Pear August dew - description and cultivation

Pear August dew - description and cultivation

August dew is a summer pear variety. She received many of her advantages from an overseas parent who has been holding a strong position in the world market for more than 100 years. The second, our parent, added her resistance to frost and disease.

Description of the variety

The pear variety Avgustovskaya dew was bred in the city of Michurinsk at the All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics and Breeding of Fruit Plants in 1997, and in 2002 it was included in the State Register and zoned for the Central Black Earth Region. The variety was obtained by crossing the Tenderness pear, which served as a source of high winter hardiness and immunity to diseases, and the Australian Triumph Pakgama variety. The latter was obtained back in 1987 and to this day continues to be one of the leading commercial varieties in Europe. From him the August dew received such qualities as:

  • short stature,
  • early maturity,
  • yield,
  • great fruit taste.

The tree is undersized (no more than 3 m), fast-growing, with a dense drooping crown. Arcuate, smooth, light brown shoots extend from the trunk almost at right angles. Fruit buds are laid mainly on spears and ringlets.

The tree begins to bear fruit in the 4th year. High winter hardiness, frost resistance - up to -36 ° C. August dew has good immunity to the main fungal diseases - scab and septoria.

The self-fertility of the variety is low. Experts recognize the pear variety in Memory of Yakovlev as the best pollinator.

In the 4th year after planting the August dew, the first fruits are obtained

The yield is high and annual. During the years of state variety trials (1997-2002), this indicator was at the level of 156 c / ha.

The shape of the fruit is short-pear-shaped, the average weight is 130 g. Skin color is yellowish-green, without blush, with a large number of subcutaneous points. The funnel sometimes has a slight rustiness. The pulp is white, tender, fine-grained, juicy, with a pleasant sour-sweet taste. Tasting score - 4.5 points out of 5.

Pear peel color August dew - yellowish green

The fruits hold well on the branches, do not crumble for a long time. Harvesting maturity occurs in mid-August, the fruit is consumed and stored for 2 weeks. The purpose of the fruits is table. Marketability is high. The disadvantages of the variety include some heterogeneity of fruits with high yields.

Planting pears

The conditions for the successful cultivation and fruiting of the August dew pear are:

  • Lack of stagnation of water in the root zone. Wetlands and areas with high groundwater levels are excluded. This is due to the tendency of the pear to damp roots and stem.
  • Good illumination and ventilation in the absence of drafts and cold northerly winds.
  • Loose, drained soil rich in humus. The acidity level is pH 5.5-6.0, in extreme cases, pH 4.2-4.4 is suitable. But on alkaline soils, the pear will hurt and most likely die.

Summary: The best place to plant pears is on a southern or southwestern slope with natural protection from cold northerly and northeasterly winds. Thick trees, a fence or a building wall can act as such a fence, but the pear should not be in their shadow.

Due to the small growth of the August dew tree, the distance between neighboring plants in a group planting may be slightly less than usual. It is enough to observe the interval in the row of 3–3.5 m, and between the rows - 4–4.5 m.

In the Central Black Earth Region - the August dew growing zone - seedlings are planted in early spring before the buds awaken. A tree planted at such a time will take root well by autumn and will get strong enough.

Selection and storage of a seedling

Experienced gardeners acquire seedlings for spring planting in the fall. At this time, the nurseries produce a mass excavation of planting material, which means that you can choose the best quality planting material. You need to give preference to seedlings at the age of 1-2 years.

For seedlings with a closed root system, age restrictions do not apply - at the time of purchase they may be 3-5 years old or more. They can be planted in a permanent place at any time - from April to October.

When choosing a seedling, you need to make sure that its root system is well developed, without any cones and growths. The bark of the trunk and branches must be smooth, healthy, free of cracks or other damage.

