Gardeners are very fond of growing tomatoes in their gardens, and often plant seeds for seedlings themselves. To get friendly and guaranteed shoots, they carry out such activities: hardening, soaking, germinating seeds.
How to prepare tomato seeds for planting
Preparing tomato seeds for planting helps not only speed up the emergence of seedlings, but also reduce the risk of plant diseases, as well as increase yields.
Most often, the following measures are used to prepare seeds for planting:
- warming up,
As a rule, not all are used, but 2-3 activities from this list.
Step-by-step preparation of tomato seeds for planting
Many gardeners use purchased tomato seeds that have already been treated with various preparations, so they do not carry out any manipulations with them before sowing. But if there are untreated seeds in the bag, then it is better to prepare for sowing according to all the rules.
Tomato seeds are treated with Tiram, they are sown dry
Each rub of a tomato has its own seed size. For example, cherry tomatoes have much smaller seeds than large-fruited lettuce tomatoes. Therefore, when sorting seeds, you need to choose the largest seeds among all that were in the bag. The larger and heavier the seed, the better, because it contains many nutrients for growth.
The most proven method for selecting full-weight seeds is by immersion in brine. To do this, one teaspoon of table salt is diluted in a glass of warm water and the seeds of one variety or hybrid are poured there. Within 3 minutes, you need to periodically stir the seeds in a glass so that they get evenly wet, and then leave for another 15 minutes.
To determine the germination of seeds, they are immersed in a saline solution for 15 minutes.
Usually, full-weight seeds sink to the bottom, while empty ones float on the surface. But if there are a lot of them, do not rush to throw them away - some producers dry out the seeds very much and they do not sink to the bottom. Check each seed and pick the fattest.
After this procedure, the tomato seeds must be washed well with water and either dried or further prepared for planting.
Warming up tomato seeds
Heating is used mainly for varietal (non-hybrid) tomatoes that have been stored in cold rooms. Dry seeds are poured into fabric bags 1-1.5 months before planting and transferred to a warm room, gradually increasing the temperature from 150From to 800C. If the seeds have been kept warm all the time, then you can put them on a hot battery in a cloth bag 2 days before planting.
Seeds in bags are hung or placed on radiators
Disinfection of tomato seeds
On the surface of the seed, there are many different bacteria and viruses that can infect the seedlings, therefore, the seeds must be disinfected before sowing. The simplest and most common method is pickling in potassium permanganate. To do this, wet seeds, pre-soaked in clean water for several hours, are poured into a gauze bag and dipped for 10 minutes in a solution of saturated pink potassium permanganate... After the procedure, the seeds need to be washed very well.
But the most effective is the use of special drugs such as Fitosporin, Fitolavin and Pharmayod.
Fitosporin is a wonderful drug for the prevention of diseases, not only when soaking seedlings, but also with the further growth of tomatoes.
Fitosporin is available in the form of a powder or paste, therefore, to soak the seeds, take 0.5 teaspoon of powder per 100 ml of water or 2 drops of a concentrated solution per 100 ml of water. In both cases, it takes 2 hours to soak the seeds.
Phytolavin and Pharmayod, used together, are very good at fighting viruses and bacteria. For 200 ml of water, take 1 ml of Farmayod and 0.5 ml of Fitolavin, the seeds are soaked for 40 minutes, then washed.
When working with Fitosporin, Fitolavin and Pharmayod, be sure to observe safety precautions: use gloves and non-food utensils, do not smoke or eat food during work.
Video - errors when processing seeds with potassium permanganate
Soaking tomato seeds in growth promoters
It has long been observed that seeds that have been soaked give better yields than those that have been sown dry. It is best to take melt or rainwater for soaking. The largest yield increase is shown by seeds treated with growth stimulants, which can be both homemade and industrial.
Important! As in the case of dressing, you cannot immediately place dry seeds in stimulants, you must hold them for 24 hours in ordinary melt water until they swell.
Table - preparations for soaking tomato seeds
|A drug||Cooking method||Soaking time|
|Honey||Dissolve 1 dessert spoon in 1 glass of water||5-6 hours|
|Ash||Pour 2 tablespoons of ash into 1 liter of water and leave for 2 days||3-6 hours|
|Aloe||Keep aloe leaves in the refrigerator for 2 weeks, then squeeze the juice out of them, dilute with water in a 1: 1 ratio||24 hours|
|Gumistar||2 caps for 1 liter of water||24 hours|
|Horse orgavite||10 grams per 1 liter of water, keep warm for 12 hours||0.5-1 hour|
|Shining 2||Dilute 1 teaspoon of the drug in 300 ml of water, add 1 tablespoon of sugar, leave for 24 hours||0.2 - 1 hour|
|NV-101||1 drop in 0.5 liter of water||0.2-1 hour|
|Epin||1-2 drops per 100 ml of water||4-6 hours|
|Zircon||10 drops in 1 liter of water||6-8 hours|
Hardening tomato seeds
Hardening tomato seeds helps to grow stronger and more cold-resistant plants, in addition, the yield of such bushes increases by 30%. Swollen seeds are used for hardening. They are placed in a refrigerator and kept at a temperature of +20From 12 o'clock, then for the next 12 hours, keep warm at 200FROM... This is repeated 2-3 times and then planted.
