It belongs to the genus of maple and can also be called the plane maple or the plane-leaved maple. It can grow up to 30 meters in height and has a dense, rounded-wide crown. It has large leaves up to 18 centimeters in diameter with five lobes that end in sharp lobes. The leaves are attached to the branches with long cuttings. Usually they have a light green color, but with the onset of autumn they can take on different colors: red, brown, burgundy and other shades.
Norway maple begins to bloom in the month of May before the leaves bloom and continues to bloom for 10 days. By the time the flowering ceases, the maple can complete the process of emergence of leaves. Norway maple belongs to dioecious plants, and therefore male and female flowers are on different trees. It bears fruit annually and abundantly. Seed ripening occurs in August-September and can remain on the tree until spring. Begins to bear fruit only at the seventeenth year of life.
Propagation of the common maple occurs by seeds, grafts and young shoots formed in the region of the root system. It grows very rapidly in the first three years after planting. It quickly takes root when transplanting, easily tolerates frosty winters, is resistant to winds, and feels very good in the shade. It does not take root on stony soils and salt marshes, it prefers moisture-containing fertile lands.
Feels good in urban conditions, and therefore in Russia it is the main tree species for landscaping streets and creating parks. It is planted both in individual specimens and in groups in the form of whole alleys. Norway maple can be found in deciduous and mixed forests, practically throughout Europe, in the North Caucasus and on the southern borders of the taiga.
Norway maple is affected by pathogenic fungi, coral spot, maple whitefly, fungal disease and weevil. When the first two parasites are affected, to prevent further spread of the disease, simply remove the affected branches with leaves. With whitefly and weevil lesions, the tree can be treated with chlorophos. To combat fungal diseases (powdery mildew), a mixture of ground sulfur with lime in a 2: 1 ratio is used.
Varieties of Norway maple
This common maple has several varieties that differ from each other by the type of crown, their height, color and shape of the leaves, and other features.
Maple white-leaved Globozum
It is a small tree about 6 meters high and has a dense spherical crown that does not require pruning. It grows slowly, frosty, windy and shade-resistant. Grows in wet and fertile soils. Little is affected by pests and diseases. It grows well and develops favorably with constant feeding. Very well suited for landscaping streets and areas around residential buildings.
Norway Maple Royal Red
This deciduous tree reaches a height of 12 meters with a wide-pyramidal tight crown. They differ in the presence of a trunk with a dark gray bark. It has large leaves with 5-7 blades of bright red color with a transition to a shiny burgundy, and with the onset of autumn, the colors fade. Simultaneously with the appearance of the leaves, the smallest yellow flowers begin to bloom. This type of maple tolerates shading well, but prefers places where there is enough light. Does not like a lot of moisture and does not tolerate its lack. It enjoys great popularity among amateur gardeners, thanks to its decorative crown. It tolerates urban conditions well. The main pest at the moment is powdery mildew. Maple propagates by grafting.
Drummond Norway Maple
Has an oval dense crown. It grows up to 20 meters in height. Green, finger-like leaves, with a white border, when opened, become the color of strawberries, and by autumn the leaves turn yellow. Young shoots are light golden-green in color. It blooms with yellow-green rounded flat flowers. Drummond maple grows well and develops in moist, fertile soils. Sometimes leaves appear on the branches without edging. Such leaves must be removed immediately, and if there are a lot of them on the branch, then the entire branch is completely removed. In addition, pruning of maple is usually done after the final blooming of the leaves, because during this period the wounds heal quickly and the tree loses a small proportion of the sap.
Leaves begin to fall in mid-September. Propagated mainly by vaccinations. They are used for the formation of living barriers, the formation of alleys and the design of parks and squares. Lush crown and multi-colored leaves determine its decorative value.
Norway Maple Crimson King
It has an unusual color of leaves, a dense crown and can grow up to 20 meters in height. The leaves, almost black in color, retain their color throughout the season, and by autumn they take on a purple hue. The yellow-orange blossoms create a certain contrast against the background of the blossoming leaves, which makes the Crimson King maple very attractive. It grows very quickly and is not averse to growing on any soil, feels good in illuminated and semi-shaded areas. Gives the garden plots originality and sophistication.
