Successful cultivation and longevity of cherries is possible only with the absolute health of the tree. Throughout its life, the fruit tree is threatened by a variety of diseases or physiological disorders in the internal organs.... Often such phenomena become a real problem, the trees stop bearing fruit, dry up and then simply die. This happens even with the sturdiest trees. In this article, we will figure out why such troubles happen, we will get acquainted with possible diseases of cherries, what preventive measures to take and how to treat affected trees.
Why cherries do not bear fruit, possible diseases and methods of treatment
Cherry is one of the most disease-resistant crops among fruit trees. These indicators have significantly decreased, and the main reasons for this were the emergence of new types of fungal diseases and natural disasters.
The reason for the spread of the disease may be non-compliance with prevention and farming rules.... Rotting plant debris, improper crop rotation, massive spread of pests, lack of fungicide treatment, contributing to the epidemic of the entire site.
Most often cherries are affected by diseases:
- Hole spot
- Gum therapy,
- Root cancer.
Dangerous diseases become frequent reasons for the lack of fruiting, even with abundant cherry blossoms: coccomycosis and moniliosis. Other fruit trees in your garden can also get sick with these diseases: cherries, apricots, plums and others.
In order to provide the tree with timely assistance, to protect itself from loss of harvest and possibly the plant itself, you need to constantly inspect it. Many diseases can be recognized in a short time, when the damage done to the cherry is minimal. You can find out how to do this in this article.
Hole spot (clasterosporium disease)
This is a fungal disease that affects all structures of the tree.
- Signs of clotterosporia... The formation of light brown spots on the leaves with a red-brown border. The affected tissues die off and fall out. Torn holes form on the sheet. The shoots are covered with cracking spots, from which gum flows. The kidneys become black and shiny.
- Treatment... Pruning and burning all affected areas of the tree. Spraying cherries and periostemal circle with 3% Bordeaux liquid. Digging and complete destruction of plant residues in the periosteal circle. In case of severe damage, the procedure is repeated after a week. Treatment of gum wounds.
- Effects... Premature fall of leaves, shoots and branches. Drying of fruits, loss of commercial quality.
Coccomycosis: ways to fight the fungus
This fungal disease is mainly formed on the leaves, less often it affects the berries. This disease is inherent in trees growing both in the Moscow region and in other regions of Russia.
- Signs... At the beginning of the disease, small red dots appear on the leaf; as the disease progresses, they acquire large sizes and gradually merge with each other. At high humidity, a pink bloom forms on the underside of the leaf. Lack of treatment leads to browning and necrosis, dead tissue falls off, and lacerated wounds form on the leaves.
- What to do... In autumn (after leaf fall) and in spring (before bud break), treat with 4% Bordeaux liquid. Pruning and destroying affected areas.
- Effects... Premature leaf fall, depletion and death of the tree, loss of yield.
Moniliosis or gray rot
This is a fungal disease, which is also called monilial burn. Cherries become infected with moniliosis when the tree begins to bloom through bark damage.
- Signs... During the wet and warm season, small white pustules are formed on the petioles and the lower surface of the leaves, which in appearance resemble branched chains. Spores of the fungus are carried by the wind and insects on the surface of the fruit, forming brown spots on them, which gradually spread over the entire surface. After another 10 days, yellowish cushions (sporodochia) form on the surface of the fetus. Affected fruits fall off or remain on cherry branches, where the spores of the fungus overwinter and, when the air temperature is above + 15 °, begin to develop.
- Treatment... All plant waste in the vicinity of the tree is collected and burned. Cherry branches are cut 10 cm below the lesion level, the bark is cleaned to healthy tissue. Cherry is treated with fungicides, the main preparations: Azocene, Topsin, Horus (15 g / 10 l).
- Effects... Lack of fruiting, gradual death of the tree, epidemic on the site.
Getting rid of moniliosis is not easy, therefore, fungicide treatment must be carried out repeatedly, cutting off the affected areas as they appear and burning all plant waste.
Anthracnose - berry disease, how to treat
This fungal disease most often affects cherry fruits and goes unnoticed for a long time.
- Signs... At the beginning of the lesion, dull dots appear on the fruits, gradually expanding into a bulge of a pale pink color. At low humidity, cherries mummify, turn black and fall off.
- Treatment... Spraying cherries with contact fungicide Poliram. Treatments are carried out before and after flowering, and the third after 15 days.
- Effects... Drying of shoots, loss of yield up to 80%.
Gum therapy (gommosis)
Appears after mechanical damage to the bark, frostbite, sunburn or fungal infections.
- Signs... Isolation of a thick, colorless or brown resin - gum from damage to the tree.
- Treatment... Disinfection of wounds with 1% solution of copper sulfate, treatment with garden varnish. The affected branches are cut and burned. Whitewashing the trunk with lime in spring and autumn.
- Effects... Weakening of the tree, decrease in productivity, death of branches.
Rust - leaf disease
Fungal disease affecting cherry leaves. The causative agent of the disease is the mushroom Gymnosporangium sabinae, the host of which is a juniper, and the intermediate is a pear.
- Signs... At the onset of the disease, small greenish-yellow spots form on the leaves, which gradually increase and the affected tissues swell. A few days after the first signs appear, a powdery coating forms on the surface of the leaf, which gradually darkens.
- Treatment... Spraying cherries before budding with 5% Bordeaux liquid, re-spraying with 1% preparation before flowering. Destruction of plant debris and diseased leaves.
