Heather (Ericace)

Heather (Ericace)

This video will help even the most inexperienced grower understand the care of Azalea. An experienced florist shares all the necessary facts that you need to know when growing this flower: everything about watering, lighting, air humidity, feeding, etc. When to transplant Azalea and how to propagate it for maximum results.

Heather bush 5 letters

Heather family (Ericaceae)

The heather family is very heterogeneous and is divided into a number of subfamilies. In 1971 the English botanist P.F. Stevens proposed a new system in this family that has a number of advantages over older systems. In his system, heathers are divided into 6 subfamilies.

Most primitive subfamily of rhododendra (Rhododendroideae)... which includes exclusively trees and shrubs. Their corolla is free-lobed or sprouted, usually with a wide pharynx. Stamens without appendages, anthers are opened by apical pores or short or long slits. The anthers usually contain silky filaments that bind the pollen into lumps. Ovary 2 - 14-celled, often covered with glandular hairs. The fruits are capsules, usually septicidal. The seeds are usually numerous. The subfamily includes the American genus Bezharia (about 30 species), rhododendron (probably up to 800 species), Menzisia (7 species), wild rosemary (about 10 species in the northern temperate zone and in the Arctic), Epigea (3 species), Calmia (8 species), phyllodoce (7 species) rhodotamnus (2 species), monotypic genera Briaitus and loiseleria and some others. The most famous genus, the largest in the subfamily, is the rhododendron, which has acquired exceptional importance in ornamental gardening. It is found in separate islands in the west of the European part of Russia. Of the Far Eastern rhododendrons of particular interest are R. fauriei's rhododendron and R. schlippenbachii's rhododendron.

IN subfamily eric (Ericoideae) includes evergreen shrubs with small leaves with strongly curled edges. The corolla is always spongy, remaining. Anthers are opened by very large pores or cracks of the anther appendages, when present, they are spurs; silky filaments are absent in the anthers. The fruit is usually a loculicidal capsule. There are one to many seeds in each nest. These include, first of all, the large genus Erica (more than 500 species), the monotypic genus Heather, and others.

The extensive subfamily vacciniae (Vaccinioideae) includes woody plants of very different shapes - from small trees to small shrubs. Corolla usually spliced, rarely free-lobed, usually water-lily or tubular. Anthers are of very different types, devoid of silky filaments. The ovary is superior or inferior, 3-10-celled. The fruit is a berry, drupe or loculicidal capsule, usually with several seeds in a nest, rarely with one. These include arbutus (Arbutus, 20 species), Cassiopeia (12 species), enkianthus (10 species), podbele (1-2 species in temperate and cold regions of the northern hemisphere), arkterica (Arcterica, 1 species), gaultheria , about 200 species), vaccinium (Vaccinium, about 350 species, cranberry is found by many authors in vaccinium), etc. The genus cranberry (Oxycoccus), which is not universally recognized and often combined with the vaccinium, contains no more than 4 species, common in temperate and cold regions northern hemisphere. Evergreen, mostly creeping small shrubs with thin stems, small leathery leaves and dark red berries.

Subfamily Piridae (Pyroideae) small it includes 4 genera and about 30 species, represented in the temperate and cold regions of the northern hemisphere. It can even be said that this is mainly a taiga subfamily, because it is in the taiga zone that most of its representatives are concentrated. Unlike all previously considered woody heathers, wintergreens are herbaceous evergreens. Most species have a basal rosette of glossy leaves, from which a flower arrow with a racemose inflorescence emerges. The flowers are 4-5-membered, open or goblet. The latter have a straight column in open ones, it is long, curved, opposed to 10 (rarely 8) stamens. The fruit of wintergreens is a dry capsule with a large number of very small seeds, devoid of cotyledons, and with an embryo that consists of several cells. Mycorrhiza is even more necessary for the existence of wintergreens than for other heathers. There is an assumption that the products of photosynthesis are necessary for wintergreens only for the formation of seeds, while other plant needs are fully satisfied by nutrition with the help of mycorrhiza. All representatives of wintergreens have a long rhizome, and only in a single-flowered tree it is replaced by perennial roots.

TO subfamily of aquifers (Monotropoideae) include 10 genera and 12 species. Most genera of this subfamily are monotypic. The Vertlyanitsevs completely switched to feeding with the help of mycorrhiza, in connection with which they lost their green color. Many are dull, earthy in color, but some are brightly colored. So, the monotypic genus Sarcodea, which grows in the southwestern United States, where it is called the snow flower, has a crimson color of the entire plant. Skewers have a thick, fleshy stem with scales-shaped leaves. The flowers of the Aceridae are collected in the final drooping inflorescence, with the exception of the single-flowered weasel (M.uniflora). Flowers 5-membered or less often 4-8-membered. The flower has a bell-shaped shape, but in some representatives the petals grow together at the base, while in others they remain free. Most members of this subfamily have a nectar disc. The fruit is a capsule, often webbed. Melkike seeds of a pterospore (Pterospora) have a winglet that is much larger than the seed itself.

Subfamily Wittsteinioideae with the monotypic Australian genus Wittsteinia connects heathers with the Epacris family. Wittsteinia is a small evergreen shrub with creeping shoots and a fleshy fruit.