Uses of the bark and leaves of Norway maple
In folk medicine, leaves and bark are very widely exploited. With diarrhea, decoctions are made from the bark and taken orally, in addition, the bark has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. Leaves are able to relieve heat, strengthen the tone of the body. Decoctions are also made from maple leaves, which help with diseases of the bladder. Norway maple can be safely attributed to melliferous plants. One hectare of Norway maple is capable of producing up to 200 kg of light honey, with excellent taste. Honey improves immunity, calms the nervous system, has antiviral and antibacterial properties.
In the recent past, its leaves were used as a dye for wool. Various furniture, souvenirs and handicrafts are made from maple wood. Whole parks, alleys and gardens are planted with them.
Nurseries for ornamental trees and shrubs
Ornamental nurseries are the main base for the production of planting material for landscaping cities and towns. They are specialized - they grow only ornamental trees and shrubs, and mixed, where, in addition, they grow fruit and flower crops.
The structure of the nursery, its production and financial activities for the next 15-20 years are determined by a specially developed organizational and economic plan.
The main production departments of the nursery are as follows.
1. The uterine department provides the nursery with the source material (seeds, cuttings, layering, offspring) and includes utero-seed and uterine-cuttings plots, layering plantations, arboretum, protective strips.
2. The breeding department (breeder), consists of a sowing department for growing seedlings and rootstocks and a vegetative propagation department for rooting green and lignified cuttings.
3. The department of formation (school of seedlings), is intended for the cultivation of ornamental shrubs and trees.
4. Department of floriculture and department of fruit crops are created in mixed nurseries. They are designed for growing flower seedlings and standard fruit seedlings.
5. Household department, includes a farmstead with buildings, meadows, roads, reservoirs, inconvenient land.
Departments, fields, quarters, windbreaks of the road and all sorts of premises are placed on the basis of the developed project of the nursery territory. The project also provides for land reclamation and irrigation.
The territory for the nursery should have a flat relief or a slight slope (2-3 °). In the north, the best slopes are southern, in the south - northern, northwestern and northeastern, in the middle zone - southwestern and southeastern. It is necessary to provide protection from the wind by natural or artificial plantings. The site must be provided with water in the required quantities (without excessive moisture). The best soils are structural, deep, fertile, free from perennial weeds. Cultivated medium and light loams or sandy loams of sod-podzolic, forest-steppe, chernozem, chestnut, brown and sierozem soils with a loose subsoil are favorable.
To preserve soil fertility and obtain high quality planting material, crop rotations are used in the nursery fields. The number of fields in a crop rotation is set depending on the period of growing planting material and the time required to restore soil fertility and destroy weeds.
The seeds are harvested from healthy, well-developed trees and shrubs to ensure the production of high quality planting material. It is better to use seeds of local origin, obtained primarily from the plantings of the uterine section. Seeds of tree and shrub species are harvested during their full maturity, except for small-leaved linden, common ash, Siberian hawthorn, rose hips (their seeds are difficult to germinate and give a higher germination rate when sown in an immature state).
The collected material is dried and cleaned from impurities. The seeds of juicy fruits are freed from the pulp immediately after collection, preventing them from self-heating during storage. Seeds in pods and capsules are threshed and freed from impurities. These works are carried out manually (small batches of seeds) or with the help of special machines and devices.
Seeds are stored in bags, boxes, hermetically sealed glassware in a special room with a relative humidity of 50-60% and a temperature of 0-5 ° C.
For sowing, seeds of a certain condition are used in accordance with GOST, which is determined by their purity and viability. Seed purity is the ratio of the mass of seeds that are high-grade in appearance to their total mass, expressed as a percentage. Viability, or germination, of seeds is the ratio of the number of germinated seeds to the total number of externally high-grade seeds in the sample, expressed as a percentage. Standard norms for seed quality by species have been established. Seeds that do not meet these requirements are discarded.
Easy-growing seeds (birch, elm, yellow acacia, spruce) give amicable shoots during spring or autumn sowing. Hard-to-germinate seeds require a special preparation called stratification, which accelerates the preparation of seeds for germination by exposing them to low positive temperatures and a humid environment with sufficient air. The breeds with a long period of stratification (1 year) include hawthorn, irga, linden, wild rose, snowberry, with a shorter duration (3-6 months) - euonymus, white grass, mountain ash, Maaki bird cherry.