- Effects... Reduced fruiting and winter hardiness, leaf fall.
Re-planting of plum crops in place of the affected plant is possible only after 2-3 years. You need to take a close look at the conifers on the site, which can be sources of rust.
Scab, what measures to take?
A fungal disease that damages the leaves and fruits of cherries.
- Signs... After the cherry is damaged by the spores of the pathogen, brown-olive spots with a velvety surface appear on the leaves. Yellow circles blur around the spot. Gradually, the spores of the fungus pass to the fruit, cracks form on them. Unripe green fruits stop developing.
- Treatment... Spraying the cherries and the periosteum circle with the Nitrafen preparation until the buds open. After that, you need to do three treatments with 1% Bordeaux liquid: during bud break, after flowering, after harvest. Repeat the procedure if necessary.
- Effects... Loss of crops.
Root cancer, what to do?
This is a bacterial root lesion that appears through contaminated soil.
- Signs... The appearance on the root collar, main and lateral roots of swollen growths - galls. At the onset of the disease, the growths are small, soft and with a smooth surface. As the disease progresses, they increase in size, acquire a hard and bumpy surface. In the fall, the growths are destroyed.
- Treatment... Two treatments of cherries with a 3% solution of ferrous sulfate: before and after the growing season.
- Effects... Deficiency of plant nutrition, impaired sap flow, decreased productivity and disease resistance.
Before planting, a thorough inspection of the planting material is required. If tumor-like growths are found, the affected areas are cut off to healthy tissue, the roots are treated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate.
Prevention of cherry diseases
Despite the fact that some cherry varieties are characterized by resistance to certain diseases, this is a relative concept. Lack of preventive work, violation of agricultural practices, unfavorable climatic conditions in the aggregate weaken the plantand defeat will happen anyway. Therefore, this must be taken care of in advance.
If the cherry's protective covers are damaged, and this happens when branches break, leaves break, frost breaks, cuts in the bark, the risk of damage increases. Rodent damage to roots contributes to the development of root cancerwhich can enter the structure of the tree through vectors or from contaminated soil.
- timely pruning and removal of old, rotten and overgrown branches;
- treatment of wounds with garden varnish;
- protection of cherries in winter from rodents;
- whitewashing the trunk with lime from frost breakers.
When planting cherries, it is important to prevent possible squall winds blowing over the area.
Deficiency of trace elements and moisture
Climate change contributes to the massive spread of fungal and bacterial infections. Constant temperature fluctuations between cold and warm create a favorable environment for the development of microorganisms... A weak and unprepared tree has a very low chance of resisting the pressure of fungi and bacteria.
Therefore, autumn dressings are required. How much fertilizer should be applied? Based on 1m2 in the periosteal circle bring:
- manure (5 kg) or an aqueous solution of potassium chloride (150 g / 10 l);
- an aqueous solution of superphosphate (300 g / 10 l).
In the absence of rain, water-charging irrigation is carried out at least 18 buckets of water under each tree.
Preventive treatment with fungicides should be carried out three times a year.... In spring, before bud break, to suppress spores and bacteria that have overwintered in tree structures. During flowering to consolidate the result. In autumn, to minimize the activity of microorganisms during temperature changes.
For this, the cherries are sprayed:
- in the spring a solution of copper sulfate, soap and water (300g / 50g / 10l);
- in summer an aqueous solution of ferrous sulfate (30 g / 10 l);
- after harvest 1% bordeaux liquid.
Additional protection for the tree can be created by adding copper sulphate to the lime mixture to whitewash the trunk.
To minimize the risk of developing diseases, every year you need to adhere to the rules, these are:
- complete removal of plant residues from the site;
- stem cleaning trees from exfoliated bark, layers of moss and lichens;
- digging plot, weed removal;
- thinning thickened crown;
- correct neighborhood and distance between plants.
The lack of prevention in at least one gardening area contributes to the spread of pests that are carriers of bacteria. In addition, massive insect infestation on cherry strongly depletes the plant. This can be prevented only with complete control over the number of pests.
Leaf fall in July or August, causes of tree disease
Often gardeners ask the question: "Why did the cherry shed its leaves in July or August?" And the reason for this is a fungal disease.
After a wet spring, which is replaced by a rainy summer, a completely atypical picture can be observed in the orchard: the leaves have fallen, and on the bare branches ripening cherry fruits... This occurs in the second decade of July. The leaves turn yellow and fall off, and the fruits on such trees become smaller and mummified, which leads to a complete or partial loss of the crop.
The culprit of the pathological phenomenon is coccomycosis, which the tree was affected by in the previous season.... Further, the development of spores of the fungus was facilitated by the absence of severe frosts, so the infection overwintered well and, after warming to + 15 ° C, began to actively multiply spores.
When affected by coccomycosis, the cherry does not die, but it weakens strongly before winter. Each phase of a tree's life cycle has its own meaning.... At the beginning of the growing season, the roots of the tree provide food for fruit set and leaf growth. And after fruiting and before leaf fall, the leaves provide the roots and structures of the tree with nutrients for the winter season.
Therefore, when the leaves are shed from the tree in July, the cherry cannot properly prepare for the dormant period... Having survived several such winters, the tree gradually dies.