Well-developed roots should be free of outgrowths and bumps

For winter storage, the seedling is usually dropped in the garden:

  1. The roots of the seedling are covered with a layer of talkers (a creamy composition of clay, mullein and water) to protect them from drying out.
  2. They dig a hole 30–40 cm deep and 80–100 cm long.
  3. A small layer of sand is poured at the bottom.
  4. Lay the seedling obliquely with the roots on the sand, with the top on the edge of the pit.
  5. The roots are covered with a layer of sand and watered with water.
  6. Before the onset of cold weather, the pit is completely covered with earth. Only the top of the tree remains on the surface.

    For winter storage, the seedling is usually buried in the garden.

Planting pit preparation

The planting pit is a kind of food storage for the plant during the first years of its life. The poorer the soil, the larger the pit should be in size and quantity. On average, its dimensions are 70–80 cm in diameter and in depth, but on sandy soils they increase to 100 cm or more.

Drainage must be laid at the bottom of the pit, which will avoid stagnation of water on heavy soils. This layer of broken brick, crushed stone or expanded clay should be 10-15 cm thick.

On sandy soils, instead of drainage, a layer of clay is laid to retain moisture.

A nutrient mixture is prepared, consisting of equal parts of black soil, peat, humus, sand. Before mixing the components, add also 300-400 g of superphosphate and 3-4 liters of wood ash. The mixture is filled to the top with the mixture, after which it is covered with some kind of waterproof material so that the melt water does not wash out the nutrients.

Step-by-step instructions for planting a pear

Algorithm for planting a seedling:

  1. Dig up the plant and examine its condition. If damaged roots are found, cut them out with a pruner.
  2. The roots are soaked in water for several hours, you can add Kornevin, Heteroauxin, Epin or other growth and root formation stimulants there.

    Before planting, the roots of the seedling are soaked in water

  3. The planting hole is opened and part of the nutrient mixture is taken out of it so that a hole is formed in the center for free placement of the seedling root system in it.
  4. A wooden stake is driven in at a distance of 10–15 cm from the center (90–120 cm high above the soil level).
  5. A small mound is poured in the center of the pit.
  6. A seedling is placed in the pit so that its root collar is at the top, and the roots are on the slopes of the mound.
  7. The pit is filled with excavated soil. It is more convenient to do this together - one holds the seedling, and the other falls asleep and compresses the earth in layers.
  8. The seedling is tied to a peg with some kind of elastic material. The bark of the tree must not be squeezed.
  9. To retain water during irrigation, a near-trunk circle is formed around the tree, raking an earthen roller along the diameter of the planting pit.
  10. Water the near-stem circle so that the soil is well moistened and, as a result, fits snugly to the roots. Also, air sinuses in the root zone, which inevitably form during backfilling, should be eliminated.
  11. The central conductor is cut off at a height of 60–80 cm from the ground, and the branches are shortened by half.
  12. After a few days, the soil is loosened and mulched with humus, rotted sawdust, hay, etc.

    A few days after planting, the soil is loosened and mulched.

Features of growing and subtleties of care

When growing a pear, it is enough for a gardener to know the usual agrotechnical techniques and methods of caring for fruit trees.

Watering

Regular watering should ensure a constant level of moisture in the soil of the near-trunk circle to a depth of 15–25 cm. If the pear lacks moisture, it can begin to shed ovaries and fruits. But a swamp should not form in the root zone, as this will lead to the drying out of the roots and trunk. To protect the trunk before watering, a small earthen roller should be warmed up around it, which will protect it from direct contact with water.

Watering is usually started in the spring when the soil begins to dry out. As a rule, this happens before the beginning of flowering of the pear. In the future, watered if necessary - usually every 2-3 weeks. After watering, the soil should be loosened and mulched.

Some gardeners mulch pears during the first spring watering, and then water the soil through a layer of mulch. To preserve moisture, the intervals between watering are increased, and the growth of weeds is also blocked. The only drawback of this method is the fact that slugs, beetles and other pests can grow in the mulch. They should be collected and destroyed, if necessary, treated with insecticides. Suitable:

  • Decis,
  • Fufanon,
  • Spark,
  • Iskra Bio and others.