Video - hardening seeds
Germinating tomato seeds
Germinate tomato seeds in order to be 100% sure of the viability of the seed. This speeds up the germination of plants and helps save space on the windowsill. You can germinate in various ways: in a hydrogel, a germinator, on wet wipes, cotton pads, gauze. The principle of germination is to keep the seeds in a humid and warm environment: the air temperature should be around 250FROM.
The simplest and most modern method of germination is the use of a hydrogel:
- The hydrogel is poured with warm melt water until it swells.
A white crystalline hydrogel is used for seed germination.
- Pour it into a container and put tomato seeds in it.
The hydrogel is poured with water and prepared seeds are spread on the swollen crystals
- Close with a lid or foil and put in a warm place.
seeds on a hydrogel germinate quickly and tolerate picking well
- Usually, all seeds germinate after a few days.
You can drag seeds into the planting container with pieces of hydrogel, which will accumulate moisture in itself and, if necessary, give it to the plant during the dry period.
A very effective method is the bubbling of seeds. This device is made very simply from an ordinary can and an aquarium compressor.
Scheme of creating an apparatus for barbating seeds
Due to the constant air circulation in the water where the seeds float, the seed is saturated with both moisture and oxygen. For tomatoes, a 12-hour bubbling is sufficient.
How to speed up the germination of tomato seeds
To make tomato seeds sprout faster, soak the seeds first in rain or melt water (until the seed swells), and then place them in a growth stimulator from the above table. It is enough to choose one of the drugs you like the most.
After planting a seed, place the seedling box in a warm and dark place. At a soil temperature of +220…+250 Seedlings appear on 4-6 days, at a soil temperature of +180…+190From 8-9 days.
If the seeds are processed by the manufacturer, then nothing else needs to be done - they are sown dry, in the previously watered ground.
Preparing the land for planting tomato seeds
You can get good seedlings from pre-treated seeds only if you have taken care of the soil. Now more and more gardeners make soil mixture themselves, and do not trust purchased ready-made soil, even if it says "for tomatoes" on them.
In purchased peat-based soils, seedlings very often die.
The basis for the soil is healthy and weed-free garden soil. It is taken from the beds where the tomatoes did not grow, and even better - from under the beds with leguminous green manure - they increase the yield of tomatoes by 40%. The second component of the soil mixture is compost made from non-seeded plants. It imparts looseness to the soil, allows air to pass through well, and provides nutrition. Sometimes garden land is replaced with forest land collected at the edge of the forest.
When preparing soil for tomato seedlings, they take garden or forest land, compost, and mix in a 1: 1 ratio, if the ground seems heavy, add sand.
For the second year now, for all my seedlings, I have been making the earth myself. To do this, I take 10 liters of any purchased peat soil, add 3.5–4 liters of soaked coconut briquette, 1–1.5 liters of vermiculite, 1 liter of vermiculite and 0.5 glass of the preparation Shining 2, which contains beneficial soil bacteria. Usually there is enough moisture in the peat soil and coconut, and I do not additionally moisten the soil. I mix everything thoroughly and pack it in a tight black bag, removing excess air. Within 3 weeks, the soil matures and is saturated with beneficial bacteria. Then I plant seedling seeds in it. The soil is very loose, nutritious, and the seedlings grow quickly.
The main components of soil for tomato seedlings: purchased peat soil, vermiculite, biohumus, coconut
To obtain healthy and strong seedlings, and subsequently a rich harvest, you need to choose full-fledged seeds, disinfect them, saturate them with moisture and growth stimulants. Additionally, to increase resistance to adverse weather conditions, seeds are hardened. A well-prepared soil will not only allow not to lose precious seedlings, but also contribute to the growth and good development of tomato seedlings.
Physalis decorative growing from seeds
Surely everyone has met this bright miracle called decorative physalis. It is simply impossible to pass by him without noticing. Physalis attracts attention with its distinctive orange color and unusual shape. It is also popularly called the Chinese lantern. By the way, the name of the plant comes from the Greek (Physalis), which means "bubble". It is about what decorative physalis is, growing, breeding methods, care, planting, application in interior design and will be discussed in this article.
Sowing and transferring seedlings
Depending on how you plan to grow tomatoes in a permanent place, you should select the sowing time.
- Greenhouse seeds are planted from 15 February to 15 March.
- Seedlings, the seeds of which were planted in the first two decades of March, are later planted on open beds, for which it is required to build a shelter for the first time.
- For plants that are planned to be planted in open ground without any shelters, seeds are planted from March 15 to March 31.
Timing of planting tomato seeds for seedlings
In other words, if the seedlings are intended for further cultivation before harvesting from the greenhouse, then the sowing of the seeds should be done approximately one and a half to two months before transplanting. If the seedlings are supposed to be transferred to open ground, then sowing the seeds is desirable for a period of two to two and a half months from the planned date of planting.