Medical measures should be started immediately after a lesion is detected. It may be necessary to remove most of the skeletal branches, carry out several treatments according to the recommended scheme, but without these measures it is impossible to get rid of coccomycosis.
The fight against cherry diseases will be successful if you know well all the weaknesses of infections.... These are dryness, sunlight, cleanliness and fungicide treatment. Maintaining these conditions is not difficult and time-consuming. And you can lay a healthy foundation already when planting cherries, avoiding low-lying areas with stagnant moisture and fogs.
Diseases and pests of cherries: description and protective measures
The most common cherry diseases and pests include European cancer, phyllostictosis, cercosporiasis, tuberculariosis, chlorosis, monilial burn, cherry aphids, mucous sawflies, herb bugs, and cherry tubernets. Without timely protective measures, the crop can be completely destroyed, and the trees themselves risk dying.
On this page you can familiarize yourself with the description of diseases and pests of cherries, as well as learn about ways to treat trees in the garden.
Cherries grown in the garden can be a shrub or a tree, the height of which can be up to 10 meters. The color of the bark is brown-gray. Elliptical pointed leaf plates have petioles, their length is about 8 centimeters. The front surface of the leaves is dark green, and the back has a paler color. Umbrellas consist of 2 or 3 flowers of pink or white color. Flowering begins in the last days of March or the first in April. Cherry blossoms are among the most beautiful plants in nature. The fruit is a juicy spherical drupe, reaching about 10 mm in diameter and having a sweet-sour taste. The beginning of fruiting is observed in the period from mid to late May.
Rating of popular varieties for the Leningrad region
The table shows the characteristics of cherry varieties popular in the Leningrad region:
|Plant type||Bushy,||Bushy and||Tree-like||Tree-like|
|Portability||Frost resistant||Excellent||Good winter hardiness||Frost resistance|
|frost||freezing possible||winter hardiness||possible freezing||Up to - (35 - 40) ᵒС|
|flower buds.||flower buds.|
|Height, m||03.05.2018||1,5 – 2,5||2,5 – 3||Until 6|
|The beginning of fruiting after planting, years||04.05.2018||On the 4th||Vaccinated: 2 - 3||03.05.2018|
|01.01.1970||own-rooted: 3 - 4.||01.01.1970|
|Term||flowering||Early may||The end of May||The end of May||Early may|
|collection||Mid july||Early august||Mid June - end of July.||Mid june|
|Productivity, kg||5||Up to 15||05.06.2018||50|
|Berries||Dark,||Beautiful||Small tender, light red||Large fragrant with pleasant sourness|
|sweet and sour||quality,|
|Benefits||Resistance to||Resistance to||Good immunity to infections and diseases||High yield|
|arid hot||diseases||Tolerates winter well||strong immunity to coccomycosis|
|weather, rot, disease,||good||high yielding||endurance|
|scab||immunity||suitability for conservation, winemaking.|
|disadvantages||Low||Not suitable for storage and processing.||Low transportability and keeping quality|
|Pollinators||Lyubskaya, Shubinka,||Vladimirskaya,||Shubinka, Shpanka Shimskaya.||Amorel|
Note. The yield is given for the Leningrad region.
The remarkable qualities of felt cherries attract the attention of gardeners in the Northwest regions. It is distinguished by high winter hardiness, lack of root growth, early onset of fruiting, excellent seed germination. There are several varieties and varieties of this cherry, obtained by crossing with other fruit crops, which makes it possible to choose a wide variety of varietal seedlings.
Another popular variety in the Leningrad region is Denisena yellow, which is distinguished by high frost resistance and productivity.
Variety Shokoladnitsa with a rich chocolate color of cherries, similar to sweet cherries, has good frost resistance and high yield (up to 11 kg). But the variety is susceptible to fungal infections and requires constant care. In addition, for the winter, the trunks must be sheltered from rodents.
Important! Even for self-fertile varieties, obtaining a guaranteed stable yield is possible with pollinating trees. It is necessary to plant 5-7 seedlings at a distance of 3-5 meters, selecting the appropriate pollinator varieties.
Noteworthy is the old, well-known variety of Vladimirskaya cherry. There are many varieties, and, accordingly, names (Izbyletskaya, Poditeleva, Vyaznikovskaya, Dobroselskaya, Vladimirovka, etc.).
It is characterized by high frost resistance, withstands frosts down to -35C, although at this temperature freezing of flower buds is possible.
There are tree and bush forms. Fruiting in grafted seedlings begins 2-3 years after planting, those obtained from root shoots - 3-5 years. The fruits ripen in mid-July.
Fruits are fragrant, of excellent taste, up to 2 cm in diameter, the color of ripe cherries is almost black. Used fresh and for conservation.
Resistant to diseases, scab, which is especially important for the humid climate of the Leningrad region. It is grown universally in the Northwest region. It is self-fertile, suitable as pollinators: Lyubskaya, Turgenevka, Shubinka.
Cherry varieties Rubinovaya zoned in the North-West region. Differs in frost resistance. The variety is affected by coccomycosis, but has good immunity to moniliosis. The fruits are tender, juicy and reach a weight of 4 g.
Self-infertile variety, successful pollinators: Vladimirskaya, Otechestvennaya.
Gardeners love Shpanka Shimskaya, it can withstand frost down to -35 ° C for a long time and spring frosts. Planting and maintenance is not particularly difficult, the endurance is at the level of the felt cherry. The plant lives up to 25 years.
