Detailed description of the grape variety Cabernet Sauvignon

Detailed description of the grape variety Cabernet Sauvignon

Almost everyone has heard of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, as well as the wine of the same name. This technical variety is usually grown for winemaking. Many gourmets consider him the "king of the grapes", just like Chardonnay. Let's try to understand the reasons for the popularity of Cabernet Sauvignon. Let's talk about the description and properties.

Description of the grape variety Cabernet Sauvignon

This hybrid was bred by crossing in the 17th century in France.

The main characteristics of the variety:

  1. Saplings are distinguished by strong growth.
  2. The leaves of the plant are rounded, the edges of which are bordered with a characteristic red tint.
  3. The flowers are bisexual.
  4. This culture is characterized by a low acidity of approximately 8 g / l.
  5. Productivity 94 kg / ha.

The sugar content of grapes is about 19-21% and is not inferior to other similar varieties.

The ripening period of berries primarily depends on the purpose:

  • if the grapes are used to make table wines, then the fruits are harvested at about 143 days;
  • for the preparation of dessert wines, the ripening period is slightly longer and is approximately 165 days.

The culture grows best on the southern slopes. If there are no natural hills, it is necessary to make artificial ones. The area should be well warmed up by the rays of the sun. This variety is grown in the southern regions of Moldova. Caucasus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, France, USA, Italy and Argentina.

Characteristics of berries

Bunches of characteristic cylindrical-conical shape, outwardly attractive and up to 15 cm long and up to 8 cm wide. The brushes are distinguished by a loose structure.

The main characteristics of berries:

  • bunch weight on average 70 g;
  • the color of the berries is dark blue;
  • outwardly, the berries are covered with a waxy bloom;
  • the shape of the berries is regular, round, 12-15mm in diameter;
  • the skin is relatively thick;
  • the pulp is juicy;
  • the taste is sweet, nightshade;

There are approximately 1-3 seeds in the berry.

A distinctive feature of this variety is the characteristic smell of currants in the fruit after ripening.

Advantages and disadvantages

Let's try to figure out what are the advantages and disadvantages of this culture.

The main advantages of the Cabernet Sauvignon grape variety:

  1. Nice berry taste.
  2. Disease resistance.
  3. This culture is widely used in the production of vintage wines and quality juices.
  4. Resistance to weather conditions: the bunches are able to hang on the bushes for a long period without rotting.
  5. Good yield.

Despite the advantages, the variety also has certain disadvantages:

  • partial or massive shedding of ovaries;
  • possible peas.

However, with proper care, you can forget about the above disadvantages.

Using the variety for making wine

Cabernet Sauvignon is considered primarily a wine variety.
The thick peel of the berries contains a large amount of trace elements that open up over time. For this reason, the wine changes its taste and aroma.

The high concentration of tannins contained in the fruit makes the taste of the wine more tart, as well as rich. The drink contains fruity notes.

Usually the drink is aged in oak barrels for at least 9 months. The output is fairly strong wines containing 13-15% alcohol.

Landing

It is necessary to plant grapes with seedlings in mid-autumn or early spring.

Seedlings need to be bought immediately before planting, since the roots of the plant dry out quite quickly.

Basic rules for choosing seedlings:

  1. Don't buy fall seedlings with a lot of leaves.
  2. It is necessary to remove a piece of the skin or cut off the top. The green pulp should be moist and juicy.
  3. The vine may crackle a little when bent, but will not break.
  4. The kidneys shouldn't fall off.
  5. The seedling must be grafted.

Before disembarking, you should choose a suitable place.

Choose the right site, taking into account the following factors:

  1. Suitable primer. The soil should be rich in minerals and limestone.
  2. Adequate lighting. The sun's rays should fall on the vines. For this reason, the grapes should be located in the hills.
  3. Moderate wind. A calm environment can cause the formation of fungi, and a strong wind tears off clusters, leaves, shoots and can break the vines.

For planting, square holes are dug a meter in size, into which fertilizers are applied: manure, wood ash, phosphorus and potash fertilizers. Pegs are driven into each hole, to which the seedlings are tied. The bush is watered with 2-3 buckets of water.

