One of the most fortified and valuable plant foods that a generous summer gives us is black currant. The wonderful sweet and sour taste and delicate aroma of Dobrynya currants will convince you and your family that the work on breeding and caring for the shrub is not in vain.
Distinctive features and description of the black currant Dobrynya
The black currant variety Dobrynya was created by the leading specialist of the All-Russian Research Institute of Lupine, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences A.I. Astakhov. The breeder used his own hybrid variety Izyumnaya with very sweet berries and form 42–7 as parent varieties participating in interspecific crosses.
In 2004, the new hybrid was included in the State Register of Plant Breeding Plants and recommended for breeding in the Central and West Siberian regions of the country.
A perennial plant of a shrub type is of medium size (height up to 1.5–1.7 m). The shoots, evenly thickened along the entire length, are weakly pubescent. The thin bark of the branches, light green with a violet sheen, shines slightly in the sun. Erect shoots form a neat crown. The leaves are three-lobed, dark green in color. Smooth and straight leaf blade is dry and wrinkled to the touch. It is bordered by small, short and obtuse teeth.
Large white-yellow flowers are collected in cluster inflorescences of 6-10 flowers. Flowers in inflorescences are loose. Thick flower clusters hang loosely and slightly curl around the branches of the plant. The flowering period, which lasts about 10 days, begins at the end of April. The brushes are attached to the branches with medium-sized green stalks.
Dobrynya black currant bush is erect, compact, medium-sized
Characteristics of berries - table
|Weight (1 piece)||2.3-6.5 g|
|The form||Round or oval|
|Integumentary skin color||Blue-black, shiny|
|Cover skin quality||Tight, durable, elastic|
|Pulp color||Dark red|
|Pulp quality||Juicy, homogeneous.|
|Taste||Sweet and sour. Tasting score - 4.8 out of 5 points.|
|Berry structure||The juicy pericarp contains 4–6 small soft seeds.|
Dobrynya black currant berries contain 6.9% sugars, 2.5% titratable acids. The calorie content of 100 g of the product is 44 kcal.
Dobrynya berries are very large, with a dense shiny skin
Overview video about the variety Dobrynya
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety - table
When planting black currants, you should choose a permanent place for it, since the plant does not tolerate transplanting well. For good rooting, it is recommended to pre-prepare the site.
Planting timing and plant survival
Possible autumn (October - early November, in the northern regions - late September) or spring (early April) planting of black currants. The fibrous root system of the currant, which does not have a well-developed central root, itself represents a rather weak support for a powerful plant, therefore, under the bush there must be dense and well-compacted soil that can withstand its weight.
When mechanically compacting the soil immediately after planting the seedlings, not yet fully strengthened roots or root buds can be damaged. The soil will sag under its own weight and compact enough with timely (before the first frost on the ground) autumn plantings. Soil density in this case is one of the main factors that guarantee plant survival and health.
It is rather difficult to calculate the time of spring planting, since black currants can begin to release the first leaves at the end of March.
The site for planting black currants is leveled, filling all the depressions and hollows, comparing the tubercles. The plant is relatively light-requiring, but shaded areas are also suitable for planting. However, poor access to sunlight can affect yields.
It is important that the shrubs are well ventilated - this will reduce the risk of fungal diseases and more likely dry the soil after melting snow or rain.
The plant does not tolerate waterlogged or waterlogged soil, so the groundwater level should be low enough (no higher than 1.5–2 m). Currant prefers medium and heavy loamy soils.
If there is a threat of flooding or stagnation of spring melt water, the soil must be drained. When preparing a site, it is recommended to bring pebbles, fine stone or coarse sand into the ground. To improve the structural and quality parameters of the soil, the following are introduced into each planting hole:
- 4–5 kg of rotted manure or compost;
- 100-150 g of wood ash.
The choice of planting material
When choosing a seedling, preference is given to two-year-old plants or annuals, but with a strong root system
Planting material must be purchased in fruit and berry nurseries or at sales fairs. To obtain a healthy plant, it is recommended to choose seedlings with the following characteristics:
- two years of age;
- well-developed fibrous system with whitish elastic and straight roots 15–20 cm long;
- 4–5 uniformly thickened shoots;
- the height of the shoots is not more than 30–40 cm.