As if a low-growing felt cherry was created for northern winters. For the Leningrad Region, varieties have been developed that grow in harsh weather conditions. Local gardeners like it for its compact crown and unusually sweet tasting berry.
One of the best varieties of felt cherries is Delight. It is early, fruitful (up to 9 kg), compact bush.
One of the finest felt cherries - Delight
The most winter-hardy felt cherry is the Okeanskaya Virovskaya variety; it also has a high yield.
Useful properties of cherries
Composition and calorie content
Fresh cherries contain (per 100 g): 
The chemical composition of cherries largely depends on the variety, soil composition and climate in which it grows. However, in any case, fresh and dried fruits bring the greatest benefits to the body. Despite the fact that they cannot be identified as champions in terms of the content of this or that useful element, a wide range of vitamins and minerals is more or less uniformly presented in them. Interestingly, when cherries are dried, nutrients are not only not lost, but their number increases. Berries do not tolerate freezing so well - some of the nutrients are still destroyed.
It is better to dry cherries without adding sugar, otherwise their calorie content increases. Berries canned in syrup and cherry jams are also characterized by a high sugar content and high calorie content. In addition, they contain significantly less vitamins and trace elements, therefore, the harm and health benefits of cherries are determined by the way they are prepared or harvested.
Looking at the above tables, we can conclude that cherries are rich in vitamins A and C (100 g of these berries will provide 20% of the daily value of retinol and 12% of ascorbic acid). In addition, they contain B vitamins, as well as vitamin E and PP. Also, cherries are a source of the essential amino acid tryptophan, folic acid and pectin substances . Moreover, berries contain potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, etc. But their main trump card is the content of antioxidants.
Eating cherries can have a positive effect on the functioning of the cardiovascular system. Vitamin PP, especially in combination with ascorbic acid, reduces capillary permeability and promotes the establishment of metabolic processes in the walls of blood vessels . In addition, the chemical composition of cherries contains coumarins (mainly oxycoumarins), which are involved in the regulation of the blood clotting process. Their effect can be compared to the effect of anticoagulants, which prevent blood clots.
It is impossible to ignore the fact that cherries contain vitamin B9 or folic acid. More importantly, iron and vitamin C enter the body along with it from the berries. This whole complex is extremely useful for anemia.
Due to the presence in its composition of a set of organic acids, namely ascorbic, citric, malic, cherries contribute to an increase in stomach acidity and are recommended for gastritis (with low acidity). And the presence of salicylic, formic and succinic acids, in turn, determines the bactericidal properties of the berries.
Cherry fruits are rich in antioxidants, in particular, anthocyanins - glycosides that determine the color of the berry. This plant pigment helps the body fight inflammation and oxidative stress that damage healthy cells . In addition, anthocyanins remove uric acid from the body and prevent its crystallization with subsequent deposition on the joints. Thus, cherries can be helpful in treating gout, or at least help relieve gout attacks.
The pectin substances contained in cherries, which are considered excellent natural enterosorbents, help cleanse the body, removing toxic elements from it. They also help maintain normal cholesterol levels.
The presence of potassium and magnesium in the berry ensures the removal of excess fluid from the body. The consumption of cherries alone, of course, will not help to solve the problem of edema, but in combination with reduced salt intake and active movement, you can count on a noticeable effect.
The significant amount of copper in the fruit suggests that it has sedative properties and contributes to calming the nervous system. However, this effect is not so pronounced as to count on qualitative changes in the condition of people with serious nervous disorders.
Note that together with the fruits of cherries, one of the essential amino acids, tryptophan, enters the body, from which the hormones serotonin and melatonin are synthesized. The latter takes an active part in the regulation of circadian rhythms and has a positive effect on the duration and quality of sleep. Experiments have shown that a daily intake of 240 ml of cherry juice for five days helps to eliminate sleep problems and helps people with insomnia to fall asleep .
The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of the flavonoids that make up the berry provide quick muscle recovery after active physical exertion . Cherry juice can help relieve pain and minor muscle inflammation and can be beneficial with regular exercise.
The use of cherries in medicine
Today, cherry fruits are not actively used in conventional medicine, although the benefits and harms of this fruit are studied by many scientists. But in pharmacology, it already finds application cherry gum (a sticky mass protruding from a tree trunk in places of bark damage). Due to its properties, it usually becomes a vaccine adjuvant - a substance designed to enhance the body's immune response to the injected antigen.
In addition, it is used in drug delivery systems - to transport the drug directly to the desired organ or cells. Sometimes gum also performs a purely technical function of an emulsifier, preventing the various components of drugs from mixing. Finally, "cherry glue", which has enveloping properties, is sometimes used in the manufacture of drugs aimed at treating gastrointestinal diseases.
It is also worth noting that herbal diuretics have been gaining popularity lately. Unlike chemical medicines, they help get rid of excess fluid with less loss of useful elements. These include decoction of cherry stalks... It comes in the form of dietary supplements and has a mild effect on the body. Pharmaceutical companies developing such drugs claim that due to the presence of potassium and flavonoids in cherries, the supplement helps to fight inflammation of the urinary tract.
Finally, given that cherries have a strong pleasant smell, natural flavoring is widely used to improve the taste and smell of medicines (candies, tablets, mixtures, syrups, powders, etc.)