Important! In climatic zones where there is a likelihood of late frosts in the spring, it is better to wait with planting seedlings until the risk of this negative factor is minimal.
Growing tomato seedlings (tomatoes)
Planting tomatoes in open ground with seedlings
Planting tomatoes in a permanent place is always stressful for the plant, especially if it is not a greenhouse, but a vegetable garden. It is pulled out of its familiar environment, and, not only is it placed in new conditions, it is left in the open air. Even if hardening was carried out before planting, this may not be enough. The gardener must do everything so that the seedlings take root as quickly as possible and grow.
When to plant tomatoes outdoors
If you plant tomatoes in cold soil, they will stop growing, and even after the onset of stable heat, they will go away from shock for a long time. The temperature of the earth at the time of moving to a permanent place must be at least 15 ° C.
Whether to adhere to the lunar calendar is a personal matter for every gardener. There is nothing wrong with following it. But for those who are not piously convinced that a good harvest cannot be obtained without looking back at the moon, and who still have doubts, it is recommended to pay attention to this fact. Planting tomato seedlings in open ground by large farms is carried out on the basis of:
- ground and air temperatures
- weather forecasts
- age and readiness of seedlings for transplantation.
And it never gets attached to the lunar calendar! For some reason, farmers' crops have not rotted in the bud in a single season. And their products are often bought for harvesting even by gardeners, who calculate favorable days for planting tomatoes with an eye on the stars. There is something to think about.
It is believed that the transplantation of tomatoes should be carried out on the growing moon. In 2020, the most favorable days:
- May - 1-6, 15, 19, 24, 31
- June - 1, 11, 16, 20.
For different regions
Planting tomatoes in open ground is carried out when weather conditions permit. The times may differ from one region to another. You can focus on the weather forecast and the following terms:
- south - in early or mid-May, in early spring - even in the third decade of April
- Middle lane - from late May to mid-June
- in cool regions, on the border of the cultivation zone, tomatoes can be planted not earlier than the beginning of June, even if warm weather is established in May - there is a threat of return frosts.
At what temperature can tomatoes be planted
It is inconvenient to be guided by a soil temperature of 15 ° C favorable for planting tomatoes. Not everyone can measure it. It is much easier to compare air temperatures at different times of the day. Planting tomatoes can be carried out when it reaches:
- at night - at least 15 ° С
- during the day - at least 22 ° C.
How to plant tomato seedlings in open ground
The correct planting of tomatoes allows the culture to quickly adapt to new conditions, bloom earlier and give the first fruits. Everything matters - from the age of the seedlings and the preparation of the soil to the distance between the bushes.
It is recommended to observe crop rotation at each site. It is correct not to place tomatoes in the garden where other nightshade crops previously grew. They should not even be nearby in order to exclude the exchange of pests and diseases.
But the reality is that most gardeners and farmers have no choice but to plant tomatoes in their original place, or in the immediate vicinity of potatoes, peppers, eggplants. Therefore, soil improvement must be carried out regularly.
The best precursors for tomatoes are onions, cucumbers, or cabbage. Ideal - siderates.
For growing tomatoes, choose a sunny, well-ventilated place, protected from strong gusts. Tomatoes prefer a loose, permeable substrate with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction. On heavy soils, they grow poorly and often get sick. Constant soil sealing is the fastest and most reliable way to ruin seedlings.
It is good if soil preparation has been carried out in the fall. When introducing organic matter for planting, it must be borne in mind that it must be completely rotted. Tomatoes do not tolerate fresh manure.
Acidic soils are improved with lime or dolomite flour. The latter additionally saturates the substrate with phosphorus, which is so necessary for tomatoes. By the beginning of the growing season, dolomite will just begin to decompose, and will enter an easily digestible phase.
The site is dug onto a shovel bayonet, stones and roots of weeds are removed. Organic matter, peat, complex fertilizers of prolonged action are introduced. The rationing of additional components depends on the fertility and composition of the soil. You can focus on the following average doses (sq. M):
- humus - 7 kg
- lime - 0.5 kg
- superphosphate - 40 g.
If installing arches or other temporary shelters over tomato bushes is not a problem for the owners, soil warming can be accelerated. It is covered with a black non-woven fabric, and cellophane is laid on top to prevent moisture evaporation.
Tomato planting scheme
The scheme for planting tomatoes in open ground depends on the variety, the method of processing the beds and the wishes of the owners. Caring for tomatoes should be comfortable.
Usually, in the open field, superdeterminant or standard early ripening varieties are planted. They will quickly return the harvest, and if the timing of sowing seeds is observed, they will have time to get away from phytophthora. At this place, it will be possible to plant siderates, greens, onions on a feather, asparagus beans or daikon.
Convenient placement of undersized tomatoes that do not require pinching - a two-line method. Stripes are drawn at a distance of 20 cm, holes - every 40 cm, in row spacings - about a meter.
It may seem to novice gardeners that a lot of space is empty, but soon the bushes will grow. They will be well ventilated, which will reduce the risk of illness.