Step by step process
Compliance with the recommendations when planting a seedling will provide the gardener in the future with high-quality high yields.
Planting holes dug in advance on fertilized soil do not need to be filled with fertilizers when planting.
- Landing holes are dug 35–40 cm deep and 50–60 cm wide.
- There should be a distance of 1.5 m between single pits, and 2–2.5 m between rows.
- The roots of the fibrous system must be spread over the entire width of the dug hole.
- Black currants should be planted slightly obliquely, at an angle of 45 degrees to the ground. The seedling should be held in a semi-vertical position and, sprinkling with earth, make sure that several fruit buds remain above the soil surface.
- The plant is watered with 10-15 liters of water.
- Mulch the area under the seedling with dry soil, grass or sawdust with a layer of 10-15 cm.
Basic rules for planting currant seedlings - video
Dobrynya black currant care
Regular bush care activities will ensure the correct development of the currants and a bountiful harvest in the future. However, the list of agricultural practices does not include procedures requiring special training or expensive equipment.
Currant bushes bear fruit abundantly and regularly, if every year, by pruning, obsolete branches are replaced by young ones.
A medium-sized plant with erect branches usually does not cause difficulty in pruning. It is enough to remember and follow simple rules:
- a normally developed bush during fruiting (within 6–8 years after planting) should have 15–18 branches;
- the fruiting period of the shoot is 4–5 years;
- old shoots (with peeling, heavily roughened bark) are cut out at ground level;
- to stimulate the growth of young shoots, all long branches (more than 1 m) are shortened by 15–20 cm;
- after the plant reaches 4–5 years of age, lateral shoots begin to form;
- it is enough to leave 3-4 lateral shoots, which will be formed from dormant root buds;
- on the root shoots are growth buds, from which lateral branches will develop next year.
Pruning long branches and cutting root shoots can be done during the summer season. But sanitary pruning, when damaged or broken branches are removed, is carried out in late autumn (after leaf fall) or in early March (before the buds swell).
In the upper parts of the shoots and in the apical buds, harmful insects most often settle. By pruning long shoots, you reduce the chance of damage to the entire plant.
An old (after 6–8 years old) plant or a plant strongly affected by fungal diseases is cut out completely (rejuvenating pruning). After 2-3 years, a new bush grows in its place, which can begin to bear fruit.
For pruning, special garden tools are used:
- long-handled scissors;
Experienced gardeners advise to dig circular grooves around the bush (about 20-25 cm from the ends of the stems) and pour water into them
A relatively drought-resistant plant can do without watering for a short time during the summer season. If the drying out of the soil negatively affects the quality of the berries - they will become smaller and drier, the soft bones inside the fruits will be hard, then prolonged waterlogging (rains, flooding) will lead to soaking and death of the entire shrub.
During the entire vegetative period, you can do with infrequent (once every 2-3 weeks) drip irrigation at the rate of 15-20 liters of water per bush.
Abundant watering (30-40 liters of water under one bush) is needed only a few times during the entire growing season:
- while setting berries (mid-May);
- while pouring berries (June);
- after leaf fall (moisture-charging podzimny watering).
The specified volume of water is enough to wet the earth to a depth of 30-60 cm. It is at this depth that the roots of the black currant are located.
During watering, it is advisable to pour water into shallow grooves dug along the perimeter of the crown of the bush.
To stimulate the growth of root shoots (after 4–5 years of plant life), the soil in the area of the trunk circle zone is fertilized with mineral fertilizing. For 10 liters of water take:
- 6-10 g of potassium;
- 4-6 g of phosphorus;
- 2-3 g of magnesium.
2-3 liters of top dressing are poured under one bush (depending on the age of the plant). If the mineral solution gets on the currant leaves, it must be washed off with running water.