The seedlings are planted in rows at least 3 m apart. The distance between the rows should be at least 1.5 m. This will facilitate the processing of the bush and harvesting.

The vineyard is planted from north to south.

Care of young and mature vines

Planting grapes correctly does not guarantee a rich harvest. When growing, care is also important.

Top dressing

During the growing season, the plant needs feeding, for which mineral and organic fertilizers are usually used. It must be held no later than the 2nd week of July.

Subsequent feeding of the bush can provoke increased vegetation. A large number of leaves can block the sun from the bunches of grapes, thus slowing their ripening.

Watering

Berries during the ripening period need watering. You shouldn't flood the bushes. This will negatively affect the quality of the berries - they will become watery. In addition, high humidity is favorable for the development of fungus.

Pruning

To form a vineyard, the branches should be pruned by about 5-6 eyes. Because of this, the lower buds will begin to develop and as a result, fertility will increase.

The harvest time depends on the purpose of the cultivation. You can collect the fruits using a combine.

Reproduction methods

Cabernet Sauvignon grapes are propagated by cuttings. For reproduction, shoots of the same size are chosen. They are cut at 40-60 cm with 4 developed buds. Fragments are cleared of leaves and tendrils. Then they are immersed in water for 24 hours, and then treated with copper sulfate.

The cuttings are stored in a dark place, such as a basement. And also they can be buried in the ground.

Diseases and pests

The Cabernet Sauvignon grape variety is characterized by high resistance to diseases. However, it is recommended to carry out prophylaxis in order to avoid unpleasant consequences and to protect the vine.

This variety is afraid of:

  • fungal diseases;
  • spider and grape mites;
  • rot;
  • leaflet;
  • itching.

In stores, special preparations are sold with which it is recommended to process grapes for prophylaxis. These drugs are toxic, so the treatment should be carried out in early spring. If the defeat could not be avoided, then the treatment must be completed no later than a month before harvesting the fruits.

To reduce the risk of tick infestation, you can spray the bushes with soapy water.

Wasps are very dangerous for the fruits of this variety. The site should be regularly inspected for the presence of their nests. To fight, you need to set special traps or you can cover the bunches with gauze.

Cabernet Sauvignon grape variety is unpretentious in care. However, there are some peculiarities in breeding. Proper planting and care will help you reap a rich harvest.


Cabernet Sauvignon grape variety: description, care, cultivation and reviews

The cultivated grape (Vitis vinifera) is a representative of perennial shrub vines. Its technical varieties are grown specifically for the production of strong, table and dessert wines. Fresh berries of such grapes are usually not eaten due to their peculiar taste. Many technical varieties of this cultivated plant have been bred by breeders. And one of the best is Cabernet Sauvignon.


Technical characteristics of the variety

Sauvignon Blanc belongs to the technical varieties used for winemaking on an industrial scale. Specifications include a description of the vine, bunch of grapes, ripening times, and yield of the variety.

The grape bush is formed by vines - these are the shoots on which the grapes are formed. Young shoots are reddish-brown in color, with growth they acquire a green color. Over the years, the vines thicken and become tree-like. Leaves are medium-sized, leathery, dense, strongly dissected into 3 or 5 parts.

Bunch

The grapes are oblong, small in size, tightly collected in compact clusters, which have a cylindrical shape up to 15 centimeters long and up to 10 centimeters in diameter. Grape berries contain 2-3 seeds, and the berries have a dense skin. The bunch weighs up to 130 grams.

Ripening period and yield

Sauvignon Blanc is a late ripening variety. Depending on weather conditions, harvesting is carried out in September-October. The yield of the variety is low, the plant needs proper care, suitable weather conditions during the summer and a special soil. In vineyards, with proper care, up to 7000 liters of wine are obtained per hectare.


Cabernet Franc variety

Cabernet Franc grapes are also used to make red wines. This is a legendary variety, presumably of Spanish origin, widely grown in France since the beginning of the 18th century. Now it is distributed both in European countries and in Australia, Canada, the USA and South Africa.

