Last year, the third issue of our magazine published an article by Irina Lukyanchik “Flowers at the entrance. What plants can decorate the stairwells of your house "(" Flora Price "No. 3 (134). Recently, one of the readers of our magazine decided to share her experience of decorating the entrance of a residential building. We think that it may be of interest to other readers as well.
Perhaps someone from the florists who have read this article will want to green their entrance. I want to share my experience. Two years ago, after a major overhaul, I brought several plants into our entrance.
Greening the entrance is much easier than it seems at first glance. However, at the beginning of the experiment, you should not take out small pots into the entrance. It is better to transplant rapidly growing plants into a large container.
What can serve as a large planter? Personally, I used ten-liter square canisters cut off at the top, left over after repairing the entrance, took the yard land from under the acacia, humus and sand. Large buckets can be purchased in the market (bulk dairy vendors often sell empty buckets for 10-15 rubles). Large pots will not be taken away to apartments, and the flowers growing in them can be watered much less often.
Since we have a northern entrance, rather cold and densely populated with cats and dogs, so chlorophytums did not take root in it, but reo, zygokactus, little chalice, deeply dissected Kalanchoe (deer horns), scarlet and the Decembrist feel great there. These flowers grew rapidly, and within three months the stairwells resembled a greenhouse.
I noticed one interesting trend: the higher the floor, the higher the air temperature there in winter. Therefore, it is better to plant cold-resistant plants on the lower floors, and heat-loving flowers on the upper floors. On the site of the ninth floor of our house, a neighbor put up a rather large five-year-old hibiscus and, despite my skepticism, this plant not only survived in winter, but also bloomed beautifully since March.
Of course, you can experiment with any flowers, but you still need to remember that the entrance is not an apartment ... A noble desire to decorate a window sill with violets or gloxinia, as a rule, leads to the death of these fragile plants. Also, do not buy too expensive or beautiful pots for landscaping the entrance. It is best to use mayonnaise buckets, white sour cream jars, or disposable cups for small flowers. This will not only optimize costs, but also reduce environmental pollution.
To prevent your neighbors from confusing pots with urns, place a can for cigarette butts on each windowsill and throw the first cigarette butt there yourself. Remember that you can leave bottles of water near flowers only if the flowers are hygrophilous: for some reason, at first, every self-respecting tenant considers it his duty to water the plants near which there are bottles. In conclusion, I can note one more interesting fact: a daily walk up the stairs of a nine-story house for watering plants allowed me to lose two kilograms of my weight in just a month without any diets.
I wish you good luck too! Let your entrance evoke positive emotions from both the residents and the guests of your home!
Elizaveta Morchiladze, Shakhty, Rostov region
Photo by Olga Rubtsova
How to decorate the yard with your own hands using scrap materials: photos and ideas
Hello dear friends!
Today we will share with you a lot of interesting ideas for decorating the adjoining territory on the garden plot. And first of all, we will, of course, talk about simple budget solutions using available, and sometimes completely waste materials, which can be found in any dacha economy.
How can you decorate your yard with your own hands? Yes, just be creative, and with examples for inspiration, we will help you!
- Crafts from scrap materials
- Car tires: 15 ideas for a summer cottage
- Pallets: how to assemble garden furniture
- Wooden boxes
- Glass and plastic bottles
- Cinder blocks
- Gabions in country decorations
- Interior items and country utensils in flower arrangements
- Just tin!
- Old trees: do not rush to cut for firewood
- Guests on the way: festive illumination
Interesting DIY crafts from scrap materials
The design of the entrance area of a private house and the courtyard itself is a creative and extremely exciting business. Depending on the area of the site, the courtyard itself can be divided into several functional zones.
In the backyard, it is appropriate to organize a cozy seating area with a barbecue for receiving guests, a cozy patio or a playground. The front part of the house with the adjacent territory assumes a lot of options, and you can arrange it according to your own taste with the most modest budget using inexpensive materials at hand.
For example, take garden paths, the main criterion of which is not only their functionality. The aesthetic side of the issue also plays an important role here.
Paved with wild stone and concreted using ready-made forms for concrete paths, mosaic, wooden or decorated with river pebbles - whichever way of decoration you choose, this is your personal contribution to the arrangement of your own property.
So, we begin our photo excursion dedicated to the man-made design of the courtyard in the territory entrusted to us.
Car tires: 15 ideas for a summer cottage
If you think that old tires are only suitable for creating flower beds and flowerpots, then this is not the case. And we will start, perhaps, with garden furniture.
The universal shape of the tires and their resilient material are perfect for creating improvised upholstered furniture. Comfortable stools, bar stools and sofas, original armchairs and cozy poufs are perfect for seasonal use in the courtyard of a private house.
Modular rubber kits can be easily assembled and dismantled, and it is not at all difficult to acquire enough seats in case of the arrival of guests. Just create a small strategic stock of tires and store them in your attic.
Garage style is for connoisseurs of functional minimalism, giving a lot of opportunities to unleash your creative potential!
In addition to furniture fantasies, he also inspires many ideas for a playground. For example, a swing, which the underage population at a summer cottage will surely be delighted with.
Pallets: how to assemble garden furniture quickly and inexpensively
In our summer cottage blog, we have already published a separate post dedicated to a very unusual field of application of building pallets. Here you can enjoy bright non-standard solutions and inspiring scope of design ideas. Do you want to take on arms? Yes, to your health!
Needless to say, wooden pallets are a convenient, inexpensive and practical material! With its help, you can quickly and easily assemble any modular set of garden furniture, which can be easily transformed and installed in the right place in a matter of minutes. An excellent choice for decorating the yard and organizing a comfortable seating area at minimal cost.
Wooden boxes - looking for an application!
It would seem, what can ordinary wooden boxes do, except for storing apples and potatoes? This is the dilettante look of a city dweller, but not our resourceful and all-trades master brother, a summer resident!
If you move aside from the utilitarian purpose of these conventional structures and apply a little imagination, you can build a lot of them. For example, here are such cute crafts that you will not be ashamed to decorate your garden and yard with.
Glass and plastic bottles: collecting empty containers!
This more than affordable material is the absolute champion in its use in country estates. With a certain ingenuity, empty plastic containers can serve not only for growing seedlings and drip irrigation devices, but also for decorative purposes.
Glass bottles can be used to decorate the borders of flower beds, flower beds and garden paths. Or such an airy improvised screen delimiting the recreation area in the courtyard of the house.
And if you work a little and acquire the skills of working with glass, you will get wonderful lamps, bird feeders and original hanging vessels for growing flowers.
Cinder blocks: mobile and laconic solutions
A few extra cinder blocks left over from building a garage? It's just luck! Take a look at the photo, there is a reason to build a light garden bench or a comfortable couch for a summer cottage. All that is needed is a few stones and wooden beams for sitting, and foam mats and soft pillows will help soften the hard surface.
How to create a spectacular flower arrangement out of the blue? Elementary! Located near the fence in the yard or a free-standing construction made of cinder blocks is a great solution for those who prefer strict laconicism in the design of the surrounding space.
Gabions in country decorations - aesthetics and style
We will not talk for a long time about the decorative role of gabions in modern landscape design - I wrote a separate article about this, and in general there is more than enough information on this on the Internet.
The use of these mesh structures, filled with a wide variety of materials - pebbles, rubble stones, rubble and even glass bottles allows you to create a lot of useful and decorative structures on the garden plot.
Gabions are used for quick construction of fences and partitions, design of reservoirs, flower beds and various architectural elements. In the courtyard of the house, using this design, you can equip a recreation area with a barbecue oven or a cozy place for relaxation with a small pond or fountain.
Interior items and country utensils in flower arrangements
The shady landscaped garden and the rustic house are designed accordingly. Cute and original flower arrangements using old baguette frames, a wooden stepladder and even out-of-print chairs will organically fit into the given theme.
An old wooden barrel as a flowerpot, a birdcage with textured succulents planted in it, or improvised ampel designs can transform your yard in the most unexpected way.
And a few more touches to the portrait of your country house. Do not rush to hand over the leaky tin troughs, watering cans, basins and buckets for scrap, they will still serve you!
With a little creative effort, such a retro fountain or an unusual accent may appear in your patio, drawing attention to a flower bed in the front garden.
Old trees: do not rush to cut for firewood!
It doesn't always make sense to get rid of the old tree on the site. Give him a second chance and he can be a very animated character in your garden decor!
Look, even the most ordinary tree stump, surrounded by bright frivolous petunias, seems to take on a new life!
Guests on the way: festive illumination
And finally, a few more bright ideas for decorating the yard in case of a celebration - for a wedding or birthday. After all, the feeling of a holiday is not only a generously set table in the company of a pleasant company of friends and relatives, but also the organization of a cozy and welcoming atmosphere, which is accompanied by well-chosen lighting.
Electric garlands, candles in glass jars hanging above the table, unpretentious wire structures with lighting - all this can decorate your yard for receiving guests. And make an impression, of course.
