Fruit and berry plants
Blackthorn (Latin Prunus spinosa), or blackthorn, or blackthorn, or thorny plum - a small thorny shrub belonging to the genus Plum of the subfamily Plum of the Rose family. The name "thorn" comes from the Proto-Slavic language and means "thorn". Blackthorn grows in areas with a temperate climate, in the forest-steppe, steppe, along the edges of the forest and in felling areas, often creating dense thickets. In the Crimea and the Caucasus, thorns can be found at an altitude of 1200-1600 meters above sea level. In nature, thorns are common in Western Europe, North Africa, the Mediterranean, Asia Minor, Western Siberia, Ukraine and the European part of Russia.
Terne became known to mankind in the days of Ancient Greece and Rome. In Christianity, thorns of thorns are a symbol of the suffering of Jesus Christ. A burning bush of thorns is mentioned in Scripture: “And the Angel of the Lord appeared to Moses in a flame of fire from the midst of a thorn bush. And he saw that the thorn bush was burning with fire, but the bush did not burn ... and God called to him from the midst of the bush and made him the leader of his people. "
Planting and caring for thorns
- Bloom: April May.
- Landing: in early spring, but the planting pit is prepared in the fall.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: moist, fertile, neutral.
- Watering: after planting - once a week, after rooting - once every two weeks, and when the leaves begin to bloom, watering will be needed only during a long absence of rain: water consumption - 2-3 buckets for each bush.
- Top dressing: once a year, a bucket of humus or a solution of complex mineral fertilizer is introduced under the bush.
- Cropping: sanitary and forming, annually in spring, in March, before the start of sap flow. If necessary, you can trim the thorns for sanitary purposes in autumn
- Reproduction: cuttings, root suckers, less often seeds.
- Pests: aphid.
- Diseases: moniliosis (gray rot).
- Terne: the fruits of the plant have an astringent, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, expectorant and antibacterial effect, relax the smooth muscles of internal organs, and reduce vascular permeability.
Read more about growing thorns below.
The thorn shrub reaches a height of 3.5-4.5 m, and the thorn tree grows up to 8 m. The shrub grows in breadth due to root growth, creating thorny, difficult-to-pass thickets. The pivotal root of the blackthorn goes 1 m deep, and its root system is branched and protrudes far beyond the projection of the crown. The branches of the thorn are covered with numerous thorns, its leaves are up to 5 cm long, elliptical, dentate, obovate. Many small white single five-petal flowers open in April or May, even before the leaves appear on the bushes. The fruit of the blackthorn is a plum-like rounded tart-sour odnokostyanka with a diameter of about 12 mm, dark blue with a gray waxy bloom.
Thorns bear fruit from two to three years of age. The plant is distinguished by drought resistance and winter hardiness, in addition, it is a good honey plant. Planting and caring for thorns will not be difficult even for a novice gardener. Thorns are used as a rootstock for apricot and plum, it is planted as a hedge and to strengthen sliding slopes, and decorative varieties are grown to decorate the garden: red-leaved, terry and purple thorns.
Planting a thorn
When to plant
The thorns are planted in early spring, but a planting hole has been prepared for it since the fall, so that the soil settles and settles over the winter. Sloe can grow on dry, clayey, sandy and even saline soils. It easily tolerates abundant spring waters, but growing in heavy or too wet soils can cause frostbite on thorns. The best place for a plant is a well-lit area with moist, fertile soil of a neutral reaction.
How to plant
It is better to overlay the steep sides of holes with a diameter and depth of about 60 cm with bushes of slate or old iron: this measure will save you from clogging the garden with root suckers of the thorny plum.
A week before planting, a layer of eggshells collected over the winter is laid on the bottom of the planting pit, and on top of it is a layer of soil removed from the pit, mixed with 1-2 buckets of humus or compost, 500 g of superphosphate and 60 g of potassium fertilizer. If the soil has high acidity, then you need to add fluff lime to the soil mixture. When planting several seedlings, the distance between them is kept within 2-3 m, and between hedge seedlings - 1.5 m.