Fertilization schedule - table
|Fertilization period||Required fertilizers and doses (for one bush)||The effect of the applied fertilizers|
|Spring:||Urea 40-50 g. With the beginning of sap flow (early March) add 15 g of urea and another 5 g after flowering plants. Another variant:|
|Before the flowering of the plant|
|During the flowering of the plant||Foliar dressing. Spraying the bushes with a solution (based on 10 liters of water):|
|After setting the berries|
|After ripening and harvesting|
|October (mid or end of month)||Chicken droppings or compost - 2-3 kg. This top dressing can not be embedded in the ground, under the influence of autumn rains and snow, it will decompose itself.|
Distinguished by good growth and high yields, black currant intensively uses soil nutrients, which can only be replenished by systematic fertilization.
Dry granular fertilizers are scattered in the area of the trunk circle (30–40 cm) on well-moistened soil. Pre-watering will help protect the root system of plants from burns.
- Throughout the growing season, plants can be watered with bread kvass (2–4 liters per bush) or buried bread soaked in advance and fermented in the zone of the trunk circle.
- Potato peelings are laid out in the grooves dug in a circle outlined by the crown, they are sprinkled with dry granular urea (the norm per bush is 10 g).
- You can plant peas, beans, clover, vetch between the bushes. In autumn, the wilted tops of these plants are buried in the aisles. These natural dressings will saturate the soil with nitrogen and carbon dioxide, activating the vital activity of beneficial soil microorganisms.
Shrub shelter for the winter
Dobrynya is resistant to frost and damage by late spring frosts. However, if the site is located in the steppe region of the country, where the layer of snow that protects the plant from severe frost is often blown out by the winds, or in regions with little snowy winters, it is recommended to take additional measures to ensure the safety of the bush.
There are two ways to prepare black currants for the winter period:
- Divide the bush into pieces of 2-3 shoots and bend to the ground. Shoots lying on the ground are sprinkled with dry earth, covered with old quilted jackets or newspapers, natural material (spruce branches, hay, dry grass) with a layer of up to 15–20 cm.
- After the onset of the first frost (beginning - mid-November), each branch of the bush is wrapped with agrofibre or other breathable cloth (plastic wrap is not suitable). The bush remains in its natural position, but additionally it can be pulled to the center with a rope.
Diseases and pests
The Dobrynya variety is resistant to powdery mildew infection. To other fungal infections, black currant has situational resistance (the likelihood of damage depends on the illumination, moisture, applied dressings).
Preventive measures and the fight against currant diseases - table
|Disease||Description of the causative agent||Signs of plant damage||Treatment methods and preparations||Periods and frequency of treatments||Preventive actions|
|Terry||A viral disease, the pathogenic agents of which arise, live and are carried by living organisms (aphids, herbivorous mites) or infection occurs during grafting of the cuttings.||Currant flowers stretch and deform, acquire a bluish tint, berries do not develop from such flowers. Young leaves darken and become narrow and elongated. The plant loses its characteristic odor.||The diseased plant is uprooted and destroyed. Neighboring bushes are subject to quarantine measures (spraying).||As needed.|
|Goblet rust||Fungal disease. Its spores arise, multiply, and overwinter in sedge thickets.||On young leaves, blistery swellings of yellow-orange color appear, spreading to shoots and branches.||Spraying bushes with 1% Bordeaux liquid, a biological product Fitodoctor or Fitosporin, fungicides Hom, Topaz, Bayleton. Consumption - 2–4 liters per one bush.|
|Septoriasis||Fungal disease.Its spores multiply actively and infect the plant in hot and humid climates. In winter, spores are found on the tips of the affected shoots.||The leaves turn white, the leaf blades, and sometimes the berries, are covered with small dark spots of a round or angular shape. The affected leaves dry out and fall off.||Spraying the bushes with copper sulfate (40 g per 10 l of water) or Nitrafen (200 g per 10 l of water). Consumption - 2-4 per bush.||Early spring. If necessary, re-processing is carried out after flowering currants.|
Diseases of black currant in the photo
The variety is resistant to damage by currant bud mites. Plants and berries damaged by insect pests become more susceptible to fungal infections.