Medium and tall tomatoes
The placement of determinant and indeterminate varieties or hybrids is carried out according to the scheme recommended by the manufacturer. It can only be changed in the direction of increasing the distance between the bushes.
Tall tomatoes in the open field lead to one stem, be sure to tie up. That is why many gardeners refuse to grow them in the beds, and plant only in greenhouses.
Meanwhile, it is not at all difficult to dig in a support every 2-3 meters and fix a strong wire from above. Considering that in small areas the crop rotation is still not respected, it will stand for several seasons.
And the advantages of growing tall tomatoes in the open field in the absence of a greenhouse are many:
- Saving space. To get a harvest from tall tomatoes in the garden, they are led into one stem.
- Tied up pyramidal bushes, from which stepchildren and leaves are regularly removed under brushes that have begun to fill, are well ventilated. This significantly reduces the risk of developing disease.
- Long-term fruiting.
- Easy care. When keeping a tomato in 1 stem, soil cultivation and harvesting are greatly simplified.
You need to plant tall varieties in the same way as in a greenhouse:
- between rows 80-90 cm
- holes in 45-50 cm.
Some gardeners are accustomed to working on their knees or sitting on a low stool. They should make such aisles so that it is convenient to care for the tomatoes, and the bushes on the opposite side are not injured.
To plant normally developing seedlings, holes are dug in such a size that the root and part of the stem are comfortably located there. There should be space at the bottom for starting fertilizers, and on the side for a bedding.
Overgrown tomatoes should be transplanted with a significant deepening of the trunk. First, you should choose a method (there are several of them), and then determine the depth and width of the hole.
Under each root, when planting, add 4 tablespoons of a mixture consisting of equal shares:
- complex fertilizer containing nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus
- lime or dolomite flour is a source of calcium, and the latter gradually releases phosphorus upon decomposition
- tobacco dust - it protects tomatoes from many pests, reduces the likelihood of a number of diseases
- dry mustard powder - the component complements the previous one, which is especially important in the absence of crop rotation.
Homemade "cocktail" mix well with the soil. A layer of clean fertile soil is made on top. So the root will not burn on contact with fertilizers, but will stretch downward.
The hole is completely filled with water. Allow liquid to be absorbed. Tomatoes can now be planted.
The readiness of seedlings for transplanting into the ground is determined by their age:
- for early standard and superdeterminant varieties and hybrids it is 40-50 days after germination
- determinant middle and late ripening are planted at the age of 55-60 days
- indeterminate ones need 60-65 days from the appearance of the first loops.
Before planting, the tomatoes are not watered for 1-3 days (depending on the conditions), so that the leaves stick a little, and the stems become soft - this is less likely to break the trunk. But it is also impossible to overdry the lump - even abundant watering will not be able to wet it the first time, and no one will tear the ground and check.
Regardless of the method of planting on tomatoes, the cotyledon leaves are removed. If the trunk is going to be buried, it is recommended to determine in advance how much and break off the plates, which are expected to be below the ground level.
It is possible to carry out the operation just before landing, but it is better - in a few days. The wound surface will be tightened, the risk of infection will be minimized. Plus, it will save you time.
Planting normal seedlings
Strong, low seedlings obtained thanks to proper care:
- They take it out of the container, trying not to disturb the earthen lump.
- Place in the center of the hole.
- Fall asleep with a substrate, compacting it during planting. This will prevent the formation of voids, provide better adhesion of the root to the ground, and accelerate the survival rate of tomatoes.
- Water abundantly.
- Mulch the surface under the bush with dry peat, soil or spread non-woven material.
Planting overgrown tomatoes
For what reason the seedlings stretched out - it does not matter. But you need to plant it a little differently, with deepening. It is important not to forget what variety the gardener is dealing with, and not to bury the place where the first flower brush will form:
- superdeterminant - sheet 6-7
- determinant - 8-9
- indeterminate - 10-12.
Modern breeding tries to make varieties and hybrids bloom as early as possible. Therefore, the first fruit cluster can be formed 1-2 leaves lower than it is commonly believed. When planting, it is recommended to focus not only on the well-established rules, but also to study the varietal description. It's a shame if the largest tomatoes are lost.
To plant overgrown tomatoes, pulling out a very deep hole in order to put the stem vertically does not make sense, and requires a lot of labor. It is better to use one of the following methods:
- Lying down. An elongated oblique fossa is dug. The tomato root is placed in the lower part of the hole, the stem is placed on the soil. Fall asleep with a substrate so that the crown remains on the surface. You don't even need to tie it up - the shoot reaches for the light, and soon it will even out on its own. Watering.
- Spiral fit. The hole is dug shallow, but wide. The earthen ball is installed vertically in the center. The trunk is wrapped in a wide spiral, gradually adding the substrate. Slightly compact and moisturize the soil abundantly.
Spiral planting is impossible if the tomato was watered the day before, and the stem did not have time to fade a little. It will be too fragile and will break.
Planting tall varieties
It is in tall varieties in the open field that a thickened planting is possible. They are led into one barrel. They are planted as superdeterminate, only the rows are arranged in such a way that it is easy to tie.