As a planting material, it is better to use two-year-old blackthorn seedlings, the roots of which are soaked for a day in 5 liters of water with 3-4 tablespoons of sodium humate dissolved in it. A 1.5 m high stake is driven into the bottom of the pit, fertilized soil is poured around it with a mound, on which the seedling is installed. The roots of the seedling are straightened, and the hole is covered with a fertile soil mixture with fertilizers, slightly tamping it. After planting, the root collar of the seedling should be 3-4 cm above the surface of the site. Around the near-stem circle of the seedling, a side about 10 cm high is made to prevent water spreading during watering, and 2-3 buckets of water are poured into the near-stem circle. When the water is absorbed, the soil around the bush is mulched with humus to prevent the rapid evaporation of moisture from the soil, and the seedling is tied to a peg.
Shoots of blackthorn seedlings are shortened immediately after planting, and adult bushes in the spring, before the buds swell on them, are subjected to sanitary and formative pruning. Basically, the care of thorns is very simple and consists of the usual procedures for any gardener: watering, fertilizing, loosening the soil and removing weeds in the trunk circle, cutting out root growth, forming and sanitary pruning, harvesting and preparing the plant for wintering.
At first, the seedling is watered once a week, then once every two weeks, and as soon as the leaves begin to bloom on it and it starts to grow, watering is made rare. Actually, thorns have enough natural precipitation, since this is an extremely drought-resistant plant, but during a prolonged drought, pour 2-3 buckets of cold water under the bush.
In order for the thorn bush to regularly and abundantly bear fruit, fertilizers are annually applied under it in the form of humus (one bucket per one bush) or a solution of complex mineral fertilizer. The older the plant, the more it will need feeding.
Thorns are cut in spring, in March, before sap flow begins: dry, broken, diseased or frozen branches and shoots are removed. Since the thorn is prone to thickening the crown, the bush is regularly thinned out, and also given a shape, for which 4-5 well-bearing branches are left at the young plant, and the rest are cut off at the root.
The formation of the crown of thorns in the form of a bowl is popular, when in the first year the ground part of the seedling is cut off at a height of 30-50 cm, and in the second year only the strongest shoots are left on it, located in a circle.
Autumn pruning is carried out as needed, mainly for sanitary purposes, when it is necessary to remove diseased or broken branches. Do it after leaf fall, when the plant is already preparing for dormancy.
Reproduction of thorns
Thorns are propagated by seed, cuttings, and root suckers. Seed propagation of thorns takes time. It is much faster to get a new plant using vegetative propagation methods.
Growing from seeds
In early autumn, separate the pit from the fruit pulp and place it in the ground. It is possible to plant thorn seeds in the soil in the spring, but only after their preliminary stratification during the winter in the refrigerator. For faster germination of seeds, some gardeners keep the seeds for 12 hours in honey syrup before planting, and then plant them in fertile soil to a depth of 6-7 cm. Before germination, the planting site is covered. When the seedlings are 2 years old, they are transplanted to a permanent place.
Propagation of thorns by cuttings
Thorn cuttings should have at least five healthy buds. In the spring, they are planted in a container with nutrient soil and placed in a greenhouse or covered with a transparent cap. During the summer they are watered, fed with nutrient solutions, and by autumn excellent seedlings with well-developed roots are obtained from the cuttings.
Reproduction by root suckers
Root shoots are carefully separated from the mother bush and planted in prepared holes at a distance of 1-2 m from each other. They look after them, as well as for seedlings.
Diseases and pests of blackthorn
Blackthorn is very resistant to both diseases and pests. Sometimes it can be struck by moniliosis, or gray rot, a fungal disease caused by the monilia fungus, which penetrates through the pistil of a flower and affects young shoots of thorns. As a result of the development of the disease, the leaves and shoots become dark brown. The disease progresses through the plant from top to bottom. And although new greenery grows on the trees, by the end of summer it turns yellow and falls off, the plant's yield decreases, and the surviving fruits crack and rot right on the branches.
In the fight against moniliosis, you will have to resort to the help of fungicides. In early spring, the bush is treated with Horus solution - this is the only drug that works even at low air temperatures. Later, when the weather is warm, blackthorn can be treated for moniliosis with drugs such as Abiga-Peak, Gamair, Rovral, Bordeaux mixture and copper sulfate. Solutions are prepared in accordance with the instructions.
Of the pests, the ubiquitous aphid is dangerous for thorns, a sucking insect that feeds on the cell sap of the leaves and shoots of the thorn, which makes them turn yellow and deformed. Aphids are very fertile, so they can cause significant harm to the plant, moreover, they are a carrier of incurable viral diseases. You can destroy aphids by treating thorns with a solution of an acaricidal drug, for example, Aktellik, Aktara, Antitlin and the like, and you will have to process the bushes from aphids more than once.