Cherries in folk medicine
Since cherries are a very common and affordable product that has a lot of useful substances, they are often used in traditional medicine recipes. From the fruits and other parts of the plant (gum, leaves, stalks, twigs), infusions, decoctions, potions are prepared, compresses and baths are made. However, you should not get carried away with self-medication, and if you have health problems, you should definitely consult a doctor. With the approval of a doctor, cherries can be a good addition to medical treatment, but not a substitute for it.
By themselves, fresh berries are considered a mild laxative. They help to solve the problem of constipation that occurs with low mobility of a person. Also, cherries are an effective assistant in the fight against bad breath. It should be clarified that the fruit will not solve the health problems that result in bad breath. But in cases where you have eaten a product that releases sulfur compounds when digested (eg garlic), cherries will help neutralize the "flavor."
There are many popular recipes to help fight hypertension. So, according to one of them, it is necessary to grind in a blender or pass through a meat grinder 200 g of fresh pitted cherries, 2 cloves of garlic and 1 tablespoon of honey. You need to take this mixture one tablespoon daily before breakfast.
As for fresh cherry juice, folk healers recommend using it for epilepsy and some mental illnesses. The drink has a sedative effect due to the copper it contains. It also has a positive effect on the digestive system, improving appetite. Moreover, it is believed that the juice is able to fight the pathogens of dysentery and will be effective in fever and bronchitis (as an expectorant). Finally, the combination of cherry and watermelon juices prevents kidney stones. Usually they drink one glass after each meal.
Cherry gum or simply wood "glue" envelops well and therefore is recommended for the treatment of inflammation of the mucous membranes of the intestines and stomach. Traditional healers claim that its regular use reduces and normalizes the acidity of the stomach, thereby helping to get rid of heartburn and bouts of pain in the right side. In addition, the gum promotes the rapid healing of unbroken calluses. After a warm bath, rinse your feet with cool water, apply fresh "glue" to the sore spot and secure with a plaster.
Finally, cherry tree leaves are considered to be a good remedy for stopping nosebleeds and accelerating wound healing. Traditional healers recommend dipping cotton swabs or bandages in a gruel of crushed fresh leaves.
For colds accompanied by a sore throat, folk healers advise putting 500 g of fresh cherries in 500 ml of dry red wine and boiling for 10 minutes. Add some sugar at the end. You need to take a drink half a glass 3-4 times during the day. Cherries can also be used as an antipyretic for colds in children. You should take 100 g of dried fruits, pour them with 500 ml of water and keep on low heat until about a third of the volume of liquid has evaporated. The drink should be warm when consumed.
In addition to the berries themselves, leaves are often used to prepare decoctions. For example, in case of liver diseases, it is recommended to take 10 g of crushed leaves, add 1 glass of milk and boil over low heat for 30 minutes. Then filter the broth and take 100 ml three times a day. Note that the leaves must be thoroughly rinsed before cooking.
Cherry twigs are considered very useful in folk medicine. They should also be washed thoroughly, filled with hot water, brought to a boil and boiled for 5 minutes. The resulting liquid must be filtered through cheesecloth and allowed to cool. Such a broth is usually drunk with indigestion and colic, a glass 3-4 times a day. You can also add a little milk to it and wipe your feet with it every morning and evening. According to traditional doctors, such a procedure will help relieve fatigue and make the skin of the legs soft.
Cherry stalks are another commonly used ingredient in folk medicine. They are offered to treat inflamed joints (arthritis, gout, rheumatism), as well as to use them for urolithiasis and edema as a diuretic. As a rule, the broth is prepared at the rate of 40 g of stalks per 1 liter of water. The washed cherry "tails" are poured over with water and boiled over low heat for 10 minutes. Then the broth is filtered and cooled. Take half a glass 3 times a day before meals. Also, this drug can rub the joints at night.
Infusions of fruits, leaves, stalks and branches of cherries are recommended for use for colic, indigestion, high fever, bronchitis and heart disease. In case of problems with the gastrointestinal tract, they usually take about 10 leaves, wash them and pour 500 ml of boiling water. The liquids are allowed to brew under the lid for about 30 minutes. Strain through cheesecloth and cool, drink half a glass of infusions 4 times a day.
In order to bring down the temperature, it is proposed to pour boiling water over 300 g of fresh seedless berries, let them brew under the lid for 30 minutes and drink an antipyretic drug in a warm state. In chronic bronchitis, 1 teaspoon of crushed stalks is poured with one glass of boiling water and allowed to brew a little. You need to drink 3-4 times a day. You can also take about 10 cherry twigs up to 10 cm long, pour 1 liter of water over them, boil for 5 minutes and let it brew for about half an hour. Drink several times a day, adding honey.
To prepare an infusion for pain in the heart, you should take dried cherries, add dried hawthorn or rose hips to them, pour boiling water and leave to infuse under the lid for 40 minutes. Take half a glass three times a day before meals.
Cherries in oriental medicine
Already in ancient times, cherries in the east were used not only as a food product, but also as a remedy. For example, it was believed to lower blood pressure, treat nausea, soothe boiling of bile, and strengthen the liver and stomach. The crushed bones together with the wick were inserted into the opening of the penis to heal the urinary tract. And the monks used cherries to crush stones in the bladder. Cherry juice mixed with wine was considered a good cough suppressant.
Cherry was also used as a cosmetic product. For example, it was believed that applying cherry juice to your face would help whiten your skin and smooth out wrinkles.In addition, the berries have been used to treat various women's problems, improve lactation and heavy menstruation.