If there is no trellis, at the same time as planting tomatoes next to each bush, a support is dug in. Without it, it makes no sense to grow tall varieties - the stem will lie on the ground or break.
If you properly care for tomatoes right after planting, then they will cause a minimum of hassle. And they will give a good harvest.
Even in the south, after planting tomatoes, there can be strong differences between night and day temperatures. In unfavorable weather conditions, it is recommended to cover the tomatoes with agrofibre or other non-woven material in the evening, and remove it in the morning.
In cool regions, when growing crops in the ground, gardeners are forced to build temporary shelters in advance. Otherwise, you will have to change the timing of planting seedlings to later ones. Accordingly, even early varieties may not ripen, since the fruiting time will be reduced.
Soil protection retains moisture, prevents roots from overheating and prevents weeds from germinating. In addition, the lower leaves and shoots of tomatoes will not lie on the ground, which will significantly reduce the infection with harmful microorganisms, and protect the bushes from pests in the soil.
Used as mulch:
- cut grass
- dried weeds (not seeded)
- coniferous litter
- dry peat
- well rotted sawdust or tyrsu.
Even mature humus contains too much nitrogen. After the formation of apples, it will only harm the tomatoes, so it is not recommended for use.
It is easiest to cover the ground with a black nonwoven fabric. It is rarely possible to arrange tomatoes in the same even rows as in a greenhouse. Seedling holes should not be cut in advance. It is recommended to do this:
- After planting the tomatoes near the center of each bush, stick a cane slightly larger than the height of the stem into the ground.
- Cover the bed with agrofibre or spunbond.
- The sticks will indicate the location of the bushes. There you need to cut holes.
During planting, the tomatoes received enough moisture to do without watering for the first 2 weeks. You do not need to pay attention to the leaves lowered in the middle of the day.
Of course, a searing heat can suddenly set in. Therefore, it is recommended to go out to the garden early in the morning and inspect the bushes. If the leaves are straightened, the tomatoes do not need moisture. They should be watered when the plates have not risen overnight.
The first foliar dressing is done a week after planting. It should contain all micro and macro elements. It is recommended to add an additional dose of boric acid to the balloon (1/2 teaspoon per 10 liters of water), plus epin or zircon.
Tomatoes are fertilized under the root 2 weeks after planting. The first time they do it:
- on overgrown tomatoes - an easily digestible phosphorus-potassium fertilizer, for example, potassium monophosphate or Pekacid
- normally developing seedlings are given a complete mineral complex.
Tomatoes begin to form 2 weeks after planting. During this time, on tall varieties, stepchildren will certainly appear requiring removal. They need to be broken off, and the grown trunks must be twisted around the support or tied up. Low-growing superdeterminant and standard varieties do not need to be formed.
Planting tomatoes in open and protected ground are similar. But they have their own characteristics, without which it is impossible to get a good harvest. The main differences are the timing of moving to a permanent place, and the method of forming bushes, which affects the planting pattern.
The author of the article: Zhuravel Tatyana Nikolaevna
Seed preparation stages
Each gardener prepares the seed in his own way before sowing. Beginners often do a lot of unnecessary operations in the hope of increasing productivity. The shell of tomatoes does not contain tannins and essential oils that make it difficult to germinate before sowing.
Good quality seeds require little preparation. You will need to select several operations that you need:
- Select strong grains.
- Soak the seed.
- Treat with biologically active substances and microelements.
It is good to calibrate the seed at home. At the same time, they are selected by sorting out low-quality and black grains. For large volumes, special devices are used for calibration.
The heaviest and largest grains are selected before germination. They contain more nutrients. Which are used for the development of the seedling. For sorting, saline is most often used:
- 80 g of table salt is dissolved in 200 ml of water.
- The liquid is thoroughly mixed until all the salt is dissolved.
- Seeds are poured into the solution.
- After 10-15 minutes, full seeds will sink to the bottom, and empty and low-quality ones will remain on the surface.
- Seeds floating on top are removed, and collected from the bottom, washed well in warm water and dried.
The seed should be kept near the heating battery for 2-3 days. Heat treatment should not be used for tomato hybrid seeds only. You can warm them up in the sun for 3-5 hours, stirring occasionally. Sunlight is replaced by irradiation with an ultraviolet lamp. Such treatment for 50-70 seconds kills the germs of diseases, is able to accelerate germination and stimulates the intensive development of seedlings.
Irradiation with a lamp and sunlight will bring maximum benefit after exposure of the seed to the nutrient formulations of mineral fertilizers. The beneficial effect of this treatment is due to exposure to light and temperature.
The seeds are poured into a saucer and placed on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator for a day. After that, they need to be kept in a warm place for another day. This operation is repeated 3 times. Such treatment will make them strong, increase their resistance to low temperatures and accelerate their growth, the seedlings really start to grow quickly.
Effectively soak the seed in a weakly concentrated solution of potassium permanganate. To do this, dissolve 1 g of the substance in 100 ml of warm water. The inoculum in a gauze bag is dipped into the liquid and kept so for 30 minutes. You can soak them in 2% hydrogen peroxide for 10 minutes.