It is also a mid-late variety, but ripens an average of 10 days earlier than its famous offspring Cabernet Sauvignon. The variety works best on sandy soils, although it adapts to others. At an early stage of ripeness, a tint of green foliage can be traced in the taste, at a later harvest it gives way to fruity notes, which are highly valued in wine. Compared to Sauvignon from Fran, wines are lighter and more aromatic.

Moldovan industrial vineyard Cabernet on video:


Planting Cabernet Sauvignon grapes

To obtain a healthy harvest, it is necessary to adhere to the standard rules of agricultural technology for growing grapes, and also take into account some of the features of this hybrid.

Seedling selection rules

For Cabernet Sauvignon, take well-developed, annual or biennial seedlings. The rhizome of the planting material should be sufficiently branched, up to 10 cm long, with a white core in the cut. Give preference to rooted specimens with a clod of earth. The vine should have 5 to 10 eyes. Requirements for rooted cuttings are similar.

Landing dates

They are planted in spring, as soon as the air temperature rises to +15 degrees Celsius and the threat of frost on the soil disappears. Usually this is the end of April - beginning of May.

Choosing a suitable landing site

The Cabernet Sauvignon grape is a thermophilic crop that needs sufficient sunlight. Choose a place for its cultivation on the southern, southwestern and southeastern slopes. At the summer cottage, under the liana, you need to highlight the most illuminated places. If the terrain is flat, plant from south to north, and on slopes plant rows of grapes from east to west.

Top dressing

Every 3 years (in the fall, before digging), it is necessary to apply manure (6–8 kg per 1 m²). This fertilizer contains nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and other trace elements useful for the vine. Use phosphorus and potash fertilizers together with manure (at the rate of 50-60 g per 1 m²).

Also learn how to properly feed grapes in the fall. A universal nutrient that stimulates the growth and development of grape bushes is potassium humate (feed according to the instructions).

Every spring, feed the vine with nitrogen fertilizers (3-4 g per 1 m²).

Winegrowers appreciate Cabernet Sauvignon for its unpretentious care. This hybrid is not a hassle, all it needs is regular watering and periodic feeding. The watering regime should be built in such a way that the soil always remains moist (here we are guided by the weather). Top dressing is carried out 3-5 times per season. It is best to use organic fertilizers in liquid form to increase yields. Top dressing is introduced at intervals of 10-15 days.

After the end of the growing season (mid-July), fertilization is not recommended. This will increase the amount of greenery, which prevents the berries from ripening.

Disease prevention

Like other crops, grapes can be susceptible to disease. For Cabernet Sauvignon, diseases of fungal and bacterial origin are most typical. To prevent the occurrence of these problems, it is necessary:

  • pruning in spring and autumnso as not to create conditions for high humidity. Read about the correct autumn pruning of grapes here.
  • immediately remove any damaged, rotting and sore areas of branches
  • remove from the soil after harvest all organic waste around the bush
  • in the spring, when the first buds bloom, spray plants with antibacterial compounds.


This variety has increased resistance to mildew damage,
resistant to gray mold damage.

Feeding and covering the bushes during cold weather helps to strengthen the plants, which also prevents the development of diseases.

Grape mite

Numerous raised areas on the leaf plate indicate the settlement of the grape mite. He pierces them and salivates. A white fluff appears on the back of the sheet, which subsequently turns red. If you do not take any measures, already in July you can observe the defeat of the entire bush.

Affected leaves require removal and burning. The bush is sprayed with sulfur-containing preparations at least twice, carefully treating both sides of the leaf.

Leaf roll

The leafworm butterfly loves to spoil the berries. She enmeshes them with a dense web, blocking the access of nutrients. As a result of massive attacks, crops rot.

When infected, insecticides are used. The frequency of treatment depends on the degree of damage to the bush, but more often than four times per season it is not worth spraying the grapes.


For a long time they could not determine the origin of this grape variety. However, scientists from the University of Bordeaux (France) found that it appeared from a spontaneous crossing of Sauvignon Blanc and Cabernet Franc varieties. In Bordeaux, it was actively cultivated already in the 18th century.