We wish you creative inspiration and successful design experiments! Do not hesitate to share your successes with us, and we will gladly tell you about them on the pages of our dacha blog.
A platform for a car in the country - we do a parking lot with our own hands
After rains or in spring, coming from a summer cottage with a kilogram of mud on your boots is a dubious pleasure.It is for this reason that you begin to think about the need for parking in the country. Full confidence comes after the next rain, when it will not be possible to leave the site the first time. And not even from the fifth. Then there is a desire to make yourself a summer cottage parking. There is nothing complicated in it and it is quite possible to do it yourself.
Types of country parking lots
Dachas, and the requirements for comfort, are different for everyone, and parking at the dacha for a car is more than a dozen options. There are only seven types of coverage, as well as their combinations, the possibility of installing canopies. They differ in operational characteristics, costs. So, the coverage for parking a car in the country can be of the following types:
The cheapest in the device, at the same time convenient in operation, a parking lot made of rubble or pebbles. With the right device (using geotextiles), crushed stone does not mix with the ground for many years. Even if geotextiles were not laid (this often happens), then adding rubble is not a problem. After some time, the bottom cake of crushed stone and soil becomes so dense and durable that this process (mixing with the soil) stops.
Parking in the country: the pros and cons of different options
A separate and very important plus, which is given by parking in a crushed stone country house, is natural drainage. You don't need to build a drain. Water seeps between stones and goes into the ground, taking away pollution with it. But this type of site is not suitable for areas with high groundwater levels. Standing in a puddle on rubble is not the best solution to the issue, although the problem is solved by creating a drainage system for the entire site.
Green parking has become more and more popular in recent years. This is not an ordinary lawn, but a special one. A plastic grill is hidden under the grass, which redistributes the load on the ground, prevents the wheels from falling through. Caring for such a parking lot is similar to caring for a lawn - mowing, watering. Weeding is not required, since the preparatory work involves removing the soil, that is, most of the roots go away. Herbal varieties are used special and this is the problem: they are expensive. The second minus is the possibility of freezing (and the seeds are expensive, and greens do not grow too quickly). But it's beautiful. And it can be used not only as a parking lot, but also as a recreation area.
Parking grates are not plastic, but concrete with holes for grass
A platform for a car in a country house made of paving slabs is the best option for a hard surface for heaving soils. And the water does not stay too long - it goes into the cracks between the tiles, and when heaving, the integrity of the coating does not suffer. There are two more options: concrete and asphalt summer cottages - reliable and durable, but only if all the preliminary work is done correctly. Their disadvantage is that they are expensive, the appearance of cracks is very noticeable.
The device of a summer cottage parking area: preparatory work
Despite the different coverings for parking a car in the country, the preparatory work is not much different. The difference may be in the layer on which the coating is laid (for example, it is necessary to pour a layer of sand when paving with paving slabs), but the whole cake and the list of other works are the same.
You can do that ... until you get stuck after the rain
The first thing to decide on is the place. The parking lot at the dacha is usually located either right next to the gate, or not far from them. And it makes sense. But this zone should not be the lowest point, otherwise the water will constantly stagnate here, and the height difference is also undesirable here - putting the car on the handbrake, putting pads on is not quite what you want.
The best way to compact sand and gravel is with a vibratory plate. If not, you can make a homemade rammer. Take a log, attach handles, attach a solid platform (thick board) from below. By picking up and throwing this implement, compacting sand / rubble
With all this, continuous coatings such as concrete or asphalt should not be brought to zero in level: water after washing the car or rain will not leave. So that it does not stagnate, it will be necessary to form a slight slope - from the center to the edges. A slope of a couple of degrees is good. And the car will stand stable, and the water will drain.
The dimensions of the dacha parking depend on the planned number of cars "living" there. One car has enough plot of 3 * 5 meters, i.e. 15 m². This space is quite enough so as not to think that you need to park exactly in the center, otherwise you will have to go out onto the lawn, into a flower bed, etc. Parking in a summer house of such an area makes it possible to safely bypass the car in front and behind.
If space is limited, the length can be reduced by 0.5 m, but at this size, you can walk either in front of the car or behind it. Only if you have a solid-sized jeep, it is better to increase the width of the site by at least 50 cm, and even better - by a meter. These machines are large, and they need more space.
Parking sizes: this picture is from SNiP (building codes)
If there will be two cars to park and they are of "standard" sizes, the comfortable length of parking at the dacha remains the same - 5 m. With enough space, we take the same 3 meters wide. That is, to park two cars, a 5 * 6 m area will be needed (5 meters is the length). With a shortage of space, the width and length can be reduced by 0.5 meters (4.5 * 5.5). But in this case, it will not work to open the doors of the car at the same time, and it will also be difficult to go around the car around.
Check in for the car: water drain
The next step is to decide whether you need drainage around the parking lot or not. If the soil drains water well in a natural way and the coverage is discontinuous (tiles, lawn, stone), it is quite possible to do without drainage measures. If at least one of the conditions is absent, drainage will have to be done. There are many options, but there are three of the simplest:
When can you not think about water drainage? When you have a sandy area or heavy rainfall are rare. Then there are no problems. Another option is a natural bias. In this case, the water will leave by gravity, but you will still solve the storm sewer problem, only on the scale of the entire site.
With or without border
Any coating on the site for a car in the country will last longer if the area is fenced with a curb. In the case of arranging a bulk gravel or pebble parking, the curb will still not allow the bedding to crumble over the site. In the case of using paving slabs or stone, the presence of limiters can also be considered mandatory. They are laid on a sand layer, and the sand can be washed away by streams of rain.
Curbs are desirable for aesthetic and practical reasons
This will not happen if the parking lot at the dacha is at the same level or slightly below the rest of the site. But in this case, it will always be humid here and the water will not go away, which clearly will not benefit your car. So the presence of a border is desirable - even bury a brick around the perimeter, but then a natural stone is better. Or pour yourself out of concrete, but it's less troublesome to use ready-made curbs. For a budget option, you can use reinforced concrete grape posts.
Layers: general consistency
After you have chosen a parking space for a car in the country, mark the selected dimensions of the site (taking into account the drainage system). Next, we work in this order:
In general terms, these are all the rules and features of the car parking in the country. More precise layer sizes depend on the soil structure and the planned load. For example, for loose (sand and sandy loam) and unstable (peat) soils, to give greater stability, a road mesh can be laid on the bottom of the excavation. It will eliminate punching.
Second example: a layer of geotextile can be placed between sand and gravel. The bottom layer (at the bottom of the pit) is necessary to stabilize the base, and also to prevent plants from germinating.Intermediate layers provide better protection against plants and also prevent mixing of the layers. In this case, even a heavy vehicle will not leave a track.
Features of sites with different surfaces
Coarse sand or fine granite chips (1-4 mm) are poured under paving slabs, bricks, flagstones, rubber tiles. Please note that for parking for cars, tiles need a thickness not less than 50 mm (under the tracks you can take from 30 mm). One more point: the smaller the size of the tiles, which the parking lot is paved with, the less noticeable the inevitable "play" of the levels of bricks will be.
Different coverings of parking lots for summer cottages have their own laying characteristics.
Natural stone and concrete slabs
If it is decided to make a parking lot from natural stone sawn with slabs, it should also be taken 4-5 cm thick. It is not worth stacking too large pieces: there is a high probability that they will break. They should not be placed close, but leaving gaps of a couple of millimeters. The gaps are filled with sand, into which you can add abrasion-resistant lawn seeds. If you make the same paths, it turns out beautifully, organically, and even there will be no dirt.
Everything looks very decent with natural stone
If the grass does not appeal to you (it is more difficult to clean, you need to cut it somehow), fill the gaps between the slabs with a mixture of sand and cement (1 part cement, 3 parts sand). Sweep it off the stones so that there is nothing on them and pour the area (just not with a stream, but in small drops, and so that it does not flow). The mixture will turn into concrete. It will take a certain time to cure: 7 days at a temperature of + 20 ° C to achieve 50% strength and another two weeks for full "ripening". Until the moment of 50% strength gain, it is desirable that there are no showers during this period, and if they start, cover the area with polyethylene. Water itself is not terrible, streams that can wash out fragile concrete are terrible.
This option has only one drawback: the high price of the stone. To reduce costs, large format ready-made paving slabs can be used: 50 * 50 cm or so. They are also laid on a gravel-sand cushion. All the same, only the slabs are of artificial origin and clear geometry.
For a concrete site, you will need to install formwork around the perimeter. Then it will be necessary to make a reinforcing frame in the form of a cage from a metal rod. A bar is taken with a diameter of 10-15 mm, a lattice is folded from it with a step of 10-15 cm, at the junction points they are tied with a special wire (knitting). The resulting mesh is placed on the stops so that it is raised above the compacted rubble by 3-5 cm, and the layer of concrete on top should also be at least 10 cm (preferably 15).