Growing tomatoes. Basic Steps and Methods - Vegetable Garden - CSO!
Hundreds of books, thousands of articles and videos have been written about growing tomatoes. Various methods, tricks, techniques are offered. This is all well and good, but an inexperienced gardener can get dizzy and miss some highlights.
In this article, I will talk about the main stages - mandatory guidelines - of growing tomatoes. And the rest of the recommendations (there are a lot of them on this site in the "Growing tomatoes" block) apply at your own discretion, try and select what will give you the best results. So, the basic scheme for growing tomatoes.
Sowing tomato seeds for seedlings
We decide on the timing of sowing: 60 days before planting, we must already sow the seeds, if we do not use a special phyto-light.
Cooking land: purchased (I liked "Biogrunt") or our own (a mixture of humus, turf soil and garden - with the addition of ash and superphosphate)
We select the seeds of the selected varieties - we take the largest, not dried out, not blackened. Soak in warm (melt) water for 12 hours. Prepare seeds as "advanced" as possible is described in the article "Preparing seeds for sowing".
We dry the soaked seeds a little (!) And sow them in a container of 0.5 cm into damp soil (one might even say well spilled).From above, lightly press the soil with your finger. We tie it with a film and in a moderately warm place. After 3-5 days, the seeds will germinate. We remove the film, water the seedlings very carefully.
Video (the best of what I reviewed) "Sowing tomato seeds for seedlings":
Care of tomato seedlings
Tomato seedlings love light. Determine the most illuminated place in the house for her - the south window. But be careful that the spring sun does not spoil the seedlings with burns. The east window is also suitable, as long as the plants do not shade each other. Tomato seedlings do not like drafts!
Watering tomato seedlings
We water the seedlings once every 1-2 days - make sure that the earth does not dry out, but do not arrange puddles either. It is better to water under the roots, but very carefully: with a spoon, a teapot.
Top dressing of tomato seedlings
We begin to feed no earlier than a week after germination, but it is better to wait 10 days. You can use liquid fertilizers for feeding: vermicompost, potassium and sodium humates ("Barrel and 4 buckets for seedlings"), "Agricola" (the most famous fertilizer for seedlings).
Just do not pour everything that is listed here. One thing is enough. I used Agricola. Now I will add humate to it.
There are also more modern, more often imported, means, but we are talking about a general scheme here, so I will not go deeper - you will find a lot of interesting things on the forums.
Picking tomato seedlings
When the 1st and 2nd leaves appear (up to the 3rd!) - at the age of 18-20 days - we dive the seedlings, that is, we transplant each plant into a separate (or several, but widely) container.
When transplanting, you need to pinch off the central root so that the root system develops.
Plant the plants so that you have the opportunity to add soil to about half the capacity, this will allow you to grow powerful roots - they are easily formed in tomatoes from the stem.
After another 20 days (10 days before planting), we begin to harden the seedlings - we bring them to a temperature of 15-16 degrees. But we do it gradually - from 1 hour to 7-8. By the time the seedlings are planted in the ground, there should be at least 7 leaves.
And again a good video about growing tomato seedlings: watering, picking
Planting seedlings in the ground
It is better to plant seedlings in cloudy weather or early in the morning or in the evening. We plant overgrown tomatoes at an angle - with the root to the south.
They dug up the soil in advance, brought in humus, a little ash, superphosphate or other special fertilizers (organic or mineral - choose yourself, but do not overdo it).
We spill well-prepared holes and plant the seedlings a little deeper than they grew in the seedling containers. Pour warm water from the top and ... leave it alone for at least a week! Of course, we look closely - in case of cold weather we cover additionally.
But you don't need to water or feed! Some experts (for example, Ganichkina) advise to withstand up to 14 days without watering. I withstood 10 days last year, and nothing terrible happened to the plants, and the roots developed quite powerfully during this time.
Watering tomatoes in a greenhouse
Tomatoes love water, but do not like high humidity - a source of late blight and other diseases. We water about once a week, quite abundantly. Better in the morning, so that the excess moisture from the air leaves the day.
And so that moisture does not leave the soil quickly, you need to mulch the ground: straw, dried cut grass ... Avoid moisture drops in the soil (as well as temperature drops) - either poured or dried. Do not let the soil dry out completely.
Find out more details about watering tomatoes in the article “How to Water Tomatoes”.
Top dressing of tomatoes
We feed our tomatoes every 10-14 days (after about watering). I used organics - "Potassium humate" and "Sodium humate" ("Barrel and 4 buckets") - added to each watering.
You can use complex fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium.
And you can regulate these substances: the first top dressing (14 days after planting in the ground, then another 7-10 days - nitrogen fertilizers, then we switch to potash fertilizers. For the entire period in the ground, it is enough to carry out 5-7 dressings:
1st - 2 weeks after planting in the ground (complex, humate or nitrogen - urea: a tablespoon in a bucket of water)
2nd - 7-10 days after 1st. Also with the advantage of nitrogen (urea, chicken droppings - very carefully!)