The soil should be dried, and new mulch should be added after the next watering.

Top dressing

With a lack of nutrition, the pear can also shed its fruits, as well as with a lack of water. Typically, this deficiency occurs 3-4 years after planting. This means that the food reserves in the planting pit are depleted and regular feeding should be started.

Table: types of fertilizers, timing and methods of application

Pruning

The tree near the August dew is undersized, therefore, the crown shape is chosen in the form of an improved bowl. Such a crown is well ventilated, illuminated, easy to care for and harvest:

  1. After 1-2 years, in early spring, 3-4 best branches are selected on the trunk, which should be located at intervals of 15-20 cm and grow in different directions. These are the future skeletal branches - they are cut by 30-40%. The remaining shoots are cut into a ring. The center conductor above the base of the upper branch is also cut off.
  2. After 1–2 years, branches of the second order are formed. For this, on each skeletal branch, two shoots are selected, located at a distance of 50-60 cm from each other. They are cut in half, the remaining branches are cut into a ring.

    Since the tree of the August dew is undersized, it is better for it to choose the shape of the crown in the form of an improved bowl

Regulatory trim

Next, you need to adjust the length of the branches so that they are equivalent, and none of them takes on the role of the central conductor. The crown is also periodically thinned out, since the August dew is prone to thickening, which prevents ventilation and good illumination. At the same time, those shoots that grow inside the crown are removed. This kind of trimming is called regulatory trim. It is held in early spring.

Supportive pruning

The purpose of this pruning is to maintain a high yield of the tree. In a simplified version, it consists in shortening young shoots by 5-10 cm. This stimulates their branching with the formation of additional fruit branches, which creates the prerequisites for increasing the yield of the next year. This method is called chasing. It is used in the summer during the growth of young shoots.

For more experienced gardeners, a method of replacing fruiting shoots with replacement shoots is recommended

Video: pruning young pear branches for the formation of fruit buds

Sanitary pruning

This pruning is traditionally carried out in late autumn after the cessation of sap flow. At the same time, diseased, dry and damaged branches are removed, since various larvae can hide in their bark, there can be spores of fungi. In early spring, if necessary, sanitary pruning is repeated if during the winter any branches are frozen or broken under the weight of snow.

Trimming rules

When carrying out pruning, the gardener must follow certain simple rules:

  • Sharpen the tool sharply before starting trimming.
  • The instrument should also be disinfected. To do this, you can use a 1% solution of copper sulfate, alcohol, or a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide. Refined petroleum products (for example, kerosene, solvent, gasoline) should not be used - this can harm the plant.
  • You can not leave knots or hemp after pruning - later they will become a refuge for insect pests and a hotbed of fungal diseases. Whole branches should be cut into a ring.
  • Heavy, branched, bulky branches are removed in several steps in parts.
  • Cuts of branches, the diameter of which exceeds 1 cm, are cleaned with a sharp knife and covered with a layer of garden varnish.

Choose a garden varnish based on natural components - lanolin, beeswax, etc. Petrolatum and other petroleum products, which are part of most garden varnishes sold, can damage the tree.

Diseases and pests - the main types, prevention and control

The high immunity of August dew to major diseases does not exempt the gardener from performing sanitary and preventive work.

Preventive measures:

  • Maintaining order on the site, timely removal of weeds, collection and disposal of fallen leaves, dry branches, etc. - these simple measures will deprive pests of shelter, significantly reduce their presence.
  • Control over the condition of the tree bark. Before the pear leaves for the winter, the bark should be examined, and if cracks and damage are found, heal them. To do this, such places are cleaned to healthy wood, then disinfected with a 1% solution of copper sulfate and covered with a layer of garden varnish.
  • Whitewashing of trunks and thick branches with lime mortar. This not only decorates the garden, but also protects the bark from sunburn. Some caterpillars and bugs will not want to crawl through the lime barrier - this will prevent them from falling on the crown.
  • Digging the soil of near-trunk circles before the onset of frost. In this case, it is necessary to turn over the layers of the earth so that the insect pests wintering there are raised to the surface, after which they can die from the cold.
  • Spraying the dug up soil and tree crown with a 3% solution of copper sulfate. This will kill the spores of fungi and insects. Such spraying is also useful in early spring, before the start of sap flow. Instead of copper sulfate, you can use a Bordeaux mixture in the same concentration or a 5% solution of ferrous sulfate.

