recipes for the manufacture of fertilizers from sunflower ash are presented.

2.14 Experiment on the use of sunflower ash in art

Purpose - find out if it is possible to use sunflower ash as a material for creativity.

We took ash and tried to make crafts and a drawing out of it (Figure 18).

Figure 18 - Crafts and drawing from ash

Output:Ashes can be made into crafts using glue, paper, and sunflower ash.

2.15 The use of sunflower ash in medicine

Purpose - find out if sunflower ash can be used in medicine.

We were also interested in whether it is possible to use sunflower ash in medicine. In order to make sure whether it is really possible to use sunflower ash in medicine, we talked with a specialist, head of the children's polyclinic in our city, Manakova Valeria Evgenievna. (figure 19)

Figure 19 - Conversation with the head of the children's polyclinic of the city of Kumertau

During the conversation, we found out that in medicine ash is used in the manufacture of dental materials, skin ointments, but only wood. We talked with my grandmother and found out that in folk medicine any ash is used in the treatment of eczema

Output: Z olu is used in medicine, but only wood. Any ash is used in folk medicine.

2.16 Secondary survey of classmates and relatives

Purpose - to find out whether our study helped classmates and relatives to find out what sunflower ash is and where it can be used.

At the end of our study, we conducted a second survey of classmates and parents to find out if they now know what sunflower ash is and where it can be used (Figure 20).

Figure 20 - Secondary survey of classmates

Output: A repeated survey showed that all classmates and relatives after our research know what sunflower ash is and where it can be used.

3 Prospective directions of the project development

For the further development of the project, it is proposed:

1) Creation of an enterprise for the production of organic fertilizers and sunflower ash and offer this to the investors of our city

2) Study of the properties of ash from the point of view of its use in medicine

3) Study of the activities of other enterprises of the city of Kumertau, in order to identify waste from their activities and directions of use.

3.2 Creation of an enterprise for the production of fertilizer from sunflower ash LLC "FarmHelper"

purpose - to provide the consumer with high-quality, environmentally friendly fertilizers.

Relevance: The production of organic fertilizers in our country is the right and necessary type of activity. Our fields are depleted and polluted with mineral fertilizers and pesticides. The yield falls every year. In this situation, waste from processing sunflower and wood, as natural organic fertilizers with unique properties, can help. This is not a panacea. This is only part of the package.

In the course of research work, the hypothesis put forward was confirmed.

Sunflower ash can really be used in various areas of our lives. Sunflower ash is not an unnecessary waste of the production of the oil extraction plant of the city of Kumertau, but a valuable assistant in the economy.

Based on the results of the research work, the following conclusions can be drawn:

1) Ash is an incombustible residue consisting of a mixture of mineral salts, and is obtained by burning plant matter or coal mass.

2) Chemical and mineral-phase compositions, structure and properties of ash depend on the composition of the mineral part of the fuel, its calorific value, combustion mode, the method of capturing and removing them, and the place of extraction from dumps.

3) The use of ash from the oil extraction plant of GO Kumertau solves two problems at once. This is the destruction of waste, not littering the territory of the city with them and offering residents a unique organic harmless product as a fertilizer, detergent, means for construction, creativity and protection from icing.

List of sources used

1 Official website of the Mayan Oil and Gas Plant LLC "Elevator" [Electronic resource] –– Access mode: http: //mayachny.rf

2 Ganichkin A.S., Tips for gardeners / A.S. Ganichkin, O.V. Ganichkin, M .: Onyx Publishing House, 2008.-608 p.

3 Kizima G.N. The newest encyclopedia of the gardener and gardener / G.N. Kizima, M .: - AST, 2014 .-- 576 p. ISBN: 978-5-17-083595-9

4 Trannoy P.N., Encyclopedia of an inventive gardener / P.N. Trannoy, M .: - Eksmo, 2010 - 480 p.

5 Timeyko L.V. Agrochemical analysis of soil / Textbook. Petrozavodsk, 2016 - 38 p.

6 Official website of the Garden Garden company [Electronic resource] –– Access mode: https://dim-sad-gorod.com/publications/zola-podsolnechnika-ee-svojstva-i-primenenie/

7 Site of gardeners and truck farmers "6 acres" [Electronic resource] - Access mode: https://6cotok.org/1385566548622052311/101-sposob-ispolzovaniya-zoly-v-domashnem-hozyajstve/

Booklet on the rules and directions for the use of sunflower ash

Rules for applying ash as fertilizer

The beneficial substances contained in the ash are actively dissolved in water, so it is better to fertilize the soil not in the fall, but in the spring. Ash can be brought in in the fall only on clayey heavy soils, from which it is almost not washed out by melt water. Ash is brought in when digging a site, scattering 100-200 gr.per each square meter, and buried at a depth of at least 8 cm - this prevents the formation of a soil crust.