Sowing is carried out in carefully and in advance prepared soil. In the fall, seeds are sown over a well-treated fallow. For spring crops, soil preparation includes: winter plowing, spring deep moldboard-free loosening, pre-planting harrowing. Some breeds (yellow acacia, elm, Tatar honeysuckle) sprout better when sown immediately after harvest. Birch, larch, chubushnik, golden currant can be sown in the snow.
Depending on the soil and climatic conditions, the size of the nursery, the degree of its mechanization, sowing is carried out on raised beds (bed sowing) or on a flat surface (bedless sowing). The width of the ridges is 1 m, the length is 10-20 m, the distance between the ridges is 0.4-0.5 m. The ridges are made manually or with the help of a plow, a hiller, or a bed-maker. The surface of the ridges is carefully leveled.
Row-less sowing is used in large nurseries. It can be almost completely mechanized.
Various sowing schemes are used: single-line - with a distance between lines (rows) of 45 cm and multi-line, or tape, consisting of two to four rows in a tape, with distances between them 20-25 cm and between tapes 60-70 or 50-80 cm ...
Seeds are sown in open ground or in film greenhouses, which are now widely used in advanced farms. The method of growing seedlings with a closed root system is effective, for which they use peat, peat cellulose, or polyethylene pots, cells with a nutrient substrate, as well as peat briquettes.
The sowing depth depends on the size of the seeds, the texture and moisture content of the soil. The smaller the seeds, the finer the embedding.
Very small seeds (birch, alder) are sown on the surface and sprinkled with peat or humus on top, small (pine, honeysuckle) - are sealed to a depth of 0.5-1.5 cm, medium (linden, maple, apple) - by 2-4 cm, large (oak, chestnut) - up to 10 cm.On heavy soils, the sowing depth is reduced by 1-3 cm.The sowing rate is set depending on the breed, size, economic suitability and field germination of seeds, as well as on the sowing pattern and percentage of waste when growing.
Crop care includes thorough cultivation (loosening) of the soil, systematic control of weeds (timely weeding), diseases and pests, watering and feeding of plants. Weeding and loosening are carried out as weeds appear and the soil is compacted 4-5 times during the summer in the first and 3-4 times in the second year of cultivation. Shading and thinning of seedlings are important activities for the care of seedlings. For shading, draped or twig shields with gaps are used. They are installed during the period of emergence in sunny weather from the southern side of the ridge at an angle of 45 ° for 20-30 days.
With thickened crops during the formation of one or two true leaves, the seedlings are thinned out, leaving 50-140 seedlings per 1 m, depending on the breed and the timing of cultivation.
Watering is carried out as the soil dries, maintaining its moisture content at a level of at least 75%. In the first half of the growing season, the plants are fed 2-3 times with an interval of 2-3 weeks. For top dressing, slurry, bird droppings and mineral fertilizers (urea, ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, potassium chloride) are used: the first time 20 kg of nitrogen are introduced, the second and third - 30 kg of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (according to the active ingredient). The first feeding is carried out when the seedlings reach 8-10 cm in height.
When growing rootstocks or seedlings of especially valuable species or when there is a lack of seeds, a pick is carried out. It consists in transplanting seedlings over long distances with preliminary pinching of the taproot. Instead of picking, you can use root pruning at the place where the seedlings grow at a depth of 10-12 cm with special knives.
Vegetative propagation is used in the cultivation of roses, lilacs, chubushnik, various garden forms of trees and shrubs that do not preserve certain characteristics and properties of their parents in the seed offspring. There are several methods of vegetative propagation: cuttings, layering, root suckers, dividing the bushes and grafting.
Reproduction by green cuttings. To obtain cuttings, growing shoots of the current year with leaves are used, in the phase of intensive and dying growth. In the middle lane, green cuttings mainly occur in June and July. Roses, some varieties of lilacs, chubushnik, action, forsythia, golden and alpine currants, spiraea, weigella, hydrangea and many other ornamental shrubs and trees reproduce well in this way.