3rd - during the beginning of flowering. We switch to potassium (complex, potassium humate or ash - we insist or pour into the grooves)
4th - when the 3rd and 4th brushes bloom. Again we choose potash fertilizers (humate, etc.)
5th - during fruit ripening. You can use superphosphate, but it takes a long time to prepare the solution - it does not dissolve well in water. By the way, this top dressing can be made foliar, i.e. spray the solution over the leaves (no sun!).
I will say it again: this is the basic scheme. There are many schedules, methods, types of planting, watering and feeding (yeast, whey, iodine ...). Something will suit you, some will not. Try carefully, choose and remember.
BUT! It is better not to feed tomatoes than to overfeed.
Some say that you can do without fertilization at all. You can, the harvest will still be. But you will not see all the possibilities of modern or collectible varieties.
Formation of tomatoes
The formation of tomatoes is pinching, pinching the stem and removing leaves.
Tomatoes must be formed without fail and monitor this constantly. We form indeterminate (tall) varieties in 1-2 stems. That is, we remove all stepsons (1 stem), or leave 1 stepsons under the first brush (!). all the rest are deleted.
Determinant (medium-sized) can be formed in both 3 and 4 stems. To do this, again, we leave the first stepson under the first flower brush, the second - over the first flower brush, and one or two more stepson.
Standard (undersized) ones can not be pinned, but they are grown in the open field.
When as many brushes have formed as can mature in your climate (in the middle lane -5, maximum 7 brushes), leave 2 leaves above the upper brush, pinch the crown. Sometimes it's a pity, but believe me, it's better to get a good harvest of ripe large tomatoes with 5 brushes than an unripe trifle with 10!
We pluck the stepsons by hand, leaving a stump of 1 cm.
See how to correctly pinch tomatoes:
In the greenhouse and in the open field, tomatoes have to be processed. First of all, from diseases: late blight, apical rot, gray rot ... there are different ways to fight diseases. Start with prevention - do not allow sudden changes in temperature, humidity. The greenhouse must be kept open in good weather. Also, avoid thick tomatoes.
There are also many preparations (chemical and folk) for processing. I used "Hom" and "Fitosparin" - it helped.
Tearing off leaves
Remove all leaves with signs of damage - yellowed, blackened, with spots. Into the fire at once!
We are also gradually removing healthy leaves. The best way is to remove the leaves under the brush, where the ovaries began to appear, then above this brush. In order not to harm the plant, do not pinch off more than 2 leaves at a time on one bush, and do not carry out this procedure more than 1 time a week.
I think that's enough recommendations. You cannot embrace the immensity. The scheme for growing tomatoes is generally clear and simple, worked out by time and thousands of gardeners. And although nothing stands still, "tomato science" is also developing, observe the main stages, and then there is scope for creativity!
Good luck and pleasure from your favorite activity.
About the garden
Soaking seeds before planting
Timing of soaking seeds
An old proven method of disinfecting seeds in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes.
... put in a gauze bag and placed in the solution for at least 20 minutes. ... Then, without removing from the bag, washed in cold boiled water. "
Seedlings are contraindicated: carrots, parsley, radishes, turnips, watercress, dill.
Seed soaking solution
Seeds need to be wrapped in a cloth, dipped in an infusion or broth and left for a certain time in a damp cloth, and then sown or soaked in water for another day.
- I keep it in a damp gauze overnight in the refrigerator during the day on the table and so on for a whole week, with this technique I get rid of weak seeds, after such hardening they sprout themselves without any stimulants and grow by leaps and bounds. I disinfect not long 15-20m in manganese. but in a dark solution
- ... In case
Washing the bite site and lotions when attacking poisonous snakes, tarantula, scorpion, karakurt.
- Skin burns.
Soaking seeds with potassium permanganate.
- Often novice gardeners ask the following question: "Is it necessary to soak the seeds before planting and why is it generally necessary?" Soaking the seeds before planting promotes more stable germination, which is pleasant for every gardener, because everyone wants to see as much of the planted seeds as possible. In general, soaking the seeds is not required, but it is advisable as it will undoubtedly be beneficial. So let's take a closer look at how to properly soak seeds before planting.
I never soaked, asters never hurt, what's the point in soaking, and if fresh germination will sprout.
- ”… In a teaspoon without top -6 g of potassium permanganate. “Top off” means removing the mountain from the spoon with the flat side of the knife. "
The old "old-fashioned" way.
Seeds of radish and cabbage should be kept in the infusion for up to half an hour, beans for up to 15 minutes, peas for up to 2 hours, and then sown immediately. Other seeds in a diluted infusion should be soaked for an hour.
What is potassium permanganate useful for humans
This proportion of potassium permanganate is large.
- In addition to its use for medicinal purposes, potassium permanganate, due to its disinfecting effect, is actively used by summer residents in the garden and vegetable garden.
- To obtain a 1% solution of potassium permanganate in 99 ml of pure, slightly warmed (optimal temperature 35-40 ° C) water, 1 g of crystals is dissolved. Do not use kitchen utensils made of metals, plastic, etc. to prepare the solution. Remember that potassium permanganate is a salt, a chemical compound that reacts quite actively to contact with various elements. In addition, reddish traces of potassium permanganate are difficult to remove from various surfaces, for example, from the walls of an enamelled ladle or bowl. It is best to use a glass container of the required volume, for example, a juice bottle or a jar, to prepare the solution.