For reference: 1 glass ≈ 100 grams of ash.

It is more expedient to apply fertilizer not during continuous digging, but directly into the planting holes. You can fall asleep in cucumber holes in a tablespoon, in tomato and potato holes - 3 tablespoons each. When planting berry bushes, up to 3 glasses of ash are poured into the planting pit.

How to properly feed plants with ash?

After burning wood or plants, the ash is collected and stored in a dry place in a wooden box with a tight sealed lid. Plastic bags for storing ash are not suitable as moisture condenses in them.

How much ash is contained in different containers:

Ash is used in dry and liquid form. In the first case, the ash is simply embedded in the soil as fertilizer, and in the second, ash infusions and solutions are prepared from it.

Pest and disease control:

Ash has been used as a fungicide and insecticide for centuries. To combat diseases and plant pests, it can be used in three ways: to apply to the soil, powder the slices of plants, pollinate the surface of the soil and plants. It is convenient to pollinate plants with ash through a metal kitchen sieve with large cells. Eyes, hands and respiratory organs must be protected, since work in this case is carried out with an alkaline substance that can corrode the skin and mucous membranes. In order for the fly ash to hold well, the leaves must be moist, so the plants are pollinated either early in the morning, before the dew has melted, or they are pre-watered.

How to prepare ash solution

In order not to harm the plants, but to help them develop correctly, you need to know how to dilute ash for feeding. This is not at all difficult to do: 1 glass of ash should be stirred in a bucket (10 L) of water. Plants are usually watered with this liquid at the root instead of industrial mineral fertilizer. Before use, the resulting solution must be thoroughly shaken out, as a precipitate forms in it.


Sunflower waste - husk, cake, husk, etc. - garden and vegetable garden

I came across this opinion on the net! what will the practitioners say to this?
1) the husk layer grows with mycelium after the first rain.
2) it rains for a day, and under the husk layer the earth remains dry and compacted. Only watering or heavy and prolonged rain can wet it
3) Further, you need to keep in mind that a layer of mulch in the spring pushes back the heating of the garden for at least a week. I do not know in what latitude your dacha is, the further north, the more relevant this issue is. And if straw, leaves can be raked into the aisles in spring, then with husk it is somewhat more problematic to do it. If mulch is mixed with earth, then the straw, leaves over the winter, I think, will still rot. And here is the husk. Even after three years without applying a nitrogen source, it remains unchanged.
four) . With daily watering, my peppers dried up in the heat. The soil under the husk remained dry.
5) We use it not only for compost, for paths between beds.

6) low availability for decomposition by soil microorganisms. To them
includes wastes from post-harvest processing of agricultural crops, for example, the husk of sunflower seeds and buckwheat

7) If we talk about the ash obtained after burning sunflower husks, then it has absolutely

a different composition and cannot be used in the same way as wood ash.

8) Now about the seeds. The husk of sunflower seeds is poisonous, inhibits the growth of any plant, so it cannot be littered even in the garden.

9) About the sunflower, in particular, the site na-zemle.ru section "restoring agriculture". And here is the opinion of the chemists of the Irkutsk Institute: the composition of the sunflower husk fraction is close to humic substances of technical lignins and humic acids of peat, but differs from them in a lower content of aromatic fragments and a high content of alkoxy fragments.

Well, now you can beat me with sticks if I'm wrong.

I came across this opinion on the net! what will the practitioners say to this?
1) the husk layer grows with mycelium after the first rain.
2) it rains for a day, and under the husk layer the earth remains dry and compacted. Only watering or heavy and prolonged rain can wet it
3) Further, you need to keep in mind that a layer of mulch in the spring pushes back the heating of the garden for at least a week. I do not know in what latitude your dacha is, the further north, the more relevant this issue is. And if straw, leaves can be raked into the aisles in spring, then with husk it is somewhat more problematic to do it. If mulch is mixed with earth, then the straw, leaves over the winter, I think, will still rot. And here is the husk. Even after three years without applying a nitrogen source, it remains unchanged.
four) . With daily watering, my peppers dried up in the heat. The soil under the husk remained dry.
5) We use it not only for compost, for paths between beds.