Propagation by lignified cuttings. This is the easiest way of vegetative propagation for easily rooting breeds.Lignified cuttings reproduce most poplars, willows, some types of spirea and chubushnik. Well-ripened annual shoots are used for cuttings. Shoots are harvested in autumn (October - November) or in spring (March - April) and stored in a snow pile, basement in wet sand or a refrigerator at a temperature of - 2 ° C before planting. 2-3 weeks before planting, the shoots are cut into cuttings with four to six buds, tied in bundles of 100 pcs. and put in the basement in the sand with the top down, which stimulates the formation of callus and roots and delays the awakening of the kidneys. For some breeds, pre-planting keeping of cuttings in water for 3-5 days has a positive value. Cuttings are planted in a school or breeding department. Hard-to-root breeds are planted on ridges under a film or in greenhouses.
Propagation by root cuttings. This method is based on the ability of some species to form adventitious buds and additional roots (white poplar) on the roots. It is used less often.
Reproduction by layering. In practice, propagation is used by horizontal and vertical layering. In the first case, last year's shoots of uterine bushes in early spring are laid out in grooves in the radial direction or in the direction of the rows, fixed with wooden hooks and covered with earth with a layer of 1-2 cm.As they grow, the shoots are spud several times (by 1/3 of the height). Rooted shoots in the fall or early spring of next year are separated from the mother liquor, cut into pieces according to the number of young shoots with roots and planted in school.
When propagating by vertical layering, the uterine bushes are cut to a stump 1-2 years after planting. When the formed growth reaches a height of 15-20 cm, it is covered with loose earth at half the height of the shoots 2-3 times with an interval of 2-3 weeks. In the fall or early spring, the layers are dug up and transplanted to school.
Seedlings and rooted cuttings, depending on the breed, are grown for 1-3 years, then they are transplanted to the nursery school. The material dug out in the breeding department is sorted in accordance with established standards and added temporarily - until planting in the same season (temporary fill) or for a long time - until the spring of next year (permanent fill). Ornamental plants are propagated by grafting in the same way as fruit crops.
Siberian fir possesses high decorative qualities: narrow cone-shaped slender crown, bright green color of needles, purple spring color of young cones. The height of the tree is up to 30 m, the diameter of the trunk is up to 0.5 m. The breed is shade-tolerant, frost-resistant. Grows best on loamy, humus-rich, moderately moist soils. Very sensitive to air pollution with soot and gases. Life expectancy is 150-200 years. In the early years, it is most effective in the form of tapeworms and small groups against the background of the lawn.
Fir monochromatic exclusively decorative. It has many forms according to the nature of growth and color of needles (columnar, spherical, weeping, silvery, golden, etc.). Resistant to urban conditions, frost-resistant enough.
Spruce. About 10 species of spruce are widespread in the USSR, many of them are of great economic importance and are widely used in gardening and park construction.
Most of the spruce species are characterized by moderate growth, shade tolerance, and moisture demand. Common spruce, prickly, gray, Engelman, Siberian spruce are of the greatest interest for green building.
Norway spruce is widespread in the European part of the USSR. Trees reach 25-50 m in height, have a straight trunk, with reddish-brown or gray bark, cone-shaped, dense crown, shiny dark green needles. The breed is of medium durability, reaches the age of 250-300 years, is demanding on humidity and air purity. Poorly tolerates dryness and pollution with dust, soot and gases. In urban areas, it can only be used in parks and gardens, far from industrial plants and from the roadway with heavy traffic.
The main method of reproduction is by seeds. Garden forms can be propagated by grafting, cuttings or layering.
Of greatest interest in ornamental gardening are the following garden forms of common spruce: blue, silver, serpentine, weeping, straight, hanging, conical, low, creeping.
Colorado spruce is widespread in the USSR. Trees up to 30 m tall, conical crown shape, with horizontally located branches. The needles are very dense, from silvery to green. Among conifers, prickly spruce is the most resistant to soot, dust and gases. The breed is quite frost-resistant, tolerates dry air, high summer temperatures, and is relatively undemanding to soil conditions. Therefore, it is widely used for urban greening.
Propagated by seeds, some forms by grafting. The most valuable decorative forms: according to the color of the needles - blue, silver, dark green in the shape of the crown - Koster (weeping, with a bluish color of the needles).
Larch. A valuable economic and decorative breed. It is widely used in gardening construction due to frost resistance, unpretentiousness to soil, gas and smoke resistance.
14 wild and introduced species grow in the USSR. The most widespread are European, Siberian and Daurian larch. All larches reproduce by seeds.