    In late autumn and early spring, the pear is sprayed with a 3% solution of copper sulfate

  • Installation of hunting belts on tree trunks in early spring. This measure will prevent weevils, moth caterpillars, ants carrying aphids from falling on the crown.
  • Treatment with pesticides DNOC and Nitrafen. The first is used once every 3 years, the second - in the remaining 2 years. These powerful universal preparations are an effective measure for the prevention of all known fungal diseases and pests. After the end of flowering, pears switch to the use of low-hazard systemic fungicides. The most famous and popular are:
    • Speed,
    • Quadris,
    • Horus,
    • Ridomil Gold and others.

As a rule, after three uses, the effectiveness of the product is significantly reduced. Therefore, they need to be alternated, and immediately before collecting the fruits, drugs with a short waiting period are used. For Horus, this period is 7 days, and for Quadris - 5. The interval of treatments is 15–20 days. They are especially important after rains, when favorable conditions are created for fungi.

Possible diseases and pests of pear

Although the variety is immune to some diseases, under unfavorable conditions they can nevertheless arise.

Table: what a pear can get sick

Photo gallery: the main diseases of pear

Table: probable pear pests

Photo gallery: pear insect pests

Gardeners reviews

Pear August dew attracts with annual and high yield, winter hardiness, immunity to diseases, early maturity. She has one drawback - nature has taken too little time to enjoy the wonderful taste of the fruit. Just 2 weeks of fun - but worth it.

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Hello! My name is Pyotr Vladimirovich. I am 63 years old. By education - a mechanical engineer.

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It has medium-sized fruits from 120-150 grams each. All fruits are even and one-dimensional, short pear-shaped. At the time of removal, the skin turns green, which, after the fruit lies down, turns yellow with a slight blush. The peel has a lot of dots, completely smooth.

The flesh is fine-grained and white, tender and melting on the tongue. Refers mainly to table varieties.

Most often, the fruits begin to be harvested in mid-September, after the period of removable maturity begins. At the time of ripening, the pear "August dew" keeps well on the branches. Once harvested in a cool place, the fruits are stored for two weeks. If they are sent to the refrigerator, then this time can be extended to three months.

The early maturity is quite high, the first harvest begins to appear as early as 3-4 years after planting in the garden. In the fourth year, 10-15 kg of fruit can be obtained from each tree. An additional advantage of this species is its high resistance to drought and cold. And also trees tolerate attacks of pests and diseases well. Caring for them is simple, and the fruits themselves have an excellent presentation.


Main characteristics

The pear of this variety is one of the most beautiful fruit trees that will adorn any gardening economy due to its gracefulness and sophistication.
The height of these fruit trees rarely exceeds 3 m, the crown is drooping, with an average number of skeletal branches and side shoots.

Branches - straight, located at an acute angle to the central trunk, covered with smooth light gray bark, well leafy. The foliage is medium in size, ovoid, with small thin tips, dark emerald in color.

Skeletal branches are actively formed and in the spring buds open actively, bright foliage and a large number of small flowers collected in inflorescences appear. Each of them has up to 10 buds. With active fertilization, a large number of ovaries are formed on the branches.

Description of the fetus

Usually, gardeners are most interested in the description of the fruit - shape, taste, color. And this pear variety is one of the best in these indicators. The fruits of the August dew are large and juicy. The average weight of ripe pears is 120-145 g. And with good care, the weight of the fruit can increase to 190-195 g.