Preventive measures and currant pest control - table
|Pest||Insect description||Signs of plant damage||Treatment methods and preparations||Processing periods and frequency||Preventive actions|
|Leaf roll||A butterfly with a thick, densely pubescent body and variegated wings. Bare caterpillars of yellow-green color with brown or black heads.||Caterpillars gnaw and wrap the leaves in a tube, braid with cobwebs and hibernate in them. Kidneys and ovary are gnawed.||Spraying bushes with DDT emulsion (40-100 g per 10 l of water) or 75% Chlorophos solution (30 g per 10 l of water). Consumption - 2–4 liters per one bush.|
|Currant kidney moth||A small butterfly with yellowish-brown mottled wings. Red caterpillars with black heads turn yellow over time, and then turn olive green. They hibernate in white cocoons at the base of the bush and under peeling bark.||In early spring, the larvae completely eat away the buds. After pupation (late May - early June), butterflies lay their eggs in the pulp of the berries that are set, which causes them to turn white prematurely.||Spraying the bushes with DDT emulsion (20–100 g per 10 l of water - depending on the degree of damage to the bush) or 75% Chlorophos (30 g per 10 l of water). Consumption - 2-3 liters per bush.|
|Pale-footed gooseberry sawfly||False caterpillars, which can lay 100–120 eggs per season. Green larvae with brown heads can completely destroy young leaves on the bush in 2-3 days. They hibernate in the ground - in dense cocoons at a depth of 15 cm.||Young and adult larvae completely devour the leaves, leaving only thick veins. Deprived of nutrition, the berries that have set are not poured, they dry out and fall off.||Spraying the bushes with water infusions of bitter wormwood (half a bucket of wormwood per 10 liters of water, insist for a day, boil for 30 minutes, strain and dilute with water in a 1: 1 ratio) or tomato tops (boil 4 kg of tops for 30 minutes in 10 liters of water, strain and add 40-50 l of water). It is advisable to add 40-50 g of laundry soap to the solutions. Consumption - 3-4 liters per one bush.||During the growing season as needed.|
Harmful insects in the photo
Harvesting and storage
In late June - early July, the berries begin to turn black and acquire a characteristic shine. Harvesting should be carried out in dry weather, after the dew has completely dried. Berries can be picked with brushes or individually. Dry and easy wrist separation.
For the entire season, up to 1.6 kg of currants can be harvested from one bush. The bush bears fruit for 6-8 years.
Dobrynya variety, medium ripening, high productivity
For a long time, black currant berries can be stored in the refrigerator. To do this, they are packaged in wooden boxes or plastic bags. At a temperature of 0 degrees, they last up to 40-45 days, and at a temperature of -2 degrees - up to 2-3 months.
Black currant berries are versatile in the breadth of their use. They give a slightly tart taste and tint colorless pear and apple compotes; grated with sugar or without sugar, spread on crispy toast; aromatic blackcurrant jams and jellies are an excellent filling for homemade baked goods.
Dobrynya berries make delicious and aromatic winter preparations
It's hard for me to judge the taste, I'm indifferent to fresh currants. But I like frozen currant tea, and jam too. The berry is really very large. The variety is fruitful, the branches fell on the ground from the load of the crop - a garter is needed. I treat only with Aktofit from aphids.
My Dobrynya clearly does not reach 7 grams (apparently, she did not pay enough attention), but the berry is still very large. And it does not ripen very well and amicably. Although, if you overexpose the first berries a little, while the rest are ripe, then you can cut the crop together with a branch. Last year, they did so, cut them off from branches, and then cut the berries from them for freezing. But this did not work out - my households have already begun to pinch. I did not find burst berries on the background of prolonged rains on the bushes.
Dobrynya is one of the best varieties of A. Astakhov. In my growing conditions, I rate it above such Astakhov varieties as Izyumnaya, Selechenskaya-2, even Navlya and Dar Smolyaninova. If the rating of currant varieties was determined, then these Astakhov varieties would certainly be included in the top ten in their ripeness groups.
The largest berries from mine are in the Dobrynya currant. The bush is still small, the branches grow upward.
The climatic conditions and weather characteristics of the northern and central regions of the country are suitable for the cultivation and cultivation of the black currant variety Dobrynya. Simple agricultural practices, ensuring the health and normal development of the plant, guarantee a high-quality vitamin harvest.