Types and varieties of blackthorn
Of the varieties and hybrids of blackthorn, the most famous are:
- Sweet TLCA - the taste of the fruits of this variety is sweet and sour, almost without astringency;
- CROSS No. 1 - a tree up to 2.5 m high with purple fruits with a dense waxy bloom and pulp of a sweet-sour, slightly tart taste. Fruit weight 6-7 g;
- CROSS No. 2 - variety with rounded purple fruits weighing up to 8 g sweet and sour taste with barely noticeable astringency;
- blackthorn yellow - yellow thorn, a hybrid of the second generation between cherry plum and thorn with yellow fruits and pleasant taste;
- thorns Apricot - a hybrid between blackthorn and apricot with light pink-purple fruits of good taste with apricot notes;
- thorns fragrant-1 and Fragrant-2 - hybrids of blackthorns with the American-Chinese plum Toka, which are trees up to 4 m high with flat-round purple fruits weighing 8-10 g with yellow sweet-sour pulp without astringency and with a delicate aroma of strawberries and apricots. A small bone comes off easily from the pulp;
- shropshire plum - English variety with honey-sweet fruits without a trace of astringency;
- Blackthorn Cherry (Cherry Leave) - a plant up to 3 m high with a rounded crown of medium density and rounded dark purple fruits weighing 5-6 g with a waxy bloom. The pulp is firm, green, tart and sour;
- Cherry Blackthorn - a tree up to 3 m high with large purple round fruits with a thick waxy bloom weighing up to 8.5 g. The pulp is dense, green, sweet and sour taste, slightly tart;
- thorns Prunes - a hybrid between cherry plum and thorns with blue-yellow-red fruits;
- Sadoviy turn # 2 - a plant up to 2 m high with dark blue or black globular fruits, covered with a bluish bloom, and with excellent taste pulp.
Properties of thorns - harm and benefit
Blackthorn berries contain sugars (fructose and glucose), malic acid, pectin, carbohydrates, steroids, fiber, triterpenoids, vitamins C and E, coumarins, nitrogen-containing compounds, tannins, flavonoids, higher alcohols, mineral salts, fatty acids linoleic, palmitic, stearic, oleic and eleostearic.
Fresh and processed thorn fruits have an astringent effect and are used for such disorders of the intestines and stomach as ulcerative colitis, dysentery, food poisoning, candidiasis and toxic infections. Blackthorn wine is also considered a medicinal drink for infectious diseases.
The fruits of blackthorn are used in the treatment of kidney and liver diseases, neuralgia, vitamin deficiencies, metabolic disorders, and also as an antipyretic and diaphoretic. Fruits and flowers are indicated for cystitis, edema, gastritis, kidney stones, pustular skin diseases and boils. Thorn flowers have a mild laxative effect, treat skin diseases dependent on metabolism, regulate the contraction of the renal ducts and intestinal motility, acting as a hypotensive, diaphoretic and diuretic, and in the form of a decoction are used for hypertension, shortness of breath, constipation, furunculosis and nausea.
Fresh juice of thorn berries, possessing antibacterial activity against protozoan parasites, is used for giardiasis and intestinal disorders.
A decoction of thorn flowers is prescribed for inflammation of the mucous membranes of the throat, esophagus and mouth, and tea from thorn leaves is a mild laxative and increases urine output. They drink it for cystitis, chronic constipation and prostate adenoma. It is recommended for people with a sedentary lifestyle.
In addition to astringent, preparations from blackthorn have anti-inflammatory, diuretic, expectorant and antibacterial effects, relax the smooth muscles of internal organs, and reduce vascular permeability.
Because of the acid in thorn fruits, they can be harmful to people with stomach acid, gastritis, or ulcers. The intense color of the fruit can cause an allergic reaction. Thorns contain a strong poison, so be careful not to accidentally swallow them. It is not recommended to use blackthorn for people with hypersensitivity to its fruits, and excessive use of blackthorn fruits is not beneficial even for healthy people.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Pink
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Fruit Crops
- Information about Berry Crops
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Why is it attractive to grow irgi in the country
Why is it worth growing irgu on your site?
- It is an excellent honey plant that attracts bees to pollinate the garden.
- Delicious, very healthy berries will please the whole family.
- Another plus is the decorative effect throughout the season and the bright purple color of the irgi bushes in the fall. Lush bloom in spring, followed by abundant pink beads of berries, gradually changing their color to a wine shade. By the fall, the bunches will turn purple, they will look great against the background of reddened foliage.