European larch is widespread in the middle and southern parts of the forest zone of the European part of the RSFSR, in Ukraine, in the Baltic states. The breed is fast-growing, durable. Trees reach a height of 25-30 m. At a young age, they have a wide-pyramidal crown shape, in the old - irregular, with a curved top. The openwork of the crown, light green spring-summer and golden autumn colors of the needles create a special decorative effect.
The most decorative forms: columnar, weeping, compact. The breed requires fertile, moderately moist soil. Drought intolerant and suffers from waterlogging. Resistant to urban conditions.
Siberian larch is widespread in the northeast of the European part of the USSR and in the western part of Siberia. The breed is fast growing, reaches a height of 35-40 m, can grow up to 400-500 years. More frost-hardy and drought-resistant than European larch. It is not very demanding on soil fertility, but grows better on fresh soils. Resistant to urban conditions. There are decorative forms - with a pyramidal and weeping crown shape.
Daurian larch is even more frost-resistant than Siberian larch, it endures the climatic conditions of the Far North. Unpretentious to soils, tolerates arid and excessively moist conditions.
Pine. Evergreen trees or shrubs with a broad-pyramidal or rounded crown. Most species are frost-hardy and drought-resistant. Distributed mainly in the cold and temperate climates of the northern hemisphere. It is very sensitive to air pollution from dust and gases, which limits its use in urban landscaping.
Siberian pine, Weymouth, Rumeliya, Banksa pine are more widely used in landscaping.
Thuja. Evergreen trees or shrubs, widely used in landscaping, as they tolerate air pollution from smoke and gases better than other conifers. There are frost-resistant and drought-resistant species. Propagated by seeds, semi-lignified cuttings, grafting.
Thuja western is of the greatest importance for landscape gardening. This is a tree up to 20 m tall or a shrub. It is widely distributed in the USSR throughout the European part, in the forest-steppe regions of the Asian part and in the Far East.
The shape of the crown is pyramidal, in summer the needles are green, shiny, in winter they are dark, brownish-green. The breed is slow-growing, shade-tolerant, quite frost-resistant, drought-resistant. It is undemanding to soils, but prefers fresh loamy and gray sandy soils.
The most decorative forms: columnar, compact, Wagner's, weeping, spherical, heather-shaped, golden.
In landscape gardening, they are used in group plantings, small alleys, hedges, and also as tapeworms on parterre lawns, flower beds, and the foreground of park lawns.
Juniper. Evergreen shrubs or trees up to 15 m in height, with scaly or needle-shaped needles of dark green color, with a different crown shape - from pyramidal (common juniper, Virginia) to creeping (Cossack juniper). The breed is frost-resistant, undemanding to the soil. Poorly tolerates air pollution by smoke, soot, hence its limited use in landscaping. Propagated by seeds, cuttings, layering, grafting.
Common juniper, Virginian and Cossack juniper are most widely used in landscaping. The common juniper in the USSR is widespread in the forest and forest-steppe zones of the European part, in the southern part of Siberia to the steppes. Juniper Virginia and Cossack are common in the steppe regions of the European part of the RSFSR, in the Crimea, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
I wanted to buy the Drummondi Norway maple as soon as I saw it. The chic carved crown and colorful leaves are so beautiful. True, I did not immediately manage to find this handsome man. And now there are no longer any problems with the purchase, since many garden centers offer Drummondi maple seedlings of different sizes. In addition, it began to be widely used in city landscaping.
I try to buy small seedlings. They tolerate transplants better, and at the price it is more profitable. I bought my maple at the Gardener on Taininsky.
I had to go around more than one garden center in search of the right seedling. The complexity of the purchase was that I needed a small seedling and, moreover, grafted from below or self-rooted. I also came across either large-sized or plants grafted onto a stem.
The stamp form looks beautiful, but for our region there is a danger of freezing of the grafting site and the death of the scion. In addition, the stem itself grows only in thickness.
If the grafting is at the base, then under the snow cover the probability of freezing is reduced. The self-rooted form is also good.
Norway maple is also called the sycamore maple because of the similarity of the leaves with the sycamore tree. The leaves are huge, five-lobed. Their shape is beautiful in itself, and together with an unusual color, the leaf looks even better and more elegant.