If a concrete parking lot in a country house is made for two or more cars, expansion joints will be required. To do this, wooden planks 0.7-1 cm thick are laid with an edge on a lattice made of reinforcement. The width of the planks is equal to the height of the concrete layer (they can be used as guides when leveling the concrete mixture). They are laid in increments of 2 meters.
Concrete parking for a car in the country in the process of manufacturing
In the case of concrete, you will have to wait quite a long time for the start of operation of your parking lot. The concrete must stand for at least 28 days. And this is if the temperature does not drop below + 20 ° C. In this case, you need to ensure that the surface does not dry out. To do this, you need to water the area, and so that the water does not dry out quickly, sketch matting, old bags, etc. on top, throw a piece of polyethylene on top. This coating helps to maintain moisture, evens out the temperature (local overheating is harmful) and protects the surface from drops that are inevitable during watering.
If you can't wait that long, add an "accelerator" to the concrete. An additive that accelerates the hardening of concrete. The term can be reduced to 7-10 days. But carefully read the features of caring for such concrete.
Green lawn parking
When arranging a green parking lot, special gratings are placed on the gravel layer, the gaps of which are filled with fertile soil and sown with grass seeds.For parking a passenger car, and sometimes a jeep, a 10 cm high grating is sufficient. If it is supposed to put heavy vehicles (trucks with materials) under unloading on the site, a grating is needed with a height of at least 15 cm.
The difference in the cost of green parking grids is significant. But the difference in price is usually justified: some eco-parks do not sag, look normal, others crumple, turning the surface into a mess of soil and grass. Therefore, when choosing gratings, do not pursue cheapness.
Lawn parking for cars in the country
It is not very convenient to look after the grassy parking: the rake gets stuck in the grate, not every lawn mower can work safely. Therefore, many owners of such sites are disappointed. But recently, another tendency has appeared - instead of soil and grass, medium gravel is poured into the gratings, and the top is covered with small gravel or pebbles. Why is this option better than a conventional fill site? The platform does not squeeze under the wheels even of a heavily loaded vehicle. This option is ideal for clayey soils.
Economy options for arrivals and parking
Although parking in a dacha made of rubble is considered the most inexpensive, its total cost is considerable. If it is not possible to invest the appropriate amount or the arrival will be temporary, you can try to get by with more modest options.
The cheapest check-in is from the laid old sleepers. Decommissioned sleepers, if desired, can be found and ask for very little for them. Since they are already saturated with everything possible from decay, they can be laid directly in the ground. But in order to prevent them from sticking out during heaving, it is better to dig a trench and lay at least 5 cm of rubble or construction debris on the bottom. On the sides of the sleepers, it is also advisable to make crushed stone backfill at least 5 cm each.
Budget check-in to the cottage for a car
One sleeper is not enough for a ride (unless you are a super driver), and two under the wheel is quite enough. The option, of course, is temporary, but it is more than suitable for the period of arrangement of the territory.
There is a similar idea in a more civilized version: take concrete paving slabs measuring 50 * 50 cm or 60 * 60 cm. Lay them in two parallel rows - under the wheels. It is not worth pressing them one to the other - it is better to leave a ground gap. To avoid bulging during heaving on clay soils, as in the previous version, make at least a minimal dump of rubble.
There are also cobbled summer cottages. Brick, natural stone is used for paving. These options are good if the soil is not clay. Brick will collapse most quickly - it is not intended for such conditions, but as a temporary measure for arrangement it will do quite well.
Parking for cars from what is at hand
For 10 years, I have studied various best practices from different countries related to different spheres of life. I was interested in the question of how it is possible to resolve most of the problems that the majority of individuals have, problems in local communities, in cities and villages, problems in most countries and in the world as a whole. As a result, the picture was completely formed, and it was possible to draw up a set of recommendations and proposals in the field of education, health care, ecology, agriculture, social and cultural spheres, the implementation of which will solve most of the existing problems. This complex of solutions and proposals is suitable for implementation by every person and for every country. Separately, the proposed solutions were implemented to one degree or another by different people and in different countries, but so far, in no country in the world, the whole complex of these solutions has not been implemented on a large scale and massively among a large number of the country's population. This is not about politics, but a holistic conceptual and new approach to life. What everyone can do for themselves, their families and other people. Here knowledge is offered in all areas of life. Individuals can use this suggestions and knowledge to improve their lives and the lives of their families to live healthy, happy lives and create wealth.It also has business ideas and options for those looking for their own business. Anyone interested can read all the information in the collection in full. "WHAT CAN AND NEEDED TO BE DONE FOR THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL-CULTURAL PROSPERITY OF PEOPLE, FAMILIES, LOCAL COMMUNITIES AND THE COUNTRY AS A WHOLE": https://lubodar.info/reshenie-problem/.
Having studied all the above experience in different areas, I came to the conclusion that one of the key and priority areas is the mass landscaping of settlements and the dissemination of knowledge on nature-friendly agriculture (peeped from nature, according to natural laws) and permaculture. The development of this direction and the dissemination of knowledge about nature-friendly agriculture and permaculture at a deep level affects all the main spheres of human life and is associated with the main problems facing each individual person and humanity today. It became clear that it was necessary to create centers for permaculture, nature-friendly agriculture and gardening and gardening. By creating such centers, we solve many tasks and problems at once with one action.
Before reading any further, please watch these 4 inspiring videos that show a prime example of gardening and environmental movements and their relevance to people, society, ecology and life. I have an idea and a dream to convey this information to as many people as possible and create an even more ambitious "green" movement than shown in these videos.
SAVING THE CITY. The story of Jeff Kaiba founding Evergreen in Canada, looking to expand urban green space, creating gardens in concrete school courtyards and impoverished neighborhoods. Jeff and his team are transforming places and people across Canada. They have now launched their most ambitious project, transforming an old abandoned 26-acre industrial estate into an ecological urban oasis:
"Gangster Gardener Ron Finley and Guerrilla Gardening in South Central." Ron Finley is a revolutionary gardener from Los Angeles. He grows vegetables and fruits right on his front lawn and plans to open a chain of health food restaurants across the country. His perspective on the production of natural products in-house is interesting, and his experience in this area deserves attention and replication on a global scale. He is an excellent speaker and is often invited to take part in various events. One of Ron's TED talks in California immediately became an event, and individual quotes from his speech turned into motivators. He managed to convey to the audience the depth of the problem of healthy eating in cities and offer his own version of its solution:
GARDENER FROM TORONTO. On the rooftop of a modest three-story home in Toronto's Parkdale neighborhood, the caring hands of city dweller Gaila Trail are cultivating a small paradise. When Gayla is not tending the plants, she posts her thoughts on her You grow girl website. Its goal is to change the attitude of people towards gardening. Gayla inspires many people to grow plants in the city in free places, she launched a whole movement:
"THE SECRET LANGUAGE OF TREES". THIS IS A SUPER VIDEO THAT WILL CHANGE YOUR LOOK AT TREES, PEOPLE AND SOCIETY IN WHOLE! In an extremely interesting lecture, Ph.D. Erwin Thoma talks about the similarities between people and trees, which he learned as a forester. This applies to both the individual and the community as a whole. You will learn what life principles of trees underlie our coexistence. How in the near future it will be possible to solve many problems of mankind:
WHAT TASKS DO THE CENTER'S ACTIVITY SOLVE?
- ENSURING FOOD SECURITY FOR EACH FAMILY , that is, gaining knowledge and skills on how to grow a lot of clean food for yourself and your family with the least amount of time and effort, without digging, weeding, chemical fertilizers and with minimal watering. As Ron Finley says in the video posted above, "Growing your own food is like printing your money!"
You can learn why food safety is important in these videos:
* "Local solution to global problems" - a film about global food policy, about the impoverishment and destruction of traditional agriculture, about the artificially created dependence of modern agriculture on the oil industry. Due to the introduction of chemicals, the land is devastated. Consumption of products grown with the help of pesticides, herbicides, hormonal supplements brings enormous harm to human health and the planet's ecosystem. The film provides an alternative solution to overcome this dependence, how to make the economy local and come to food autonomy and safety: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tc8Ww-58mFo
* Film "Seeds of Freedom". The film tells how multinationals are destroying local, sustainable seeds with hybrids and GMOs. And thus they destroy the communities of people living for centuries in this territory. And how important it is for us to preserve our seeds and our cultural communities: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mU0z_ej2t0E
* Film "Our Seeds". About how much GMO crops have spread around the world and how to stop it: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5AfBq7pKVhk
Every family can provide itself with food (to satisfy your basic need, on which the most money is spent), using permaculture and creating your own forest garden, and you can use even a small piece of land (from 4 acres, with a well-created permaculture design of the site). Here are some very striking examples:
Urban permaculture 2700 kg of food on 4 acres. The video tells the story of a Southern Californian family who set up a permaculture farm in their backyard in Pasadena, measuring just 400 m2. This farm provides food for 4 adults and generates $ 20,000 a year in food sales!