Description of the grape variety Cabernet Sauvignon

The vines are distinguished by medium-sized berries of dark blue color with thick skin and thick brushes. In the photo, this characteristic is perfectly traced. Suitable for cultivation in warm regions due to a fairly late ripening. With insufficient maturity, there is a herbaceous tone in the taste, and in the aftertaste - green pepper, which are still not too desirable for red wine.

Distribution regions of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes

Initially, Bordeaux is considered the birthplace of Cabernet Sauvignon, but now it has actually spread throughout the world. Popular in the south and southwest of France, Italy and Spain. It is also very common in the New World: it is easy to find in Australia and New Zealand, Bulgaria, Argentina, California and Washington (USA), Moldova, Russia, Chile, South Africa and in dozens of other countries with any suitable climate.

General reviews of Cabernet Sauvignon wine

Wines from this grape are distinguished by aromas of black currant, cedar wood, spices (first of all, black pepper), violets, juniper, truffles, plums, tobacco. Wine from Cabernet Sauvignon is famous for its versatility, fullness, tannins.It often has great potential for storage and maturation in bottles, while acquiring subtlety and nobility, according to the description and photos of many tasters.

Due to its unsurpassed qualities, Cabernet Sauvignon has become a raw material for the production of classic Medoc wines (Bordeaux wine appellation), where it is sometimes blended with Merlot and Cabernet Franc grapes. But even alone, due to its characteristics, it is able to become an excellent wine, especially after maturation and aging in oak barrels.

Another feature of this grape variety is that the wines produced from it have more or less the same taste. So when you buy a bottle of Cabernet Sauvignon, you can already roughly know what you will get for your money.


Detailed description of the grape variety Cabernet Sauvignon

Almost everyone has heard of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, as well as the wine of the same name. This technical variety is usually grown for winemaking. Many gourmets consider him the "king of the grapes", just like Chardonnay. Let's try to understand the reasons for the popularity of Cabernet Sauvignon. Let's talk about the description and properties.

This hybrid was bred by crossing in the 17th century in France.

The main characteristics of the variety:

  1. Saplings are distinguished by strong growth.
  2. The leaves of the plant are rounded, the edges of which are bordered with a characteristic red tint.
  3. The flowers are bisexual.
  4. This culture is characterized by a low acidity of approximately 8 g / l.
  5. Productivity 94 kg / ha.

The sugar content of grapes is about 19-21% and is not inferior to other similar varieties.

Cabernet Sauvignon grape variety grown for making red wine

The ripening period of berries primarily depends on the purpose:

  • if the grapes are used to make table wines, then the fruits are harvested at about 143 days
  • for the preparation of dessert wines, the ripening period is slightly longer and is approximately 165 days.

The culture grows best on the southern slopes. If there are no natural hills, it is necessary to make artificial ones. The area should be well warmed up by the rays of the sun. This variety is grown in the southern regions of Moldova. Caucasus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, France, USA, Italy and Argentina.

Bunches of characteristic cylindrical-conical shape, outwardly attractive and up to 15 cm long and up to 8 cm wide. The brushes are distinguished by a loose structure.

The main characteristics of berries:

  • bunch weight on average 70 g
  • berry color dark blue
  • externally, the berries are covered with a waxy bloom
  • the shape of the berries is regular, round, 12-15mm in diameter
  • the skin is relatively thick
  • juicy pulp
  • the taste is sweet, nightshade

There are approximately 1-3 seeds in the berry.

A distinctive feature of this variety is the characteristic smell of currants in the fruit after ripening.

Cabernet sauvignon berries close up

Let's try to figure out what are the advantages and disadvantages of this culture.

The main advantages of the Cabernet Sauvignon grape variety:

  1. Nice berry taste.
  2. Disease resistance.
  3. This culture is widely used in the production of vintage wines and quality juices.
  4. Resistance to weather conditions: the bunches are able to hang on the bushes for a long period without rotting.
  5. Good yield.

Despite the advantages, the variety also has certain disadvantages:

  • partial or massive shedding of ovaries
  • possible peas.

However, with proper care, you can forget about the above disadvantages.