In Chinese traditional medicine, this berry is still considered a means of preserving the internal energy "qi". In addition, it is used externally in the treatment of diseases of the skin and wounds. It is also used for rheumatic inflammations.
In order to cleanse the body, warm the stomach and stop bleeding, Chinese traditional healers use the leaves, twigs and even the roots of the plant. However, they caution against excessive consumption of this fruit, as it can lead to an imbalance in the yin and yang energies in the body.
Cherries in scientific research
It has long been noticed that, due to its chemical composition (rich and varied set of vitamins and a large number of trace elements), cherry fruits and other parts of this plant have a beneficial effect on various human systems and organs. However, researchers are striving to obtain more detailed information about the properties of this berry and its ability to fight certain diseases.
Thus, American scientists have confirmed the assumption that cherry juice improves the quality and duration of sleep. According to their experience, people with insomnia can get rid of this problem by adopting the habit of drinking 2 glasses of fresh cherry juice a few hours before bedtime. According to them, the duration of sleep increases by an average of 90 minutes. The mechanism of action is explained by the presence of chemical compounds proanthocyanidins in cherries, which slow down the breakdown of tryptophan, which, in turn, is involved in the synthesis of melatonin, the sleep hormone .
Cherry juice has also been found to affect blood pressure. In one study on this topic, two hours after receiving 300 ml of fruit drink in subjects with a tendency to hypertension, both systolic (upper) and diastolic (lower) blood pressure indicators significantly decreased. After 6 hours, the condition was completely normalized .
Scientists place particular emphasis on the fact that in order to achieve the desired effect, it is necessary to strictly observe the dose and time. So, if the participants in the experiment took the same 300 ml of juice, but in portions of 100 ml for three hours, then there were no significant changes in their blood pressure. Thus, we can conclude that the necessary processes are triggered in the body only after the simultaneous assimilation of a certain dose of juice .
If we are not talking about a local way of dealing with pressure surges, but about the treatment of hypertension, then in another experiment, the researchers managed to achieve a long-term normalization of the test subjects' blood pressure after daily consumption of 480 ml of cherry juice for 12 weeks. Moreover, they had a decrease in cholesterol levels .
Recent studies by Russian scientists have demonstrated another possible use of cherry gum. In addition to being used as a vaccine adjuvant and emulsifier, it can also be used as an independent wound healing drug. So, it was found that, thanks to the polymer of galactose and arabinose in its composition, cherry "glue" provides an antibacterial effect. After conducting an experiment on mice, the scientists concluded that gum powder is most effective at the initial stage of the wound process. It removes microbes from cells, does not irritate neighboring tissues and speeds up the healing process .
According to the results of recent research by scientists from the United States, the cherry fruits themselves are themselves high in antioxidants, which makes it possible to fight oxidative stress, reducing the risk of destruction of healthy cells in the body. It also helps regulate the level of triglycerides (substances that accumulate in the cells of adipose tissue) in the blood. It is known that these lipids are the body's energy resource, but uncontrolled consumption of fatty foods, in particular fast food, leads to their excessive accumulation in the vessels and, as a consequence, the development of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases .
Research has shown that eating cherries in combination with 30-minute physical activity shortly before eating fatty foods reduces the risk of excessive accumulation of triglycerides, due to increased antioxidant activity of the body .
In addition, the health benefits of cherries are attracting the attention of scientists looking for alternatives to prevent bone damage in rheumatoid arthritis. Existing medications have serious side effects and cannot be used on a consistent basis. Studies in mice have shown that cherry preparations may be beneficial as a prophylactic measure for chronic rheumatoid inflammation .
Finally, several recent studies have demonstrated the benefits of tart cherries for athletes. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties allow athletes to train longer and heavily, and accelerate the recovery process. In one experiment, professional runners consumed 710 ml of cherry juice daily one week before and a few days after a marathon. It was noted that they experienced less muscle pain, and their recovery was faster than the group of runners who received placebo .
Cherries for weight loss
Cherries are considered a slimming food. This is partly true, because fresh fruits contain a low amount of calories - only 50 kcal per 100 g. Although you should be aware that eating cherries alone will not lead to magical results. To obtain the effect, it is also necessary to introduce other healthy foods into the diet and play sports.
However, cherries can be a good aid in the fight against obesity, since they are not only low in calories, but also rich in dietary fiber. They slow down digestion and saturate a person for a longer time. Thus, berries can be a good alternative to a snack of sandwiches or sweets.
In addition, cherries are characterized by a low glycemic index and do not provoke a sharp increase in sugar levels in the body. By the way, according to a study conducted by American scientists in 2014, diets that include foods with a low glycemic index lead to greater weight loss than diets that include foods with a low fat content .
By the way, nutritionists especially recommend eating cherries if you often eat fast food or any other fatty food. Berries help to reduce the rate of accumulation of fats, in particular triglycerides, reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes .
Cherries in cooking
Cherries are a common and affordable fruit, so they can be found in almost every kitchen in the world. This berry is especially loved in Ukraine, where dumplings with cherries are considered one of the traditional national dishes. In general, confitures, jams, sauces are made from cherries, they are added as filling in cakes and pies, they are stuffed with duck, they are used to make compotes, jelly, smoothies, cocktails, liqueurs (Portuguese ginjinha), and liqueurs. Interestingly, the leaves of the plant are added to cucumbers when preserved to make them crisp.