For planting blackberries, you can use seeds or other parts of the plant:
- apical layers
- root suckers (woody cuttings)
- green cuttings.
Before proceeding with planting, in addition to the method, it is necessary to choose a site where the plant will take root well. Blackberries can be planted both in shady places and in open sunny areas. True, in the sun the bushes give more berries.To protect the bushes from the wind, you can plant them along the fence, stepping back about 1 m from it. For growing these berries, loamy, well-drained soils with low acidity are best suited.
The easiest way is to sow seeds. It is better to do this in late autumn by placing the seeds in prepared soil to a depth of 4-5 cm. This method has proven itself well when working with erect and creeping varieties.
You can use root suckers or cuttings for seedlings. It is best to plant them in early spring. The cuttings should be laid along a furrow, which is 8-10 cm wide and 5-8 cm deep. Green shoots should be planted in holes about 20 cm in diameter and 10-15 cm deep. Lignified offspring are placed in large furrows, the width and depth of which - 25-30 cm.
Before planting, a layer of soil fertilized with compost or humus, superphosphate and potassium sulphide should be placed in a hole or furrow, and then sprinkled with clean soil.
The stalk should be planted so that the growth buds at its base are deepened into the soil by about 3 cm. The hole is covered with earth with mineral fertilizers.
After that, a near-stem circle is formed around the bush - a shallow hole where moisture could linger.
The next plant can be planted at a distance based on the variety and size of the shoots. If the bushes are small, you can plant 2 cuttings every 1.8-2 m.If the plant is branched, it is better to plant each offspring in a separate hole, the indents between them should be 1.2-1.5 m.
The mulberry tree reproduces both by seeds and vegetatively.
Mulberry seed propagation is the easiest way for all species of this tree. You just need to take a handful of berries of the selected variety, put in a container and put in the sun to ferment. Then, in water, you need to mash the seeds well and drain the water with empty shells. Then pour water again and pass through a fine mesh strainer. Then wipe and rinse again. Repeat until only clean seeds remain without pulp.
Then they should be well dried and transferred to a paper bag and stored in a dry place until early spring. 45 days before sowing, the moistened seeds should be placed on a shelf under the freezer for stratification or kept in water for three days. It is necessary to sow mulberry seeds to a depth of 1 cm in the brightest place. It is often necessary to water the future mulberry, but not to pour it.
Did you know? Mulberry also contributed to the emergence of paper in China. It was his bast, which is located under the tree bark, that was used to create paper.
How else does mulberry multiply? The best way to reproduce in the summer is by cuttings. At the beginning of summer, cuttings with two or three buds are cut from a healthy shoot of this year. The lower leaves must be removed, and half of the plates must be left on the rest, so that the cutting will grow and develop in the future.
They grow in the garden. These are apple, pear, cherry, plum and sweet cherry. However, the mulberry tree is quite rare in it. But in the recent past, it was very popular and affordable. The older generation of gardeners has a lot to say about the beneficial plant that has now become exotic.
Cherry plum care
It is relatively easy to care for cherry plum, since the culture is quite unpretentious. Care consists of regular watering and feeding the plant, several pruning during the season and preventive measures to combat pests. The following procedures are discussed in more detail.
It is better to water the tree in the near-trunk circle.
Despite the good resistance to drought, cherry plum still needs watering. The plant itself will not die, but a lack of moisture can have disastrous consequences for the harvest: ovaries and unripe fruits can begin to wilt and crumble.
Typically, the plant is watered three times per season:
- after flowering
- after stopping the growth of branches and young shoots
- after the start of the fruit color change during ripening
The irrigation rate is 15 to 20 liters per tree. It is recommended to water young plants up to 5 times per season (two additional waterings are added evenly between those already listed).
In addition, water charging irrigation is carried out in the middle of autumn. while using from 30 to 40 liters of water.
Mulching will save the gardener from the need to loosen the soil and weed too often. Usually, straw or large chips are used as mulch.
The first feeding of cherry plum is done in May, at the same time, a special complex fertilizer is used for garden trees with the norms indicated on the package.
The second feeding is done during the ripening of the fruit. Usually, organic fertilizers are used: the mullein is dissolved in a ratio of 1 to 7 and the plant is watered with the resulting mixture in the amount of 1 bucket. You can feed cherry plum with bird droppings or rotted manure, but their concentration should be at least 1 to 20 or 1 to 10, respectively.