Heathers are widespread around the globe, most of the representatives of heathers are shrubs or dwarf shrubs, sometimes grasses, but among them there are also large trees. Shrubs and shrubs of heathers are also found in a creeping form, such is the well-known cranberry (Oxycoccus). Some species of macklinia (Mackleania) and agapetes (Agapetes) are shrubs with long, clinging shoots. Among the Asian species of rhododendron, as well as among the vaccinia, including maclinia, epiphytes are known. These include the camellia rhododendron (R.camelliiflorum), the blueberry rhododendron (R.vaccinioides), the tree rhododendron (R.dendricola), etc., under the upper layer of the epidermis, the leaves of epiphytes have a layer of large thin-walled cells that serve to store water. This feature is absent in terrestrial heathers. The seeds of some species are equipped with a peculiar appendage, similar to a fly, which is a device in this case not for transfer, but for holding onto the branches of trees on which they begin to develop. In our work, we will focus on the description of those representatives of the heather family that belong to the group of psychrophytic plants and live in the taiga and tundra.

The appearance of heather is very peculiar, therefore in botany there is the concept of "ericoid appearance". The ericoid appearance is created by woody shoots covered with small leathery leaves. In many cases, the leaves are concentrated at the ends of the shoots, which is clearly seen in rhododendrons. In some species, the leaves are completely naked and have a glossy surface, in others they are omitted in different ways. Descent usually develops on the lower surface of the leaf, where stomata are found in most heathers (Maznaya E.A. 2001).

Pulling many shrubs from the heather family by the bush - blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), whitewash (Andromeda), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), chamaedaphnecalyculata (Chamaedaphnecalyculata), we usually see that the rhizome leaves a long shrub soon brings us to the next bush, and then to the next, and it turns out that a large group of bushes has a common rhizome. In adult blueberries, it reaches 3 meters. In other blueberries, the rhizome is 10 meters long.

In many heathers (shrubs and low shrubs), the stem of the bush is almost completely hidden in the soil, for example, in the wild rosemary (Ledum). In the third, lodging branches take root, for example, in Cassiope, heather (Calluna).

The wood of heathers is very dense and often resinous, reminiscent of coniferous wood. Resins are also contained in the leaves, sometimes protruding to the surface.

General anatomical features in heathers are manifested primarily in the structure of the stem. This is how we studied the structure of the stem of blueberry, wild rosemary and marsh myrtle. All of them differ in common features in the structure of the stem, which are, first of all, in the following:

● the stem has clearly defined three blocks - the primary bark, the central cylinder and the pith

● the primary cortex is formed by thick-walled cells of the collenchyma, where well-defined large air cavities are located

● phloem and xylem are represented by solid rings; the stem has a typical non-bunched structure with an annular cambium formation

● the core is large enough, formed by parenchymal cells.

Outside, the stem of the rosemary is covered with a single-layer integumentary tissue - the epidermis - its cells have a somewhat elongated shape, tightly closed together. Further, there is a mechanical tissue (presumably angular collenchyma) with strongly thickened cell walls and small internal cavities. There are rather large air cavities between the cells of the primary cortex. The central cylinder is represented by a multilayer phloem and a three-layer one; in our case, a three-year-old shoot, xylem, was studied. Xylem is formed by thick-walled prosenchymal cells with rather strongly thickened cell walls. In cross-section, the shape of the cells is close to a rectangle. Between the cells of the xylem and phloem, there is a cambium, which forms secondary conducting tissues. The central position is occupied by the pith, which has a rounded shape and consists of very large parenchymal cells with non-thickened cell walls. Its cells perform a storage function (Fig. 1).

The blueberry stem has its own anatomical features that distinguish it from the above-described rosemary stem (Fig. 2).

The epidermis is also single-layered, but the cells are smaller than those of the rosemary stem. Further, mechanical tissue is laid, angular collenchyma with thickened cell membranes and larger internal cavities, in comparison with the cells of the rosemary stem. The air cavities are adjacent directly to the phloem, in contrast to the rosemary stem, where they were completely surrounded by mechanical tissue.

Phloem consists not only of sieve tubes, but also includes bast fibers. In the xylem, the medullary rays are well expressed, extending from the phloem to the pith of the stem. The core has the shape of a pentagon and is formed by cells of the correct parenchymal shape with small intercellular spaces.

The stem of the marsh myrtle is covered with a single-layer epidermis on the outside, the collenchyma cells are slightly thickened, and their internal cavities increase accordingly. The air cavities in the primary cortex are the largest of all the stems studied by us, close in shape to rectangles. Phloem is poorly developed, sieve tubes are almost not visible, mainly, it consists of cells of bast fibers.

Here is another pinnate bristle, completely different from its American counterpart, but no less beautiful. This perennial grows strongly and quickly, so it is worth limiting it with something. Its height can vary from 30 to 60 cm. The leaves are thin and flat, and the panicles are spike-shaped (up to 10 cm). Golden spikelets are surrounded by pinnate-hairy bristles, which is why it seems "furry".

Miscanthus forms lush tall bushes up to 2 m high. Long leaves hide playful golden, golden-pink or silvery paniculate inflorescences in their axils.

Miscanthus - Miscanthus sinensis "Zebrina". A very interesting decorative form with transverse golden stripes on the leaves.

Watch the video: Heaths and Heathers - Calluna, Daboecia and Erica