Drummondi maple leaves are very beautiful and large with cream edging. Moreover, the young barely blossoming leaves are slightly pinkish. Due to the color of the leaves, the crown seems to be carved.
Maple grows well and actively adds mass to the bank. An adult tree, I hope it will be large, according to official data, the Drummondi maple can grow 10-20 meters. Taking this into account, I chose a place for planting outside the fence, but so that the crown could be clearly seen from the summer cottage in the future.
In the first year, the maple bloomed with small yellowish flowers, and then lionfish fruits appeared. This year I tried to plant some seeds, let's see what happens. In general, this maple is propagated mainly by cuttings and grafts.
The variegated maple can be planted both in the sun and in the shade, the variegated color is not lost from this. But sometimes the shoots that appear with the usual monochromatic color of the leaves must be cut out.
My maple is not sick and looks great, but the trees that I see in the city often have dry leaf tips.
In mid-September, the leaves turn yellow, then fall off.
The Drummondi maple hibernates well, but sometimes individual young shoots can freeze.
Maple Drummondi is a beautiful and unpretentious plant. I recommend!
Saplings are grown in schools of shrubs and woody plants.
As a rule, nurseries organize one school of shrubs with a 2-3-year growing period. In some cases, the cultivation period is lengthened or a second school of shrubs is organized.
Autumn planting of shrubs to school is carried out on a prepared black pair. Steam preparation includes 2-fold plowing of the soil: in spring with plowing of fertilizers and in late summer and early autumn. During the summer, several harrows are carried out (for loosening, leveling the soil, preventing moisture loss) and cultivation (for loosening the soil and controlling weeds).
Spring planting is carried out by autumn plowing and deep pre-planting cultivation without seam turnover. The plowing depth in schools is 30-35 cm. On deep soils, plowing is carried out with a plow with skimmers, on soils with a small arable layer - with a soil deepener. The main fertilizers are applied under the fall or under the plowing of steam. Slowly decomposing organic (manure) and hardly soluble mineral (phosphate rock) fertilizers are best applied under the plow. Fertilization dose: manure 20-100 tons per 1 ha, nitrogen 40-60 kg, potash 25-50 kg, phosphoric 80-120 kg of active ingredient per 1 ha. On acidic soils (pH below 5-5.5) liming is carried out.
The rate of planting of plants in the first school of the nursery is 40-60 thousand per 1 hectare with a planting scheme of 0.8-1x0.2-0.3 m.Sometimes they use a compacted 2-5-row belt planting with distances between the belts of 0.6-1 m, between lines 0.25-0.45 m, in rows 0.15-0.3 m. Healthy seedlings are selected for planting. The root system is shortened by 1 / 4-1 / 3 of the length, the aerial one - by 1 / 2-1 / 3 part. Before planting, the roots are dipped in a clay mash with the addition of mullein. Seedlings are usually planted at the nursery school using a tree planting machine.
Caring for transplanted plants consists in loosening the soil, destroying weeds, feeding, watering, forming seedlings and fighting pests and diseases.
In the first year, four to five are carried out, in the second - three or four, in the third - two or three loosening of row spacings and weeding. The depth of loosening, depending on soil contamination, weather conditions, is 6-10 cm. Plants are usually fed from the second year of cultivation: the first time in early spring, the second - in the middle of summer. The average rate of fertilization at top dressing is 1 centner per 1 hectare. Watering at the school of shrubs is carried out at planting and in the future as needed.
In the fall, after planting, to prevent squeezing and freezing, the plants are hilled with the help of hillers and cultivators. In the second year after planting, they begin to form. In most cases, deciduous shrubs are formed in bush form.
The first pruning is carried out in autumn or spring before sap flow begins at a height of 5-8 cm from the root collar. In the second year, pruning is repeated. The work is carried out manually or with the help of a horse or tractor mower.
Deciduous tree school
The deciduous tree school consists of a fast growing school with a 4-5 year old and a slow growing school with a 6-10 year growing period.
The fast-growing species include poplar, white acacia, birch, green ash, ash-leaved and silver maple, bird cherry, Turkestan elm. The slow-growing group includes linden, oak, Norway maple, horse chestnut, common ash, and common elm.