JEFF LOTON IN THE URBAN FOREST GARDEN (USA). In this film, world renowned permaculture designer Jeff Lawton visits Eric Toensmeyer and Jonathan Baines' forest garden in Massachusetts, in the northern United States (cold climate). This is an urban forest garden. It is grown on only 4 acres of land. But more than 200 species of plants grow in it. This is a vivid example of what forest gardens can look like in settlements where there is little land, but it can be rationally used and significantly increase its efficiency and expand the natural biodiversity of plants that can grow in a given area:
PERMACULTURAL ABUNDANCE FORESTRY ON 13 HUNDREDS! About a permaculture forest garden in England, grown on 13 acres of land. Many people who live in the suburbs of big cities have such plots by area. It is well shown what an abundance of products and what environmental benefits from a forest garden can be achieved if the principles of its creation are correctly applied. This is the maximum biodiversity of plants that can grow in a given area, as well as layered and compacted planting of plants.
A forest garden with 500 species of edible plants!
PERMACULTURAL FORESTRY ON SAND. The film shows a beautifully designed and successfully growing garden in Portugal, grown on bare sand: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CI1E8_JpoVM&t=16s
ERIC TOENSMEYER'S EDIBLE FORESTHOOD (USA): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TxexgPhV66w
EXAMPLE OF A VERY BEAUTIFUL PERMACULTURAL FORESTRY IN IRELAND. Garden and vegetable garden can be grown and planted by yourself. It is a lot of work, but it is possible. Colette O'Neill, who lives in Ireland, took her 1.2 hectares of land with her last mortgage 13 years ago. It was an open field with a small house. She named her property Beltane Cottage, after the Celtic traditional festival of early summer, and began planting. And exactly as her motto prescribes: “Plant as if your life depends on it. After all, that's the way it is. " The results speak for themselves: with enthusiasm and alone, you can turn a piece of land into a self-organizing ecosystem that can become a home not only for humans, but also for many plants and animals.After 9 years of continuous planting and earthmaking, Colette noticed that nature itself began to paint its living picture on the canvas of the plot:
* EXAMPLES OF FARMS AND FARMS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD. PERMAKULTURA - the transition from fighting nature to cooperation with it: https://lubodar.info/permakultura/
* EXAMPLES OF FORESTRIES FROM AROUND THE WORLD AND IN DIFFERENT CLIMATE ZONES. FORESTRIES - A SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEMS OF HUNGER, POVERTY AND FOOD SECURITY OF INDIVIDUALS AND SOCIETY! https://lubodar.info/lesosad/
It is important to understand! Nutrition and food security are fundamental problems that give rise to most of the other global problems of individuals and all of humanity. Nutrition is the second most important (after breathing) basic vital human need. Most people on Earth mainly work (labor) to primarily provide themselves with food. Next comes the need for housing.
The need for food, and its solution, gives rise to most of the existing global problems: the problem of human health, environmental problems (pollution of water, soil, air, climate change), the problem of garbage. More details about the relationship between nutrition and global problems and how to solve the nutrition problem are discussed in great detail in the article. “NUTRITION AND FOOD SECURITY ARE FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS that give rise to most of the global problems: the problem of human health, environmental problems (pollution of water, soil, air, climate change), the problem of garbage. FORESTRIES - SOLVING HUMAN HEALTH PROBLEMS, ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND GARBAGE PROBLEMS ": https://lubodar.info/pitanie-klyuch-k-resheniyu-osnovnyh-problem/.
- IMPROVING HUMAN HEALTH as a result of improving the ecology in the city. The priority is to help create a healthy environment for future generations. Health is a by-product of the environment. The environment is the foundation and we must not allow it to be destroyed. The interests of pharmaceuticals and healthcare are secondary and depend on the quality of the environment. More greenery - easier to breathe. In Russia, according to the norms, it is stipulated that for each person in his neighborhood (in the yard or near his house) where he lives, there should be 6 m2 of green space. American researchers have calculated that in order to maintain people's health, each family should have 2 acres (40 acres) of land, this with a vegetable garden and a garden next to their house. How and why it is correct to green city spaces, how a truly living metropolis should look like (using examples from different cities of the world) can be seen in this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EQgKpj80HSs
- INCREASED COMFORT WHILE IN THE CITY. Restoration of ecology in the city (more greenery - easier to breathe, less dust and harmful substances in the air), more spreading trees, more flowers and ground cover plants - the asphalt heats up less and the city becomes less hot.
- RESTORATION OF LAND FERTILITY, RESTORATION OF ECOSYSTEMS, climate and humidity of the area, purification of soil, air and water, reducing the possibility of cataclysms - all this happens when using permaculture and nature-friendly agriculture. It is very important that thanks to the activities of such centers, people will begin to think more about the environment. The number of people who know real and effective ways to restore the environment will increase, and more people will want to do it. The main thing is that the information will begin to gradually and continuously spread and eventually cover a large number of people and their minds.
Watch these videos on the possibilities of permaculture. What you see will impress you ...
VIDEO "DESERT OR PARADISE" - MANDATORY WATCH THIS VIDEO! You will be amazed at HOW WIDE IS THE POSSIBILITY OF PERMACULTURE (you can grow food in the most extreme conditions, on almost any land and restore the fertility of lands, made infertile by human activity.
EXAMPLE OF ESTABLISHING A PERMA-CULTURAL FARM IN THE DESERT IN JORDAN. In very extreme climatic conditions, permaculture shows its effectiveness, even in the desert it is possible to grow food and restore the fertility of the land. An example in this video "CRISIS, HOPE AND PERMACULTURE!":
FROM DESERT TO OASIS IN 4 YEARS Is another amazing example of what can be achieved using knowledge in the field of permaculture:
FORESTRIES - A SOLUTION TO HUNGER AND POVERTY. Another example is how in Sinegal (Africa), forest gardens are being created in the desert, saving the local population from hunger and poverty. The destruction of trees for traditional agriculture and because of this, the already poor soils turned into sand. This led to hunger, which became a daily reality, young people left the country, people became refugees. However, in 2003, active local residents and farmers, aware of the ecological disaster, with the support of Trees for the Sake of the Future, began to create productive forest gardens and implement a plan for the sustainable development of this area, bringing advanced effective permaculture technologies to it and teaching them to local residents. The center of all farms is trees, because they are the basis of life. As a result of such a breakthrough, not only food supply, but all spheres of life of the population began to improve. Forestry solves the problem of hunger, desertification, and most importantly, people stay on their land instead of becoming refugees.
It is necessary to move from the imaginary power of people over nature to helping nature and people. By restoring the water balance, create landscapes that can independently "work", where a person is engaged in co-creation, that is, he interferes with the landscape and the ecosystem only when absolutely necessary. At the same time, this landscape is beautiful, it benefits and food. It's like in the wild, the landscape is both beautiful and healthy, here plants, water, birds and animals live in harmony. Such an ecosystem is capable of self-reproduction and self-healing. The first few years she needs human help, and then she already functions independently, when trees and shrubs have already grown up, insects begin to return, birds fly in and animals return. They return on their own, because it is convenient for them to live here, there is food, shelter and all the necessary resources for life. Man creates a natural habitat for them by planting trees, shrubs, creating the presence of water and stopping digging up the earth. Then a person no longer has the problem of controlling crop pests, since the number of pests is controlled naturally with the help of birds, etc. Therefore, there is no need to use chemical preparations against pests and a person gets an ecological clean harvest. This is especially important for large areas, which would be difficult for a person to care for if he did this work himself, without the help of birds and animals. That is, the challenge is to create a sustainable ecosystem.
The water balance is disturbed in most parts of the world, since there are few places where people have not had their hands on the use of land for agricultural purposes. It is especially evident that the land is sick in the fields where monoculture is grown (only one variety of plants is grown over a large area). Even if it seems that there is a fertile layer on the field, if you come up and drip, you will see that there is no life in this land, there are no worms and insects in it. This land has been treated with pesticides, nitrates and other mineral fertilizers for many years, therefore, such a site needs to be restored for a very long time. Additionally, soil depletion by planting monocultures also leads to soil dehydration. Since any moldboard plowing (turning the land during plowing), which is widely used in intensive agriculture in all regions of the world, leads to the death of microorganisms living inside the soil.There are microorganisms that live in the soil in the warmth, and there are those that live on the surface of the soil. During moldboard plowing, the soil is turned over together with these microorganisms. And those of them that live below in the earth in the warmth find themselves on the surface, and they perish. This is the same as that a man lived in Africa, and he was once and naked directly transferred to live in Antarctica. Such a person will die. It is the same with microorganisms, transferring them to extreme unusual conditions, a person destroys them. Then they were poured with chemical mineral fertilizers from above and a monoculture was also planted, which further impoverishes the soil and finally destroys the ecological system.
One culture of plants needs some specific substances for growth and life, and when planting one plant in one territory, this plant systematically selects from the soil these specific substances it needs, and the soil is gradually depleted. After that, little will grow on this earth. Plowed land, its top fertile layer very easily flows over the surface. If it rains or melt water descends, and there is no soil retaining layer, as autumn plowing is often practiced, the top fertile layer is washed off in huge quantities. It turns out that there is a lot of moisture in the spring, the earth is overloaded with water, damp, and in the summer it turns into concrete - everyone knows this story. And this is immediately the first sign of a completely disturbed water balance of the earth.