Another advantage of the Avgustovskaya Dew variety is that all fruits have approximately the same size and weight, such a presentation is very much appreciated when selling the crop on the market.

Pears of this variety have a classic shape. Their skin is smooth, has no ribbing. In the process of maturation, the green skin acquires a yellowish tint. And on some fruits, a pinkish blush appears. A large number of small dots are clearly visible under the skin.

The fruits are attached to the shoots with thick stalks. The skin is dull, but smooth, practically not felt when eaten. The pulp of a pear is snow-white with a small graininess, in its center there is a seed chamber containing 4-5 small brown grains.

Ripe fruits have an excellent taste - sweet, juicy and at the same time tender, with a slight sourness. The pulp literally melts in your mouth. Experts consider this pear to be one of the best among table pear trees. Tasting assessment of ripe pears of the Avgustovskaya Dew variety - 4.6 points out of 5 possible

The sweetness of the fruit of this variety is attributed to a large amount of sugars - about 8.5%.

Also, these fruits contain the following substances:

  • pectins
  • tetratable acids
  • vitamin C
  • arbutin
  • P-active substances.

A set of these substances can be of great benefit to the human body, in addition, it gives a special taste to ripe fruits. And pears with such a composition of valuable substances can be given in the form of mashed potatoes from 5 months.

Features of the variety

The harvested crop has a universal purpose - it is used for preparing baby food, fresh, for cooking preserves, jams, compote. Experts do not recommend drying ripe fruits of this variety, as they are too juicy.

Pears perfectly tolerate transportation at any distance, without losing their presentation and taste, they can be stored for a long time - up to 2 months in room conditions, and in a cool cellar, pears of the "August Dew" variety lie for up to 5 months.

This pear tree is distinguished by its high endurance and frost resistance. This pear is not afraid of cool rainy seasons or extreme heat. And after damage or light frostbite, the August dew pear is restored within a short period of time.

Yield

Pear "August Dew" belongs to mid-season varieties - the beginning of ripening of pears falls on the second decade of August, and massively fruits ripen in the first half of September. ripe pears perfectly adhere to the stalks, practically not prone to shedding. The crop has to be harvested from the tree, picking the fruits by hand or with the help of devices.

Fruiting of young trees begins in the third season, but there is no great yield at this time, therefore experienced gardeners recommend picking flowers at the beginning of fruiting so that the trees grow and get stronger faster.

But already from the 4th season, each young tree can produce up to 20 kg of large, sweet fruits. The older the pear, the greater its yield - up to 180-190 kg of ripe fruits are harvested from mature pear trees. The presentation of the harvested crop is high - about 92%.

Pollinating trees

Pear August dew is characterized by a low level of self-fertility. Therefore, for good fertilization of flowers, it is required to plant next to other varieties of pears with the same flowering time. The best pollinator for pears Augustow Dew is the Pamyati Yakovleva variety.

Experts recommend planting seedlings of these two varieties on the site at the same time so that in the future, with the beginning of fruiting, these pear trees will pollinate each other. In this case, the yield of both varieties will not be less than that indicated in the descriptions by the originators of these pear trees.

Diseases and pests

One of the advantages of this variety is its high resistance to scab. But to other diseases characteristic of pears, "August dew" has no immunity, therefore, against black cancer, powdery mildew, mosaic and other diseases, it is necessary to carry out timely treatments and apply other preventive measures.

Advantages and disadvantages

The main advantages of the August Dew pear variety include:

  • good taste of ripe fruits
  • the yield of this pear is significant
  • ripe fruits contain many useful substances, so the fruits can be used to prepare food for babies
  • pear trees of this variety are resistant to severe frosts and drought periods
  • the pear is not prone to scab
  • the appearance of ripe fruits is beautiful
  • the harvested crop tolerates transportation well over any distance, can be stored until the New Year and even longer in the cellar
  • the harvested crop is of universal use.