An unusual use of cherries has been found in Japan. Firstly, they sell chips with the taste of this berry, and, secondly, ice cream with an extraordinary combination of tomato and cherry is popular. By the way, if we talk about combining this fruit with other products, then strawberries, raspberries, citrus fruits, bananas, nectarines, chocolate, vanilla, cinnamon, hazelnuts and almonds are well suited. From drinks, cherry is combined with cognac, wine, vermouth. You can add this berry to fermented milk products and cheeses.
For example, it is very appropriate in a summer curd-jelly cake, which is easy to prepare and does not require baking. To prepare it you will need:
- 500 g cherries
- 500 g sour cream
- 500 g cottage cheese
- 500 g sugar
- 100 g butter
- 200 g plain biscuits
- 50 g gelatin
- 1 package of cherry jelly.
Cookies crushed into crumbs must be mixed with melted butter and, forming a crust, put it on the bottom of the mold. Then you need to beat the cottage cheese, sour cream and sugar, add the gelatin and beat everything again until a homogeneous mass is obtained. Half the cherries should be pitted, ground to a puree and poured into the already prepared cream. Pour the cake with the resulting mixture and put in the refrigerator until it solidifies. Put the remaining cherries on the cake and fill the top with cooked jelly. We send the cake to the refrigerator again until it solidifies.
By the way, you can use special machines or hand tools to quickly peel cherries. They will greatly facilitate and speed up the process. If you need to cut peeled cherries in half to prepare or decorate a dish, then you can resort to the life hack used to cut cherry tomatoes. True, it should be borne in mind that this method will work only if you have large enough and not overripe fruits. So, the berries are tightly laid out on a flat plate or board, covered with something the same flat on top and, holding on top with your hand, hold between them with a sharp knife, thus cutting them into two halves.
Finally, it should be noted that cherries are in the top ten fruits and vegetables most susceptible to pesticide contamination. In order to cleanse the fruit, it is recommended to mix 1 tablespoon of lemon juice, 1 tablespoon of vinegar and 1 glass of water. The cherries should lie in this solution for 10 minutes, and then they should be rinsed with running water.
In which only drinks do not add cherries. These are hot punch, mulled wine, tea, and cooling smoothies, juices, compotes, and various alcoholic cocktails. In our opinion, the recipe for winter berry tea deserves special attention. To prepare it, you need to knead a handful of thawed cherries with mint and honey, add 500 ml of hibiscus and lemon. Among summer drinks, a refreshing smoothie stands out. To prepare it, you need to grind a glass of mint leaves, 200 g of strawberries, 200 g of cherries, 2 bananas in a blender and add 1 glass of water.
Cherries in cosmetology
Not so long ago, Chinese scientists conducted an experiment that demonstrated the effectiveness of cherry blossom petal extract in the fight against skin inflammations of various etiologies. Probably, the appearance of appropriate cosmetics is not far off. As for the existing cosmetics, you should pay attention to the natural cherry seed oil.
It is extracted from crushed raw materials by cold pressing. Heating, refining or any other additional purification deprives the oil of unsaponifiable fractions - biologically active substances that promote skin regeneration. Therefore, you need to carefully read the labels when purchasing the product and pay attention to the extraction method.
The oil is based on oleic, stearic, linolenic and palmitic acids, as well as antioxidants, tocopherols, vitamins E and A. Due to the presence of the rare eleostearic acid, this agent is considered one of the best natural defenders against ultraviolet rays. It can be used not only on the face, but also to care for the skin of the whole body, as well as on the lips and around the eyes. It is light in texture and absorbs quickly.
By creating an invisible protective layer on the skin, the oil not only protects it from the sun, but also prevents moisture evaporation, leveling the hydrolipid balance. Also, the product has a slight nourishing effect, promotes collagen synthesis and maintains the skin's structure. When used systemically, it can even be classified as anti-aging cosmetics.
There are also many popular recipes for cosmetics based on cherries. Most of them are face masks. Among the most popular are the following:
- cherry honey (5 ripe berries + 1 teaspoon of liquid honey) - for dry skin
- cherry and egg (5 ripe berries + 1 egg yolk) - for oily skin
- cherry sour cream (5 ripe berries + 1 teaspoon of sour cream) - for normal skin type.
Dangerous properties of cherries and contraindications
Cherries contain many useful elements and, in general, have a beneficial effect on the body. However, at the same time, this fruit is rich in organic acids, so it should be consumed carefully and not in too large portions (no more than a glass at a time). In this case, only the dosage separates the benefits and harms. Also, it is better to completely abandon the use of cherries when:
- susceptibility to allergies or hay fever (seasonal allergic reaction to pollen)
- exacerbation of stomach ulcers
- gastritis with high acidity
- chronic lung diseases.
In addition, it is not recommended to eat cherries on an empty stomach, as this can irritate the stomach lining. You should also rinse your mouth after consuming berries and fresh cherry juice, as they can destroy tooth enamel. Finally, you should be careful with cherry pits, which, when swallowed, release hydrocyanic acid and can have a toxic effect on the body. True, if you accidentally swallow one nucleolus, you should not worry, the lethal dose is about 50 seeds.
Despite some contraindications, if consumed in moderation, cherries bring invaluable benefits to the body: they start regeneration processes, strengthen the nervous and cardiovascular systems, lower cholesterol levels and prevent many diseases.