Next, we can look at the relief. If there are ravines, then, most likely, these can be fields that have already rested from agricultural production for 10-15 years. But since the forests were cut down in these territories, and even with a slight slope of the terrain during rain or melting snow in spring, the water flows and with the slope picks up speed and washes away the fertile soil layer and in weak places where the soils are softer and sink, ravines are formed. Many have probably seen this often. These are erosive formations and a sign of a violation of the water balance, since large bare areas of the earth are without a single reservoir. One body of water below is often not enough. It often happens that there are large rivers, their banks can be considered wonderful fertile places, but it was not there ... Good places are when a forest is planted along the river or an old natural forest grows, which no one touched. Then these rivers do not lose their fullness, and now this is a big problem on the scale of entire countries, when large rivers begin to shallow. And all due to the fact that there were forests and forest belts, protected zones along the rivers, and plowing takes place not so far from the coast and the soil during rains and snow melts flows into the rivers, springs become clogged and they go underground. Accordingly, the flow of water is reduced. Building concrete dams that supply people with water and electricity or turn rivers back, this reshaping of Mother Nature leads to water problems. In the south of Ukraine and Russia, the problem is very acute, since there is almost no forest cover (the entire forest was cut down for farming in these territories) and agriculture is very active there. And everywhere there is this problem with the soil and its water balance, which needs to be addressed on a national scale.
Monoculture is ruining the earth. It is impossible to create a self-healing sustainable ecological system by planting a monoculture (one plant). With monoculture, it is imperative to apply fertilizers, fight weeds, plant diseases, etc. - a very large amount of chemistry is poured into these fields. If we are engaged in permaculture (planting many different plants in one territory), then this is a movement in the opposite direction: we think that we can give to the land. There is a trinity in permaculture: when a person is not a consumer, but a creator, when a person takes 30% for himself, 30% gives to the earth, 30% to his invisible workers (insects, birds, animals), which help this ecosystem to function.You cannot even imagine what will happen if there are not even the same mice and moles on which you sin, which really drain the soil. They actually allow the soil to be saturated with moisture, they create passages through which water enters the soil. The moles and mice that people are fighting with are so accustomed to the consumer consciousness that everything that they have planted, they all have to collect every penny. It is clear that when you grow wheat in the fields on a national scale, you can do it in a more gentle way. There is such a concept as crop rotation, there is the concept of non-dump plowing, forest belts that protect the field from drying out, etc. All this our ancestors knew and used it.
Previously, peasants left small areas of forest between the fields, that is, the fields were in streaks. This kept moisture, they especially tried to leave, not to cut down the forest belts near the watersheds, because trees are pumps that pump and store water, to which even rain clouds fly (miracles are not miracles), but this is an important thing that people forget: BY CUTTING THE FOREST, YOU AUTOMATICALLY CONDEMN THE TERRITORY TO A LESS AMOUNT OF PRECIPITATION! Even large-scale agriculture can be thought out in such a way as not to harm nature, as is done now. Well, you squeeze everything out of nature and what's next?
The practical benefit of permaculture in every farm is not only the creation of a landscape, it is a natural way of life, the creation of an environment where you can get natural food without slave labor (even if this plot is 1 hectare or more), since the permaculture approach is an intelligent approach to agriculture by building space that works for you, not you, not him, saving you unnecessary labor and time.
- RESTORATION OF BIODIVERSITY IN CITIES and other settlements, as well as on agricultural lands. In any locality where greening according to the principles of permaculture and nature-friendly agriculture begins to be applied, biodiversity is restored.
WHY DO ECOSYSTEMS NEED BIODIVERSITY? The answer is in this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mBob2ZcUFvs
- TEACHING PEOPLE IN THE PRINCIPLES AND SKILLS OF PERMACULTURE AND NATURAL AGRICULTURE , as with the least expenditure of time and labor, without digging, weeding, chemical fertilizers and with minimal watering, to obtain increased yields of food. People will get more free time, save money on grocery shopping, and get better food without chemicals, which will have a positive impact on people's health. People can transfer the knowledge gained in urban gardens to their summer cottages of any size. If everyone at his dacha applies the principles of nature-friendly farming and creates forest gardens, then a global network of forest gardens will be formed from a small one and this will be a significant counteraction to climate change, the possibility of cataclysms will decrease, air, water and soil pollution will decrease over a fairly large area.
The principles that need to be taught to people are outlined here:
* 12 PRINCIPLES OF PERMACULTURE: https://lubodar.info/12-printsipov-permakultury/
* Ideal land for a vegetable garden and garden. What should be how to create fertile soil on the site? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v7uVt2-QY_E
* Introduction to the practice of natural farming: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_soDqHF0PSA
* Traditional versus organic farming: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W1MEewHch6M
* Organic vegetable garden. Preparing the soil in the virgin lands. Raised bed arrangement: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dpYL8HTHxG4
* We make high-yielding beds for an organic vegetable garden: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ofx81E0MZrM
* NATURAL AGRICULTURE (peeped from nature, according to natural laws) - A SIMPLE METHOD TO PROVIDE YOURSELF WITH FOOD. GARDEN AND GARDEN FOR LAZY - how to grow food for yourself and your family with minimal labor and time, without weeding, digging, without fertilizers, with minimal watering.CREATING A NATURAL ECOSYSTEM THAT WILL GROW PRODUCTS FOR YOU WITH THE MINIMUM COSTS OF TIME AND EFFORT ON YOUR PART: https://lubodar.info/prirodosoobraznoe-zemledelie/
* A successful farmer without a tractor. Using birds and animals for weeding and pest control: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N4zEPWtsLPc
* CREATING A NATURAL GARDEN (FORESTRY) WITH YOUR OWN HANDS, WHICH REQUIRES MINIMUM CARE FROM THE OWNER! https://lubodar.info/sozdanie-prirodnogo-sada/
- TEACHING CHILDREN IN INTERACTION WITH NATURE.
There must be nature in the life of children. Especially those children who live in an urban environment. To do this, you can create a program "Explore the Earth", the idea of which is to reunite children with nature in an urban environment. In today's urbanized society, people no longer live on farms and do not go to their grandparents' farms, so it is necessary to gain experience of interacting with nature, the land in the city. Most children live in high-rise buildings or (in the case of expats) they come from countries with a completely different ecosystem. In these children, isolation from nature is evident. If children can connect with nature, then they can connect with their community. Through interaction with nature, children can feel the places in which they live. Often we place the child in an urban environment that is divorced from nature, on a paved school playground made of chains or fenced in with a net that resembles prison yards and was created according to their principles. It's all about the vision, how to attract or reject people - it creates certain cultural behaviors and awakens certain values. It is necessary to change the physical space in which the children are. It is just a microcosm that can grow throughout society if we can change the environment on a larger scale. At least 90% of modern city children have never planted plants with packs of hands in the mud. But most adults (who grew up in another generation) take this experience for granted, but these modern children have never had this experience. It is important to germinate a new consciousness in children. Social educators note that there is a tendency for children in kindergarten to behave in such a way that they cause a lot of harm even to the meager nature that is on the territory of the playground in the kindergarten. Children are cruel to nature because they have become more insensitive, because the environment of the city helps to reduce natural emotional sensitivity: if it rains and worms come out, then children crush all the worms, break branches near bushes, tear leaves, few dandelions grow in spring, children mercilessly ripped off and do something with them.
When children plant the plants themselves and these plants grow, it is magic for children. It's easy to understand how a tree grows, to help plant it, water it and fertilize it. Take care of him. This is based on the idea of empathy (feeling together). After the experience of caring for plants, it is observed that children begin to litter less. This comes from a sense of ownership, from a sense of responsibility for the place that children take care of, creating a garden and vegetable garden. And teachers and parents participate in creating this caring atmosphere and draw children into it. And everyone is becoming more attentive. And this is the essence of what needs to be done. When gardens appear, people care and respect them and all the space around them. It is also important to show children live edible plants in the garden, thereby creating a connection between what the children eat for dinner and where it comes from. The world can change when children grow up again in nature. Then something will change significantly in the field of education, since children growing up in nature, they protect their nature, protect their plants, protect their animals. They then argue and show how to properly grow plants and farm according to natural laws. This is how children develop their joy of life, this is how they take root.They will be with nature, connected with the earth. They will feel, feel, they will smell - then they will be full-fledged people. These will be the teachers of the future. These will be politicians who know how nature works.
An example of a Green Lab project in a school and its impact on children: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Px7dYgpVViM
- STRESS LEVEL REDUCTION, PSYCHOLOGICAL CARE AND SOCIAL ADAPTATION (including people from socially disadvantaged groups) THROUGH GARDEN THERAPY. There is even a garden therapy association in the USA, and garden therapy is widely and effectively used for psychological help.