12.5-25 thousand woody plants per hectare are planted in the school. The most common planting scheme for fast-growing rocks is 0.5x1m, for slow-growing rocks - 0.5-0.8x0.8-1 m.
Combined schools are also practiced, in which plants with a long growing period are placed every 2-5 m, and rows of trees with a short growing period or shrubs are placed between them.
The school of woody plants is laid on deeply cultivated and well-fertilized soil. The plowing depth should be 35-40 cm. The rate of application of the main fertilizers: manure 100 tons, phosphorus 60-80 kg, nitrogen and potash 40-60 kg of active ingredient per 1 ha. Most tree species tolerate autumn planting well. Birch, chestnut, silver maple, white acacia are best replanted in spring.
An important event is the formation of the trunk.In the first year after planting, to ensure the normal growth of the main shoot, the emerging shoots and offspring, as well as new shoots from the root collar, are systematically removed. The thickening shoots developing on the trunk with a length of 12-18 cm are shortened (pinched) 1-3 times during the growing season, thereby providing a thickening of the trunk. Pinching is carried out annually for a number of years. Very strong shoots of thickening are cut into a ring.
The leader must be strictly vertical. When deviated to the side, it is cut off to the first well-developed bud growing upward or onto a stump.
Crown laying usually begins from the 4th year of growing seedlings on a stem with a height of 2.5-3 m. The crown is formed from five to seven highly developed buds (or pairs of buds) located above the intended height of the headquarters. The leader is cut on the upper bud or on a thorn, to which the developing leader shoot is tied. By the end of the season, the thorn is removed. All shoots that form below the crown are removed. The crown is laid in early spring (from the second half of March to the beginning of the growing season).
Standard seedlings of fast-growing species are produced with a 1-2-year-old crown, slow-growing ones - with a 3-6-year old.
In ornamental nurseries, a second school of deciduous trees is sometimes created, or a school of long-term cultivation, with the release of larger planting material in 5-7 years.
In the second school, the formation of the crown and trunk of the tree continues. Pruning of fast-growing species is carried out after 1-2 years, slow-growing - after 2-3 years. The stem is systematically cleaned of emerging shoots and overgrowth. The rest of the care is the same as in the first school.
In large nurseries, a third school can be organized to obtain large-sized planting material. The period of growing trees here is 6-8 years. In this school, large trees of slow-growing deciduous species (linden, oak, chestnut, Norway maple) are grown, which are later used in especially important landscaping objects. The source material for the foundation of the third school comes from the second school.
Saplings are planted in a 2x3 m pattern in a square or checkerboard pattern. It is possible to combine it with growing fast-growing shrubs between rows. Trees are planted in planting pits with a diameter of 60-70 cm. Pre-treatment of the soil consists in deep (40-50 cm) autumn plowing, fertilization, harrowing the plow, keeping it under black fallow during the summer. Plant care is the same as in the second school.
School of conifers
Conifers are usually grown in two schools. 3-4-year-old seedlings are planted in the first school and grown for 4-6 years. Plants come to the second school from the first school, and they are grown for 5-7 years. Fast-growing coniferous (larch) trees are sold from the first school. Planting is carried out in the spring in planting holes measuring 0.2x0.2x0.25 m for the first school, 0.5x0.5x0.4 m for the second. The soil preparation is the same as in the school of deciduous trees. Coniferous seedlings do not require artificial formation, otherwise the care of plants is the same as in the school of deciduous trees.
Excavation of planting material from the nursery school is carried out manually or mechanically, with an open root system and with a clod of earth. For mechanized digging, tractor shackles and digging plows are used. The dug out seedlings are sorted according to standards, added dropwise or packed. Packaging can be soft (burlap, matting, plastic wrap) or rigid (baskets, wooden boxes, metal and plastic containers).
In ornamental nurseries, a department for the cultivation of grafted forms of trees and shrubs with departments for bush and standard forms is especially distinguished. On the basis of grafting, seedlings of roses, lilacs, some garden forms of maple, white acacia, mountain ash, etc. are grown.
Separation of bush grafted forms
The main ones in this department are the school of grafted spray roses and the school of lilacs.
The production of grafted planting material includes several stages: obtaining a stock, actually grafting and growing grafted seedlings.