We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of cherries in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share the picture on social networks, with a link to our page:
How to choose and store cherries
Fresh cherries should be firm, but not firm - when pressed lightly, there should be a feeling that the berry might crack. The fruits must be with petioles, otherwise, due to the tear of the skin, they begin to lose juice and quickly deteriorate. The saturation of the color of the fruit does not always indicate their ripeness, but may indicate belonging to a particular variety (some cherries, even when ripe, remain scarlet, without acquiring a burgundy hue). Cherries are usually refrigerated. Unripe fruits can last up to ten days, and ripe ones - about five.
If we talk about harvesting cherries for the winter, then traditionally they make jams and jams from them. However, cooking robs the berries of most of the vitamins, and the invariably used sugar significantly adds calories. In addition, if you canned cherries with seeds, then they need to be eaten within a year, otherwise poisonous hydrocyanic acid begins to form. But cherries retain all their beneficial properties when dried. You can store such a product in the refrigerator and this is one of the best ways of winter preparation.
Berries can also be frozen. Although the amount of vitamins, especially vitamin C, will decrease slightly, cherries will still be beneficial in the cold season. It is recommended to freeze the fruit immediately after harvest.If you buy berries in supermarkets, it is advisable to make sure that the package contains as few pieces of ice as possible, and the fruits are free of rot. By the way, shock freezing has become more and more popular lately, when a product is vacuum packed and exposed to such low temperatures that instead of the usual 2-3 hours, it freezes in 30 minutes and loses less nutrients.
Cherry trees grow in almost all corners of the world and are attracted not only by the opportunity to harvest tasty and healthy fruits, but also by the opportunity to enjoy the extraordinary beauty of plants during their flowering period. In Asian countries, for example, in addition to ordinary cherries, there are a large number of ornamental plants called sakura. In late March - early April, they turn cities into a white and pink blooming splendor, which attracts millions of tourists to admire.
By the way, in Japan there is even a special expression "o-hanami", which denotes the tradition of admiring cherry blossoms. Recently, more and more ornamental cherry trees appear in other countries of the world. For example, in Copenhagen, Prague, New York there are already large parks, almost completely planted with these trees.
Cherries came to us from Byzantium back in the XI century. And already in the XII century. Yuri Dolgoruky laid the first gardens in the Moscow region. In the XVIII-XIX centuries. the first industrial gardens began to appear in the Russian Empire.
By the way, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The play by A.P. Chekhov's "The Cherry Orchard", in which the cherry tree plays a plot-forming role. In addition, the famous children's writer J. Rodari in "The Adventures of Cipollino" depicted two countesses in the form of cherries, giving them the appropriate names - Countess Cherries, and named their young nephew Count Cherry.
In 2007, in Russia, in the village of Bolshiye Bakaldy, a museum dedicated to cherries was opened. Here since the 17th century. these berries are grown and processed. And in the city of Glubokoe, in Belarus, a festival dedicated to this fruit has been held since 2013. In the same place a monument was erected to the cherry tree and a large garden of 1414 trees was laid (the year the city was founded). The cherry blossom festival is held annually in April in South Korea. As for the monuments, they can be found not only in Belarus, but also in Russia (Vladimir), and even in the USA (Minneapolis).
Interestingly, in English cherry and sweet cherry have the same name "cherry". And for clarification, they usually use words describing the taste of the fruit: "sour" (sour - refers to cherries) and "sweet" (sweet - refers to cherries).
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Causes and causative agent
As mentioned above, the causative agent of the disease is a fungus, which often infects the plant through the pistil of the flower. The overwintering of the fungus occurs on the affected parts of the plant, as well as on fallen fruits that have become mummified.
When the plants begin to bloom profusely, the mycelium begins to sporulate abundantly and fall on the stalks and the already formed ovary. The plant can also become infected through the buds.
The defeat of flowering plants occurs at a low temperature, approximately at -2 ° C, and the defeat of the ovary - at -0.5 ° C.
Also, high humidity, abundant fogs and regular dew coverage of the plant during the flowering period are considered favorable conditions for the active reproduction of the fungus. There is a danger of developing disease after a mild and wet winter.
Moniliosis manifests itself in two forms: fruit rot and monilial burn. Fruit rot settles on infected berries, when they fall off, they become the source of the development of moniliosis the next year.
A monilious burn appears on plants as a result of the penetration of fungus into the wounds of the tree, which can occur under the influence of insects.
- There is no need to plant cherries in lowlands and damp areas (there will be high humidity due to fog).
- Felt cherry also does not like shading, sufficient lighting and ventilation is the best care for the tree.
- So that there is no primary infection, it is necessary to spray the trees with a fertilizer solution with nitrogen in the fall.
- Systemic preparations based on copper oxide are the best spraying helpers.
- A frosty winter is the best prevention of cherry diseases, if you are lucky, you are lucky, and if not, protection measures against diseases should be strengthened.
Felt cherry is a tree worth fighting for its beauty and fruitfulness. And before planting it on your site, you should get acquainted with the basics of agricultural technology so that all efforts are not in vain.
The most common diseases of the cherry tree are fungal, they respond well to treatment, if you do not bring the ailment to complete depletion of the leaf. Preventive inspection, spraying, digging up the soil, cutting off the affected parts will help the cherry to bear fruit to the delight of the owners and decorate the site with its graceful appearance.