Here are videos and real-life examples of the benefits of garden therapy for different groups of people with different problems:
* Ecological therapy in kindergarten has given tremendous results. Apatity kindergarten № 10 became the winner of the 19th regional competition "The best goods and services of the Murmansk region." In the nomination "Services for the population" the institution presented "ecological therapy". The technique helps the socialization of children with disabilities, in particular, with speech impairments: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IWC5DnOf_FU
* In Novy Urengoy, pupils of the Sadko social assistance center are engaged in garden therapygrow vegetables. Cucumbers, tomatoes and herbs grow in a small greenhouse. The crops are harvested directly from the garden and sent to the children's table. Garden Therapy Can Heal: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tFbJ4HXypv0
* An example of the effectiveness of garden therapy in helping people with mental disorders. The botanical garden staff can not only green cities, but also help people suffering from mental disorders. Patients of the Murmansk Regional Psychiatric Hospital periodically visit the greenhouse of tropical plants. For several years now they have been undergoing garden therapy here. The efficiency is good! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GD0OwoeRTjc
* Garden therapy at the ISU Botanical Garden for those suffering from stress, physical or mental illness. They began to use nature for medicinal purposes here 10 years ago. Today's students are children who are mentally lagging behind. The lesson scheme is standard - watering, plant transplantation. Wanda Grigorieva with her daughter Alexandra has been in the group for several years. The woman says: working with plants has a beneficial effect on her daughter's health. “This is training, first. She understands that flowers need to be planted, watered, and she also learns the names of plants, for example, "Sansiviera". It is very difficult for her, but she nevertheless develops her language. Beneficial influence is visible in everything ": https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mdSDAZwM0bI
* The method of "Garden therapy" from the Botanical Garden of Irkutsk State University is used in the colonies of the GUFSIN of the Irkutsk region. Several colonies in the Irkutsk region decided to use an unconventional method of influence - garden therapy - to engage convicts in a business that reduces aggression, stress and tension in relationships. Volunteer prisoners set up gardens and decorate flower beds. Biological scientists and psychologists are sure: growing rare and very "capricious" plants, former criminals themselves strive for personal growth. The most important thing is that in the process of this work they receive labor skills with which they will be released, where they can apply them. While receiving psychological relief while working with plants, at the same time the prisoners acquire the skills of gardeners and florists and even landscape designers. In addition to the usual lawns and vegetable gardens, the colony decided to build a real winter garden with a fountain, live carps in an artificial reservoir, palms and cacti. If the experiment succeeds, then garden therapy will become compulsory for all prisoners. In the meantime, the project is being carried out only in six colonies of the Irkutsk region, convicts participate in it only of their own free will: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IFNYVFYgOPA
* Garden therapy for difficult teenagers in the botanical garden of Irkutsk State University. Pupils of the special school (the so-called difficult teenagers) made flower pots, tried themselves as gardeners, transplanted plants and learned to recognize them by smell. These are elements of garden therapy. At their school, they already take care of the flower beds. Observing plants, they keep special diaries. According to experts, garden therapy methods help to instill work skills. Teenagers become responsible first for plants, then for their actions: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KzHbWAJYMT4
SENSOR GARDENS also have a tremendous positive therapeutic effect. A sensory garden is a combination within a small plot of several natural materials with different textures (sand, pebbles, hay, etc.). The sensory garden is widely used, but the main thing is to restore the harmonious psycho-emotional state of people with autism, attention deficit disorder, hyperactivity, impairment of one of the sense organs. Suppose a person has poor eyesight, then, as compensation, other senses are exacerbated and stimulated, which will help him complete the picture of the world in full.
Also, sensory gardens will be useful for people moving in wheelchairs. For use by such people, the sensory garden is set much higher than usual, so that, while directly in the wheelchair, a person can reach and interact with plants and other elements of the sensory garden.
However, for the residents of the metropolis, especially for those who need rehabilitation after illness or restoration of mental strength, a visit to such a garden will be very useful.
It is especially important to mention the enormous importance of the sensory garden in the development of young children. At an early age, the development of speech is closely related to the stimulation of fine motor skills of the hands. And this is explained by the fact that in the brain the speech and motor centers are located very close to each other. Therefore, when stimulating the motor skills of the fingers, the speech center begins to activate. In the sensory garden, you can surround your child with a variety of scents, colors, shapes, sounds and textures of plants that you can touch with your fingers and taste right there. Thanks to these new sensations, neural connections are formed in the child's brain, which will give impetus to the development of the nervous system and intelligence.
It will also be useful to create sensory gardens in all social institutions, including hospitals and clinics.
Such a garden can be static, located directly on the lawn, or it can be mobile, consisting of modules filled with selected materials. The first option will fit more organically into the landscape, and the second is more practical, easy to maintain.
Watch this video on sensory gardens: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rccoHFuRkas
Here are some articles on sensory gardens:
- WE MAKE PEOPLE CLOSER TO NATURE. We give people the opportunity to see the magic of the emergence of a new life through the example of plants (this is especially important for children!). We help people to love nature and better understand the processes taking place in nature. Constant interaction with nature changes people's thinking, people will be less inclined to do destructive actions in relation to nature, people become more peaceful and positive.
- EDUCATION IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS OF RESPONSIBILITY AND SELF-CONFIDENCE through the practice of planting and caring for the garden and vegetable garden.
- COUNTERING SOCIAL DEGRADATION THROUGH THE USE OF CITY GREENING (this method is actively and effectively used in many European countries). Today, in the residential areas of cities, house buildings are used according to the Le Corbusier concept, proposed in 1935 and which was initially guided by good intentions and carried the ideas of total socialism to achieve health and happiness of people.But the concept suffered a fiasco, in the 70s in St. Louis, a whole microdistrict, built according to this model, was blown up, because, as it turned out, people living in such areas for some reason are creminalized and subject to social degradation (this is for abroad, in the bourgeoisie the world, on the territory of the former USSR, this is not so clearly expressed, but, nevertheless, psychologically, in isolation from nature, it is quite difficult for people to live in sleeping areas). Therefore, it is very important and useful to maximize landscaping and the creation of centers and places for the leisure of people living in such areas.
- REAL HELP IN SOLVING SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF SOCIALLY UNPROTECTED POPULATION (persons without a fixed abode, difficult teenagers, ex-prisoners, members of large families, children from orphanages, etc.) through teaching them how to grow their own food using permaculture and nature-friendly agriculture and how to build houses from natural materials with minimal financial costs. This knowledge and skills will allow these people to provide themselves with food and shelter and even start their own business.
On the use of permaculture for the rehabilitation of former prisoners. Former prisoners practice permaculture in California: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qA5xqfAax-g
Here are examples of building houses with minimal costs:
Warm house for two thousand dollars! Not far from Debaltseve, adherents of environmentally friendly housing are being built. A family of retirees was able to build an adobe house: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tAuP-iMY6LQ
In every orphanage, it is worth creating a forest garden and involving the children living in this orphanage in its creation.
This will simultaneously solve several problems: a forest garden will be created and children will receive very valuable practical experience and knowledge of how to create forest gardens. This will be useful in many ways:
* from a psychological point of view (communication with plants and nature calms, reduces stress levels, brings a state of peace and happiness). For the same purpose, it is necessary to create NATURAL PLAYING AREAS FOR CHILDREN on the territory of orphanages (such playgrounds are already quite common in Germany and Austria): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=phgDrViAKFA
* children will be able to provide themselves with natural and organic food
* children will acquire skills useful for the future life
* Perhaps some of the children will be so interested in the topic of permaculture and forest gardens that they will make it their profession in the future.
Establishing tree gardens will also be useful in schools and nursing homes (old people, according to their abilities, can also participate in the creation and maintenance of a garden - this is a useful occupational therapy).
- WE MAKE THE CITY MORE BEAUTIFUL. The aesthetic component of the space surrounding people has a very strong impact on their emotional, psychological and spiritual state.
- USE, ANNOUNCEMENT AND GREENING OF PREVIOUSLY UNUSED TERRITORIES IN THE DESERT AND CREATION OF ADDITIONAL PLACES FOR LEISURE BY DIFFERENT POPULATION (when creating urban gardens and forest gardens, combining them with recreation areas). Thanks to this, the number of depressive places that attract socially degrading individuals will decrease, and the number of ennobled places where it is pleasant and interesting to be and where people can spend their leisure time interestingly and profitably will increase.