6) low availability for decomposition by soil microorganisms. To them
includes wastes from post-harvest processing of agricultural crops, for example, the husk of sunflower seeds and buckwheat

7) If we talk about the ash obtained after burning sunflower husks, then it has absolutely

a different composition and cannot be used in the same way as wood ash.

8) Now about the seeds. The husk of sunflower seeds is poisonous, inhibits the growth of any plant, so it cannot be littered even in the garden.

9) About the sunflower, in particular, the site na-zemle.ru section "restoring agriculture". And here is the opinion of the chemists of the Irkutsk Institute: the composition of the sunflower husk fraction is close to humic substances of technical lignins and humic acids of peat, but differs from them in a lower content of aromatic fragments and a high content of alkoxy fragments.

Well, now you can beat me with sticks if I'm wrong.


Economic value and application [edit | edit code]

Annual sunflower is the most famous and widespread type of sunflower.

In the 2010s, the sunflower cultivation center concentrated on the Black Sea region (Ukraine and southern Russia). In 2014, the world production of sunflower seeds amounted to 41.4 million tons, while Ukraine and Russia accounted for 18.6 million tons (45% of the total world production) [11]. In both countries, the upward trend in harvest volumes continues; in 2016, the harvest in Ukraine amounted to a record 13.6 million tons [12], and in Russia - also a record 11.01 million tons [13].

The total heat demand of sunflower, depending on the duration of the growing season, is different, for short-ripening varieties and hybrids, the sum of active temperatures is 1850, for early-ripening - 2000, for mid-ripening - 2150. The average yield of annual sunflower seeds is 10 c / ha (1 t / ha or 100 t / km²). The maximum yield is 45 c / ha (4.5 t / ha or 450 t / km²) [14].

Even the Indians used ground sunflower seeds, crushed sunflower seeds were an exquisite dish. There is even evidence of Indian production of sunflower oil. The oil was used in baking and even, possibly, as a cosmetic agent for lubricating the skin and hair. The Indians also extracted purple dye from sunflower [15].

Annual sunflower is grown practically all over the world. First of all, for the production of sunflower oil from seeds, which is then used for cooking and for technical needs. By hydrogenation of sunflower oil, salomas are obtained, which are further used in the production of margarine or soap. The oil is also used in the paint and varnish industry.

In Russia, even before the invention of the production of sunflower oil, sunflower seeds were used as a national delicacy - sunflower seeds consumed raw and fried. In addition, they are added to confectionery, salads, and sunflower kozinaki are made. Ground sunflower seeds are the main component of sunflower halva.

In Ukraine, the North Caucasus, in a number of regions of the Chernozem zone, the Lower Volga region, Siberia and Kazakhstan, it is the most important melliferous crop, which provides the main honey collection, as well as replenishment of pollen reserves in the nests of bee colonies. Honey from the nectar of blooming sunflower is golden-yellow in color, sometimes with a greenish tinge, has a weak aroma and a somewhat tart taste. It crystallizes in small grains and becomes light amber. Depending on weather conditions and agricultural techniques of crops, the honey content ranges from 13 kg per hectare in Bashkortostan to 25 kg in the Voronezh region, and the sugar content of nectar ranges from 45% to 79%. According to other sources, honey productivity is 40-50 kg / ha. A distinctive feature of nectar is an insignificant amount (3-4%) and even complete absence of sucrose. Honey bees collect pollen from annual sunflower flowers [7] [7] [16] [17].

The oilseed sunflower is also used as a medicinal plant: a tincture is prepared from dry leaves and marginal flowers to increase appetite. In folk medicine, the infusion of the marginal reeds of flowers is used as an antipyretic. Sunflower oil is not only a valuable food product, but also an important remedy. It is used externally for rubbing sore joints, and internally taken as a mild and mild laxative. In the past, fresh oilseeds were recommended for allergies, bronchitis and malaria [18].

Wastes from the production of sunflower oil (cake and meal) are used as a high-protein feed for livestock. The cake is also used for making halva. The protein-rich green mass of tall varieties is used for silage and haylage. Livestock willingly eats threshed baskets, chaff and silage from plants harvested during flowering.

Sunflower stalks serve as raw materials for fiber and paper. In treeless areas, they are also used for fuel. Sunflower husk is used for the production of biofuel - fuel briquettes. Potash is extracted from the ash from the burning of the stalks, which is used in soap making, the production of refractory and crystal glass, during dyeing and as a potash fertilizer. The sunflower is sown as a curtain plant for trapping snow in fields [15].