The best rootstock for open field roses is the canina rose and its selected forms. The rootstock is grown from seeds in the distribution department for 1-2 years. Rosehip seedlings are planted in the spring at school (40-100 thousand per 1 hectare) and in August of the same year they are oculated with a sleeping eye in the root collar.
The budding technique has a lot in common with budding in a fruit nursery. For the winter, the oculants are spudded to protect them from freezing, and in the spring they are spilled in two steps, the second time after the spring frosts have passed. The tying is removed from the eyepieces and the stock is cut to the bud without leaving a thorn. Lateral shoots and buds located below the graft are removed. The growing cultivated shoot is pinched over the third to fifth leaf to enhance bushiness. During the summer, they carry out soil care, removal of wild growth, and pest control. Rose seedlings are grown at school for 1-2 years.
Seedlings of varietal grafted lilacs are grown for 3-4 years in a special school. Here you can also get grafted seedlings of terry hawthorn, terry cherry and other shrubs with the same agricultural technology and growing period. The rootstocks for grafted lilacs are two-year-old common lilac seedlings, which are grown in the breeding department. Rootstocks are planted in a school of grafted lilacs in early autumn (late September - early October) in black fallow, 30-40 thousand per 1 ha. Budding is carried out in the second year after planting from mid-July to mid-August. For cuttings, annual lignified shoots from the upper part of the crown are used. Budding is carried out only with mature eyes taken from the middle part of the shoot. In early spring, the stock is cut on a thorn, to which a growing cultivated shoot is tied. The next year, the grafted shoot is cut into four to six buds to form a bush. In the fall, lilac bushes are sold, sometimes they stay for another year at school to form.
Department of standard forms
The department of standard forms can be represented by one or more schools. To obtain standard grafted plants, standard stock stocks are specially prepared. In rose hips, they are obtained from 2-3-year-old bushes. One strong shoot with a height of 1.5-2 m is chosen, the rest are cut out. Lateral shoots growing from the left shoot are shortened by 1/3 of the length, and cut into a ring before digging. The rootstocks are stored in a pit until the spring planting in the school of standard roses.
For the preparation of stocks of standard shrubs (yellow acacia, tartar honeysuckle, buldenezh viburnum, golden currant, etc.), seedlings are cut into a stump for the 2nd year. From the grown green shoots, two strong ones are selected, the rest are removed. In the spring of the 3rd year, the weaker one is removed from the two left shoots. The left shoot is grown over the next two years to a height of 1.5-2 m, annually removing the shoots at the root collar and pinching the lateral shoots in the spring. Before digging, the lateral shoots are cut into a ring. In the spring, standard shoots are transplanted to the school of standard bushes.
To obtain standard roses, hawthorn, blackthorn, they are oculated with a sleeping eye of yellow acacia, golden currant, honeysuckle is grafted with a handle into a side cut or semi-split. They are insulated with two eyes from opposite sides of the trunk at a height of 1-2 m, depending on the height of the trunk. The diameter of the stem at the inoculation site must be at least 5 mm. For the winter, the graft is tied with insulating material and film, bent to the ground and sprinkled with earth, sawdust, dry leaves. In the spring, the plants are unstuck, the vaccinations are freed from the strapping. With the emergence of cultivated shoots, the wild is cut out on a thorn, and the emerging shoots are tied to a thorn.
Care of eyepieces consists of cutting wild growth, forming a crown, feeding, watering, and combating pests and diseases.
The grafted trees are grown in a special or general school of woody plants. Trees with an unusual crown shape (weeping, spherical, pyramidal) or leaf color (variegated, golden, silvery) are propagated by grafting. Rootstocks for grafting trees are prepared with a stem with a height of at least 2 m from seedlings of the main species.
Acacia spherical birch weeping, weeping spherical oak, weeping spherical maple, Reitenbach, Schwedler, silver split-leaved linden, pyramidal mountain ash, weeping spruce blue, weeping, serpentine, are propagated by grafting. Trees are planted with a dormant eye or cuttings in spring or summer at a height of 2-2.5 m from the root collar, pyramidal shapes - at the root collar. For the winter, vaccinations are tied against freezing. In the spring, the harness is removed, the thorn is cut out. From the moment the scion germinates, the shoots are removed from the rootstock. Starting next year, in the spring, annual shoots are cut into three to five buds to form a crown. The term for growing grafted trees is 3-4 years.