* Rooftop gardens in New York, green playgrounds in New York, bioregional life in New York, an urban farm in Camden, and the creation of a rain garden at the site of an abandoned gas station. For all this, watch the video "Inhabitants: A Permacultural Perspective" from 32 minutes 29 seconds to 52 minutes. Better to watch this inspiring movie in its entirety: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GpGvpGGoBk8
* "Samosad". Do-it-yourself park. On the third weekend of May (05/17/2015), an initiative group of residents of the Podolsk district of Kiev began the development of a container public garden on a vacant lot, at the intersection of Spasskaya and Voloshskaya streets.Guerrilla gardeners brought in and painted the boxes, then began planting flowers. The initiative group "Pilorama" began to design and equip the recreation space. This place will be not only as a garden, vegetable garden and flower garden, but also as a venue for any events, which was done by the stage for street musicians. The goal is to ennoble the place and make it necessary and pleasant for the residents of Kiev: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=guZrefPjDSY
* How the old, abandoned High Line overhead railroad that runs over downtown New York was turned into a green oasis by the public with a hanging park, a place for walking, relaxation and pleasant pastime for the townspeople, surrounded by flowers and trees: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NyEvSNGP7l4
* CREATION OF NATURAL PLAYING AREAS FOR CHILDREN IN EUROPE. Now is the time of total urbanization. Cities are expanding and occupy more and more natural spaces. Corners of nature in the city are shrinking and being destroyed. This leads to the death of local ecosystems and affects the perception of reality and the health of residents. Children are especially affected. Those of them that are cut off from nature are more sick and grow up with mental disorders. There are less and less creators among them, more and more senseless sufferers. The city is gradually leveling and breaking its inhabitants. But some city dwellers began to think about it and began to make attempts to correct this trend. In this video, there are some good examples of creating natural areas for children in Europe. I would like this experience to be comprehensively disseminated and people finally learned to live in comfortable conditions, while being in harmony with Nature! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=phgDrViAKFA
- INCREASING SOCIAL ACTIVITY AND COHESION OF PEOPLE, increasing their interest and responsibility for the urban spaces that are located near their home and that they use. The creation of urban gardens and farms is the development of that very civil society, moreover, not in words, but in deeds. Not a political protester, but a tangible improvement when a person sees it in front of him.
Here is an interesting video about urban gardens, including about their social significance: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Pudwzc-kz8
- RESTORATION OF FORESTS AND DESERT AREAS AND CONVERSION OF THEM INTO RESERVATIONS, FORESTS, PARKS.
* Turning England's coal mines into a national forest in 25 years! Millions of hectares of forests and steppes on our planet have been turned into lifeless quarries in the extraction of minerals. But we can bring life back there by creating reservoirs and planting forests. Moreover, due to the complex relief, the species diversity of plants and animals can be much greater than it was before, if all this is correctly planned and implemented. If nut trees, fruit and honey trees, as well as berry bushes and medicinal herbs are planted in forests, then such forests can also provide high-quality food products and raw materials for medicines. This video we have translated tells the story of a successful example of transforming closed coal mines and mines in England into a national forest with a green economy in just 25 years: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hrlb4Vx9sOQ
* Reforestation in the desert mountains of Greece: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yxqaOADMlJw
- INFORMING HOUSEHOLDERS AND HOUSING DEVELOPERS ABOUT THE ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF CREATING GREEN ROOFS.
Greening roofs increases the lifespan of flat roofs and reduces energy and heating costs in such homes. The green roof absorbs moisture perfectly. A roof flower bed is the best remedy for leaks. The roof absorbs water even if it rains for several days in a row. A green roof can last 40 years without repair (this is 2 times longer than a normal, non-green roof). During rains, water passing through the roof is retained in the trays installed in front of the greening of the roof, which reduces the amount of water entering the rainwater drainage system, which in case of heavy rainfall prevents the drainage system from overflowing, leading to flooding of the basements of houses. During prolonged rains, water from green roofs is absorbed into the roofs, and excess water enters the rainwater drainage system gradually, without overfilling the system.The roof greening system protects the roof from wear and tear, as most of the roofs become unusable due to exposure to sunlight. At the same time, the level of roof heating in the hot summer period and roof cooling in the winter period are noticeably less, therefore, the cost of electricity for using air conditioners and heating costs are about 25% less. New York authorities have decided to ease the burden of financial costs for landscaping the tops of skyscrapers and now every developer, cooperative or just a millionaire can return from taxes paid $ 48 per square meter.
More about this in the program from the series "New York on the Roof" about Stuart and Matthew Schechter - pioneers of green rooftop greening in New York: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z4Yu2ncAjYA
More about vegetable gardens and roof gardens:
* Gardens were set up on the rooftops of Paris (news): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M583f7lkQJ4
* Organic roof farm (Jeff Lawton): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R0rweEaKB30
* About young business woman Marnie, who started her own high-rise landscape design firm and is trying to debunk the glamorous image of high-rise gardens. Marnie is a fan of naturalness and naturalness, simple traditional plants. She uses old things in her gardening: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AhXcA3SKgCs
- TEACHING THE POPULATION AND ESPECIALLY CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN THE KNOWLEDGE OF WILD MEDICINAL AND EDIBLE PLANTS and how to cook tasty and healthy food from wild plants , including green cocktails. This will broaden your horizons and give you more confidence and survival.
Useful information on this item:
* Anatoly Grigorievich Izmodenov argues that in fact, nature has everything that a person needs, that a person only needs a forest for complete happiness: it will feed, and give, and warm, and heal.
He is a practical scientist. He defended his PhD at 37, and his doctorate at 67. And all these years between the defenses (30 years!) He disappeared in the forest. Anatoly Grigorievich - Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Professor, Academician of the Public Academy of Unconventional and Rare Plants (ANiRR), traveler. He experimented on himself - he went into the taiga without food supplies. In his pockets there were only matches and a notebook with a pencil for notes. The scientist crossed the Sikhote-Alin several times and reached the Tatar Strait. It was he who discovered a new science - seledia - from silva (forest) and edio (food). That is, the science of forest food, forest products. If earlier they talked only about forest non-wood products or agrophoreste - agriculture in the forest, then A.G. Izmodenov expanded this concept. The purpose of this science is in the production safety of mankind: to take into account, evaluate, identify patterns and dispose of according to the mind, to learn how to use forest products correctly and without harming nature. Izmodenov combined all medicinal plants into the so-called salubers - this is a list of 1100 names of trees, shrubs and herbs. And more than half of them, or rather 683, I studied on my own, counting the products that can be obtained from these plants. The deepest mistake of mankind is to be frivolous about the products of the forest. We need to take into account all production plants and all products in nature (there may be one plant, and there may be up to a dozen products). That is, to find out what you can eat from plants on Mother Earth, what plant resources we have for human life. Izmodenov was the first to develop a whole science of creating year-round closed-type factories in the taiga (inexhaustible production, continuous throughout the years and seasons of the year) for the integrated processing and use of taiga resources.
Anatoly Grigorievich created a theory for the development of forest products in two directions: a raw material base for harvesting and a gene pool for crop production. It is known that man has domesticated and adapted into agriculture no more than 5% of plants created by nature. So there is still a lot of work to do.Izmodenov had been hatching the idea of grocery belts in the forest, where there are all the necessary fruits for human life, in order to plant them artificially in the forest for a long time. His dream is to create a kind of forest dacha (production sites) where it would be possible to collect and study forest products. Now summer residents have taken away blueberry and honeysuckle seedlings from his "sites" in Khekhtsir. According to Izmodenov, two forces influence the development of society and people: the social environment and nature. So, according to the scientist, we completely forgot about nature. Anatoly Izmodenov wanted the science of sealedy, created by him, to be taught in all universities and schools of the world. After all, thanks to plants we live. Plants first appeared, and only then man. We definitely need to know the resources that exist in our civilized attack on nature. The book by Anatoly Izmodenov can be downloaded and read here: https://lubodar.info/v-prirode-est-vsyo-chto-nuzhno-cheloveku/.
* WILD PLANTS AND NATURAL GIFTS - FREE FOOD! (+ recipes from wild plants): https://lubodar.info/bezplatnaya-eda/
* Herbs in human nutrition (very interesting and useful video): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oWwqW44YqzM
- DISTRIBUTION AMONG THE POPULATION AND ESPECIALLY AMONG FARMERS AND OWNERS OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES OF INFORMATION ON THE ADVANTAGES AND BENEFITS OF TRANSITION FROM THE TRADITIONAL INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE.
Why switching to agroforestry is important is very well described in Sadhguru's speech at the Davos Economic Forum 2020. The importance of planting trees and where to plant them. How to plant trillions of trees so that owners of agricultural farms and businesses receive large yields and profits while simultaneously stopping global warming, and people will be provided with quality food in sufficient quantities: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1eYAepP1xZs
Agroforestry in Europe! Farmers' point of view. Why agroforestry is profitable: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lmPaRLQGfl8
Agroforestry Techniques for People, Planet and Profit! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jiDwvizmF80
For more information about agroforestry, see the article "AGRICULTURE - A WAY OF CONDUCTING AGRICULTURE, PROMOTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY, REDUCING COSTS, EMPLOYING, RESTORING, ESTABLISHING. AGRICULTURE IS THE FUTURE OF LARGE AGRICULTURE. Agroforestry is a solution to the problem of poverty, hunger and climate change ": https://lubodar.info/agrolesovodstvo/
Also, for owners of large agricultural enterprises, information about the Drevlyansky farming system will be useful. "DREVLYANSKAYA" AGRICULTURE SYSTEM IS AN EFFICIENT AGRICULTURE SYSTEM UNDER GLOBAL WARMING CONDITIONS, AGRICULTURE WITHOUT CHEMICALS AND DEEP BURNING. In conditions of high temperatures and lack of moisture, the "Drevlyansky" farming system ensures weed control, optimization of mineral nutrition and water balance: https://lubodar.info/drevlyanskaya-sistema-zemledeliya/
- WE GIVE AN OPPORTUNITY FOR PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT AGES TO GET A NEW DEMANDED PROFESSION (permaculture designer or become the owner of a permaculture farm)
Centers for permaculture, nature-friendly agriculture and gardening and gardening will be useful in settlements of all types and sizes, from huge megacities to villages. In villages, people own quite large plots of land and can introduce the principles of permaculture for planting their gardens and vegetable gardens, and farm owners can start doing business at a new, more environmentally friendly level, restoring the ecosystem and getting large yields with the least expenditure of effort and money.