It is less known that sunflower is a rubbery plant. Cultivars have been created that release latex from stem incisions in significant quantities. Rubbers produced on its basis are hypoallergenic compared to natural and synthetic rubbers [18].

There are decorative varieties of oilseed sunflower with multi-colored and double flowers.

Sunflower

Annual sunflower. General view of a group of flowering plants
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryotes
Kingdom: Plants
Subkingdom: Green plants
The Department: Flowering
Class: Dicotyledons [1]
Superorder: Asteranae
Order: Astrocolor
Family: Astrovye
Subfamily: Astrovye
Tribe: Sunflower
Genus: Sunflower
International scientific name

Sunflower (lat.Helianthus) is a genus of plants of the Astrov family (Asteraceae).


Areas of application of processed rice husk products

There are a variety of methods for using rice hulls. For example, in stores there are fuel briquettes for barbecues, grills, barbecues, heating boilers, fireplaces and wood stoves. Such a solid fuel is created on the basis of rice husks, has good heat transfer and low ash content.

Recycled rice husk is applied:

  • in the field of agriculture as fertilizer
  • in metallurgy as a heat-insulating backfill
  • in the fuel industry as a material for achieving high burnup rates
  • in the chemical industry in the production of dyes, protective coatings, abrasives and lubricants
  • as a filler for car tires - they have excellent grip on wet and dry asphalt, reduce carbon dioxide emissions, reduce noise and fuel costs
  • in the manufacture of paper, cermets, artificial leather, etc.
  • as a sorbent for water purification from oil and oil pollution
  • in the manufacture of heat and sound insulation materials
  • in the production of concrete - has a low cost and is stronger than conventional artificial building material
  • in the agricultural industry - the husk, which has undergone high temperature and pressure processing, allows you to replace the usual soil and is repeatedly used for sowing one crop.

Pure silicon is obtained from rice huskswhich is used in modern technology. It is much cheaper than extracting it from other sources with more costly processing methods.

In the future, it is possible to use the obtained raw materials in perfumery, metallurgical, pharmaceutical and electronic industries.

Rice husk can be used in the production of building materials (blocks, slabs). Its use in the fuel industry will reduce emissions into the environment and introduce renewable energy sources into circulation.

Use in the garden as fertilizer

Some summer residents use rice hulls to increase yields on your land plot:

  1. They add it to the compost, which maintains the optimal moisture level of the organic fertilizer.
  2. They are introduced into heavy clay soil due to the fact that it rotates for a long time. The earth loosens immediately and for a long time. If you do this regularly, the soil will become more structured, soft and fertile over time.
  3. The husks are burned to obtain potassium-rich ash. It is used to increase soil fertility and for plant nutrition.
  4. They are used for planting vegetables (peas, tomatoes, eggplants, cabbage, potatoes, peppers, etc.), seedlings of fruit trees and bushes.
  5. Used as a nutrient medium for microorganisms when growing seedlings. In such a soil, shoots of fruit and berry crops are well strengthened by roots.
  6. Used for greenhouse cultivation of plants, mushrooms, flower fertilization.
  7. Rice husks are scattered in a dense layer of 15 cm over the surface of the land plot before planting and set on fire. This is not easy to do, since the husk is highly flammable. The resulting ash is buried in the upper layers of the soil using a shovel or rake.

For maximum effect from rice flower scales do not mix it with other organic or mineral fertilizers.

Rice husks as mulch

It is difficult to grow a decent crop without mulch. Plants hardly tolerate a lack of moisture, the soil dries quickly, and a dense crust forms on the surface.

Rice husk mulch solves such problems:

  • improves the chemical composition of the soil
  • protects against weeds and slugs
  • prevents moisture loss
  • reduces the amount of watering
  • removes excess nitrogen
  • retains useful properties in the soil for 3-5 years
  • reduces the accumulation of salts in the soil.

Rice husks serve as mulch for a long time, since weeds cannot break through it, and pests do not get to the roots for wintering. It is distributed over the surface of the earth in an even layer.

Important! It takes a lot of water to moisten the soil under the mulch. The liquid hardly seeps through the dense layer of husk, but at the same time, the husk is easily washed out under the strong pressure of water.


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Watch the video: Improvement in Food Resources. 9th Biology Term 2 Lesson 1 Part 2. Spice Media