The third feeding is done after harvesting. At the same time, mineral phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are applied. The tree is fed with a mixture of superphosphate and potassium sulfate in the amount of 50 and 40 g, respectively. Autumn feeding of cherry plum with compost is allowed.
Immediately after the snow melts, the plant is subjected to sanitary pruning - remove sick, frostbitten and damaged branches, clean the trunk of dead bark.
In April, pruning is carried out, combining sanitary, thinning and shaping. At the same time, they not only remove dried shoots, but also thin out the crown, cutting off the shoots growing inside the crown and too long shoots of past years, leaving no more than 3 buds on them. They also form the outer borders of the crown. In some cases, even skeletal branches can be removed during crown formation.
In the summer, two-year-old shoots are shortened by 60-80 cm and the crown is subjected to corrective thinning - remove the growth formed since the last pruning.
It is better not to cut the cherry plum in autumn, because the tree will weaken and will not survive the winter worse.
Whitewashing first, after treating the wood with a garden sprayer
Plums can be susceptible to a wide variety of diseases. These include:
- milky shine
- red spot
- marsupial disease
Most diseases are of fungal origin. Prevention of fungal diseases is carried out in early spring immediately after sanitary pruning. For her, a 1% solution of copper sulfate is used, which is sprayed on all branches of the plant. But the most important component of protection against diseases is adherence to plant agrotechnics: all crop care measures must be carried out in the period allotted to them.
Cherry plum pests are mainly represented by insects: these are mainly various leafworms and moths.
Protection against pests consists in treating the plant with insecticides. It is produced in early April by spraying all branches of the tree. It is best to use complex drugs such as Actellik, Skor, Fitoflavin or Aktara.
Types and varieties of blackthorn
The most popular varieties and hybrids of blackthorn are:
- Sweet TLCA... The fruits are sweet-sour, almost impatient.
- CROSS No. 1... Plant height is about 250 centimeters. On the surface of the purple fruit there is a dense bloom of wax. The sweet-sour pulp is slightly tart in taste. The fruits weigh about 6-7 grams.
- CROSS No. 2... The round purple fruits weigh about 8 grams. Their taste is sweet-sour, slightly tart.
- Yellow-fruited... This is a second generation hybrid between thorn and cherry plum. The fruits have a pleasant taste and yellow color.
- Apricot... It is a hybrid between apricot and thorn. The color of the fruits is pale lilac-pink, their taste is quite pleasant with apricot notes.
- Fragrant-1 and Fragrant-2... It is a hybrid of the American-Chinese Toca plum and blackthorn. The height of such a tree is about four meters. Fruits of purple color have a flat-round shape, they weigh from 8 to 10 grams. The yellow flesh has a sweet-sour taste, while the astringency is completely absent. The pulp has the finest aroma of apricot and strawberry. The stone is small, separates very well from the pulp.
- Shropshire... The variety was created by English breeders. Fruits are sweet-honey, impatient.
- Cherry-Plum (Cherry)... The bush reaches a height of about 300 centimeters. The crown is of medium density and has a rounded shape. On the surface of the dark purple fruits there is a waxy bloom, they weigh about 5-6 grams and have a rounded shape. The green dense pulp has a sour and tart taste.
- Cherry... This tree reaches a height of 300 cm. Large, rounded purple fruits on the surface have a dense waxy bloom. Such fruits weigh about 8.5 grams. Green dense pulp with sweet and sour taste, slightly tart.
- Prunes... It is a hybrid between blackthorn and cherry plum. The color of the fruit can be of various yellow-blue-red shades.
- Garden No. 2... The height of such a shrub is about two meters. Globular fruits can be almost black or dark blue in color. On the surface there is a bloom of a bluish color. The pulp tastes great.
Interesting facts about Irga
Irga can do a good service to lovers of breeding dwarf fruit trees (more correctly - fruit trees on a dwarf rootstock). Cuttings of a fruit tree are grafted onto a stock from a bush, due to which the tree takes up less space, begins to bear fruit already for 3-4 years.
First, pears were grafted onto Provencal or northern quince. However, quince is a southern plant, so the trees often died from frost. As soon as cultivation of irgi became popular, it turned out that the stock from this shrub was excellent for creating dwarf pears. The trees look very interesting and give a full harvest.
We hope that this material has attracted the interest of gardeners, drew attention to a useful and very beautiful plant.