- Rinsing of the mouth, throat for infectious diseases of the mucous membrane and inflammation, including sore throat.
- Potassium permanganate disinfects seeds, and after the seeds are soaked in potassium permanganate and dried, they can be stored for a very long time and they will not deteriorate. But potassium permanganate does not have the same properties as epin or zircon, so after soaking the seeds in potassium permanganate, it is advisable to soak them after that before planting in a growth stimulator.
- So, the seeds are usually soaked in an amount of water that is fifty to one hundred times the amount of the seeds themselves. Since the seeds do not need oxygen during swelling, you do not have to worry about the fact that the seeds can suffocate under so much water. But when the seeds are already swollen, they will need oxygen, so you always need to know exactly how much you should soak the seeds, because too long stay in water can simply destroy them.
- It is advisable not only to soak asters. To kill bacteria. Solution
- But ...
- After you have soaked the seeds in a solution of biologically active infusions for the prescribed amount of time, you need to spread them on a dry cloth (with the exception of beans) and dry them in the shade until they are free-flowing.
- You can simply soak in your preparation.
Dilution of potassium permanganate for various purposes: dosage and method of application
Most often, planting material (seeds and bulbs) of most flower and vegetable crops is disinfected in a weak solution of pale pink color (0.5%), soaking them, depending on the recommendations of agronomists, for a period from 20 minutes to several hours. In addition to disinfection, such a procedure helps to accelerate seed germination, increasing the germination of plantings, ensures the need for manganese at the initial stage of the growing season and enhances the immunity of plants to various infectious diseases.
Take the same solution for 1 glass of the composition in the morning and in the evening. After taking twice the diarrhea should stop.Aqueous solution of potassium permanganate 0.02-0.1% (red color, high degree of transparency)
Treatment of burn surfaces of wounds.Soaking seeds in vodka.
The time to soak the seeds depends on the rate at which the seeds swell. This speed is completely different for all types of seeds. For example, large mealy seeds swell within five to seven hours, while onion and celery seeds take about thirty-six hours to soak well with water. But for most of the seeds, it will take eighteen hours to swell.
Should be pale pink, for which dry if the seeds are ready forIn our time there are more reliable methods of disinfection.
”… To protect seed shoots from fungal and bacterial diseases .. to eliminate pathogens and protect them from pests and diseases.You can sow them on the same day after soaking, but best of all only after a day.
It is best to soak seeds in Epin growth stimulants - 2 drops per 100 ml. water!
A solution of potassium permanganate (0.2%) is used for soil cultivation both in open beds and in greenhouses, in order to destroy the causative agents of many plant diseases. For this purpose, the prepared solution is poured into the soil in the beds, or before planting the seedlings, 1 liter of such a composition is poured into each hole.A solution with a percentage of potassium permanganate 0.1-0.5% (color of red wine) is used for external
Drink in case of poisoning
Lubrication of ulcerative surfaces and infected wounds.
Vodka, like potassium permanganate, disinfects seeds, and besides, vodka has a slight scarifying effect - the seed coat softens somewhat. Vodka can be used instead of potassium permanganate. It is better to soak the seeds in it for no more than half an hour.Also, do not forget that if the seeds release brown matter into the water, then the water will need to be changed several times during soaking.
What is potassium permanganate useful for plants
For example, the seeds are kept in a weak solution of biological products - Rhizoplan, Trichodermin, Fitosporin-M ...
Disinfection of seeds with potassium permanganate
Seeds are not disinfected only in two cases: if the bag indicates that disinfection has already been carried out, and if the seeds are pelleted. "
The benefits of potassium permanganate for the soil
If necessary, after a short soaking in a biologically active solution, you can put the seeds under a damp cloth for another day.
Potassium permanganate in the fight against diseases of horticultural crops
A biologically active solution is easy to make at home: for this you need to take 1 tablespoon of the substance or manure we need and soak in 1 liter of warm water. The solution should be infused for a day and the seeds can be soaked in it.
Caution when using potassium permanganate
A 3% solution of potassium permanganate is actively used to combat powdery mildew on cucumber plantings. Plants are processed every 3 days. To get rid of powdery mildew on berry bushes (gooseberries, currants), a slightly different composition is prepared: 50 grams of potassium nitrate and 3 grams of potassium permanganate are diluted in a standard bucket of water. Treatment of plants with a solution significantly slows down the development of diseases.
Treatment and disinfection of wounds
Soaking the seeds, help me figure it out ...
(From 0.5 liters of liquid), after which they induce vomiting to empty the stomach from the contents and detoxify it. The liquid of the same concentration is used in
Douching for gynecological and urological diseases, in particular, with colpitis and urethritis.
The seeds can be soaked in completely normal water, but for a more noticeable effect, something is often added to the water to further stimulate the growth of the seeds. Let's take a look at what you can soak seeds in.