But you need to know about some of the disadvantages of these pear trees:

  • pear August dew is distinguished by the frequency of fruiting
  • the variety is self-fertile, so next to it you need to grow pollinating trees with the same flowering time
  • with abundant fruiting, only 71-73% of fruits can have a presentation
  • this variety does not have resistance to many diseases characteristic of pear trees.


Gardeners reviews

One of the most beloved pears in our family. Small, neat tree. Trouble-free in terms of winter hardiness, drought resistance, disease and pest resistance. Standard care is enough for him. Measured pears, leveled - 130-150 grams. A very harmonious combination of acidity and sweetness (not sweet, which I don't like about pears). Very juicy, with tender, melting flesh. It is especially good if it is removed on time and put in the basement for at least a week. Then the aroma manifests itself more strongly, the spice appears in the taste. Ripens in our conditions (Belgorod) in the second half of August. A wonderful variety with one, but a serious drawback - there is always little of it. I would eat and eat, but it ends quickly! I want to plant one more tree.

http://forum.vinograd.info/showthread.php?t=10426

Unexpectedly tasty pear (for my not too pear region - Ulyanovsk). It seemed to me even tastier than one of the parents - Triumph Pakgum, and this despite the first fruiting. Does not require ripening, you can eat "from the branch". I have been vaccinated on a pear Vidnaya, the vaccinations fruited perfectly in the second (!!) year, I had to tie up and ration. In my conditions, I treat only against pests - gall mite, moth. There is no need to treat with fungicides.

http://forum.vinograd.info/showthread.php?s=2f7ad6b9204772cbaccae334fb7b6bf8&t=10426&page=2

I liked the August dew because it is extremely winter-hardy. It seems that such a tree is not large, but it can withstand frosts very well. And it is resistant to all sores, does not require any significant tweaks in this regard. Neither leaves nor fruits are affected by scab at all. The seedling gives its first harvest in the fourth year after planting and then bears fruit annually. The yield is powerful, we collect so much from three rather young trees that it is impossible to eat or roll it ourselves. The fruits are very neat, not small, up to 150 grams by weight per pear. The skin color is even, green, slightly dull. Sometimes a little blush is on the barrel, but this means that the pear is already quite ripe. The pulp tastes very pleasant, with a slight sourness and, which is a huge plus, not tart, but extremely juicy. The main harvest occurs in early and mid-August. The only thing in this variety is a small minus. August dew has a very low self-pollination rate, so if you want to reap a solid harvest, you also need to plant Yakovlev's Memory next to it. Then you will have a great many pears in the summer.

http://www.critman.ru/reviews/grushaavgustovskayarosa/otziv_ponravilas_439.html

Frozen to the level of snow. I cut it for the opposite growth. Not for the Moscow region, the variety is unambiguous.

http://forum.prihoz.ru/viewtopic.php?t=695&start=15

The main problem when cultivating a variety in MO is winter hardiness. Even much to the south of the Moscow region, in the "homeland" of the variety in Michurinsk, it is rated no more than "above average". At the same time, according to the available reviews of gardeners, August dew has a high regenerative ability, which allows it to survive sometimes after severe freezing in severe winters. I have a variety in vaccination since 2012, so I cannot give an objective assessment of its winter hardiness, but I think that for the sake of such a wonderful taste of the fruit, it makes sense to try to grow this variety in MO in grafting into the crown.

Alexey Popov

http://sad-moip.ru/vse-o-yablone-i-grushe/2015-10-12/ob-opyte-vyraschivaniya-letnikh-sortov-grushi-na-vostoke-podmosk-2

The variety received an excellent rating from gardeners who have already grown August dew on their backyards. They appreciated the easy care, disease resistance and relative winter hardiness of the pear. And the taste of the fruit makes the August dew a variety that attracts more and more attention of fruit gardening enthusiasts.


Watch the video: How to Prune Pear Trees That Have Become Too Overgrown