Cabernet Sauvignon is considered primarily a wine variety.
The thick peel of the berries contains a large amount of trace elements that open up over time. For this reason, the wine changes its taste and aroma.

The high concentration of tannins contained in the fruit makes the taste of the wine more tart, as well as rich. The drink contains fruity notes.

Usually the drink is aged in oak barrels for at least 9 months. The output is fairly strong wines containing 13-15% alcohol.

The resulting red wine from the technical grape variety Cabernet

It is necessary to plant grapes with seedlings in mid-autumn or early spring.

Seedlings need to be bought immediately before planting, since the roots of the plant dry out quite quickly.

Basic rules for choosing seedlings:

  1. Don't buy fall seedlings with a lot of leaves.
  2. It is necessary to remove a piece of the skin or cut off the top. The green pulp should be moist and juicy.
  3. The vine may crackle a little when bent, but will not break.
  4. The kidneys shouldn't fall off.
  5. The seedling must be grafted.

Before disembarking, you should choose a suitable place.

Cultivated technical grape variety Cabernet Sauvignon, grown in the fields of Moldova

Choose the right site, taking into account the following factors:

  1. Suitable primer. The soil should be rich in minerals and limestone.
  2. Adequate lighting. The sun's rays should fall on the vines. For this reason, the grapes should be located in the hills.
  3. Moderate wind. A calm environment can cause the formation of fungi, and a strong wind tears off clusters, leaves, shoots and can break the vines.

For planting, square holes are dug a meter in size, into which fertilizers are applied: manure, wood ash, phosphorus and potash fertilizers. Pegs are driven into each hole, to which the seedlings are tied. The bush is watered with 2-3 buckets of water.

The seedlings are planted in rows at least 3 m apart. The distance between the rows should be at least 1.5 m. This will facilitate the processing of the bush and harvesting.

The vineyard is planted from north to south.

Planting grapes correctly does not guarantee a rich harvest. When growing, care is also important.

Top dressing

During the growing season, the plant needs feeding, for which mineral and organic fertilizers are usually used. It must be held no later than the 2nd week of July.

Subsequent feeding of the bush can provoke increased vegetation. A large number of leaves can block the sun from the bunches of grapes, thus slowing their ripening.

Spraying grapes using powder fertilizers

Watering

Berries during the ripening period need watering. You shouldn't flood the bushes. This will negatively affect the quality of the berries - they will become watery. In addition, high humidity is favorable for the development of fungus.

Pruning

To form a vineyard, the branches should be pruned by about 5-6 eyes. Because of this, the lower buds will begin to develop and as a result, fertility will increase.

The harvest time depends on the purpose of the cultivation. You can collect the fruits using a combine.

Autumn pruning of Cabernet Sauvignon before winter

Cabernet Sauvignon grapes are propagated by cuttings. For reproduction, shoots of the same size are chosen. They are cut at 40-60 cm with 4 developed buds. Fragments are cleared of leaves and tendrils. Then they are immersed in water for 24 hours, and then treated with copper sulfate.

The cuttings are stored in a dark place, such as a basement. And also they can be buried in the ground.

Diseases and pests

The Cabernet Sauvignon grape variety is characterized by high resistance to diseases. However, it is recommended to carry out prophylaxis in order to avoid unpleasant consequences and to protect the vine.

This variety is afraid of:

  • fungal diseases
  • spider and grape mites
  • rot
  • leaflet
  • itching.

A grape mite on the back of a leaf

In stores, special preparations are sold with which it is recommended to process grapes for prophylaxis. These drugs are toxic, so the treatment should be carried out in early spring. If the defeat could not be avoided, then the treatment must be completed no later than a month before harvesting the fruits.

To reduce the risk of tick infestation, you can spray the bushes with soapy water.

Wasps are very dangerous for the fruits of this variety. The site should be regularly inspected for the presence of their nests. To fight, you need to set special traps or you can cover the bunches with gauze.

Cabernet Sauvignon grape variety is unpretentious in care. However, there are some peculiarities in breeding. Proper planting and care will help you reap a rich harvest.


Watch the video: Cane pruning Types of Grapes - Cabernet Sauvignon u0026 Merlot Cane Prune Grapevines