Centers for permaculture, nature-friendly agriculture and gardening and gardening can be organized on the basis of existing social and cultural centers.
The city of Todmorden has shown a wonderful example of mass participation of the population in the greening of their city. Now they call him EATABLE CITY.
TODMORDEN - the city of Great Britain, immersed in flowers and greenery. Green spaces and gardens throughout the city are the result of gardening propaganda. Today, walking along Todmorden Street, you can pick an apple from one of the many apple trees growing on it and eat it fearlessly - it is guaranteed to be ENVIRONMENTALLY CLEAN and completely FREE! Would you like an apple? Then at your service any other fruits or vegetables - whatever you just want. This transformation of the city was made possible by the INCREDIBLE EDIBLE project. “If you eat, then you are a participant,” is the motto of this project. Everything that is grown in the city is for everyone's use. Surprisingly, this is not a state or commercial project. It has no investors, and it was launched without any financial investments - ordinary city dwellers Pam Warhurst and Mary Clear. They managed to interest and involve all the townspeople in participation. The project is over 5 years old, and all its participants are volunteers. All they want is for the future generation to grow up in a better world. A more detailed article about this city can be read here: https://lubodar.info/sedobnyj-gorod-todmorden/
There is a strong interest in urban farming around the world. New Yorkers set up numerous rooftop gardens, in London there are about 400 thousand city gardens, and in Amsterdam they grow vegetables right in their courtyards. In many cities in Europe, Asia and America, the phenomenon of urban agriculture has long been the norm.
City gardens in Swedish: https://home-and-garden.livejournal.com/727642.html
Joel Rosenberg is an urban gardener from Helsinki: http://partizaning.org/?p=3682
Report about the city garden of Henrikh Galustyan, who grows raspberries, currants, gooseberries, cherries, strawberries, grapes on a plot among the high-rise buildings of the Vyborg district (St. Petersburg): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iaICZuwWzrc
Here there are options for how vegetable gardens are made in place of wastelands: https://varlamov.ru/1515316.html
Urban vegetable gardens can even be mobile, for example, here are practical tips for creating a container garden or a mobile orchard: https://9dach.ru/ogorody/ogorod-bez-zabot-prakticnye-sovety-po-sozdaniu-kontejnernogo-ogoroda-ili -mobilnogo-fruktovogo-sada
A vegetable garden can be quite small, but very productive. For example:
The first example of urban farming in Russia was the vegetable garden of Alla Sokol, who organized it on the roof of her own house in St. Petersburg in 1993. “During 1993, there were about five vegetable gardens, but there were also illegal gardens,” she recalls. For more than 20 years, Alla Sokol has been successfully planting and growing crops on the roof of her house at 9/2 Pulkovskaya Street. More information about Alla Sokol and the pioneers of urban gardening: http://partizaning.org/?p=6794.
In 2012, in a Moscow vacant lot on Pyatnitskaya Street (before its repair), a partisan vegetable garden was set up by Pavel Pryanikov, where he grew vegetables, herbs and berries. “This garden was developed not for the sake of food, but as a demonstration of a public idea. I want the city to give the sites, which have been empty for decades, to people for unlimited use. As long as the person is alive, let him take care of the garden, ”- says Pavel.
Soon after the release of Skolkovo's Atlas of New Professions, which predicted the emergence of the City Farmer profession until 2020, a city farming business school was formed in Moscow, which conducts lectures, master classes, hackathons on the topic of city farming and business. growing products in high-tech greenhouses in hydroponics and aquaponics.
“Our goal is for urban greenhouses to become the same norm as bakeries, so that citizens always have access to fresh vegetables, herbs, and fruits. With an ideal model, consumers can influence the assortment, see what is happening with the products, and understand how the entire production cycle works. City farming is in demand by restaurateurs, people who try to lead a healthy lifestyle, and those who just like to grow food for themselves on the windowsill ”- comments Tatyana Dubovskaya, the founder of the business school.
While smart greenhouses are being developed in the capital, a different view of urban gardens is emerging in St. Petersburg. The urban farm of Andy Wormwood emerged in the wasteland of the Museum of Street Art in 2016 as a way to reinterpret the word “culture” through its original meaning (first found in a treatise on agriculture in the 2nd century BC).A year later, the farm moved to the roof of the Etazhi loft project on Ligovsky Prospect, where a kind of public space was formed around it, concerts were held, lectures, master classes were given, and where anyone could plant anything. The project found interest and response in the hearts of Petersburgers, however, the creator of the farm, Pavel Barinov, notes that in the future it would be interesting to grow a full-fledged city garden without reference to cultural contexts.
In Russia, there are also public initiatives, for example "Dacha in the City" in St. Petersburg, "Society of Urban Gardeners" in Perm, the "City Gardens" project in Beslan. In 2017, at a meeting of the head of the Republic of North Ossetia with young people, Fatima Kusova suggested breaking vegetable beds in empty urban areas. The head of the republic Vyacheslav Bitarov supported this idea and within the framework of this project 60 cherry tomato seedlings were planted in Beslan.
City gardens are a novelty to us, and of course the first question that many people have is: “Is it possible to eat it? Is the food grown in the city harmful? " Everyone knows that industrial and automobile emissions pollute urban soil, air and water. In each specific case, it is necessary to separately consider the territory where you are going to set up a vegetable garden, examining soil and air pollution in this particular place, since the indicators are different in different areas: there is a difference whether you live in an industrial center near a factory and a highway, or in a bedroom area surrounded by a park.
It is also worth noting that the bulk of the pollution comes from motor vehicles (up to 80% according to Rospotrebnadzor). Therefore, the paramount questions are how far the highways and roads are, are there natural barriers to automobile emissions, what is the ecological situation in the city, how polluted the soil is. But the best answer to the question "is it possible to grow food in my yard" will be answered by the expertise of your yard and the products grown there.
To better understand the topic of urban ecology as applied to food cultivation, let us turn to several foreign studies in the field of urban agriculture.
The first substantive study of urban soil pollution and its impact on food quality was published in the journal Environmental Pollution in 2014. The study took 564 soil samples from 54 public gardens in New York City and found high levels of lead, barium, cadmium and other potentially hazardous substances in at least several samples.
Scientists note in their work that effective ways to reduce the potential harm from pollution are using tall beds, clean soil and compost, maintaining a neutral soil pH, covering bare soil, and practicing hygiene when preparing food.
Scientists from Kansas State University believe that the risks associated with urban gardens may not be as high as it seems at first glance: plants do not absorb all the settled harmful particles and impurities.
The researchers grew tomatoes, leafy vegetables and carrots in urban soils, then analyzed the levels of lead, arsenic and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) - compounds that have the potential to cause cancer. The team found that almost all vegetables except carrots had low levels of all of these pollutants. It turned out that root vegetables (carrots) are capable of accumulating lead, but growing them in containers in clean soil and thoroughly washing them before eating can avoid this, scientists say.
“Soil chemistry is complex, and people need to understand that despite soil pollution, there are many factors, including biological ones, that determine whether harmful substances will be absorbed by plants,” said Ganga Hettiarachi. “Urban gardens give people access to fresh fruit and vegetables, as well as good for physical and mental health. "
Marthe Ortolo, in his master's work "Assessment of the risk of atmospheric pollution in urban farming" for three months carried out a biological monitoring program in the community gardens of Amsterdam. Spinach was grown in containers with uncontaminated soil and then analyzed for the content of heavy metals, nitrates and PAHs, as well as their relationship with atmospheric pollution.
The study found that some PAHs show high values that are volatile and changeable in urban environments, which may be related to uneven emissions from cars. However, concentrations were low compared to similar studies in rural areas of the Netherlands. In addition, the concentration of harmful substances was found to be acceptable according to the standards established by the European Commission and the Food Code.
In conclusion of his work, Marthe Ortolo notes: “I recommend that the authorities and citizens take into account the lack of knowledge in the field of atmospheric pollution when we talk about urban agriculture. Several measures can reduce the impact of air pollution, for example, good spatial planning (avoiding the vicinity of urban sources of pollution, main roads, highways, etc.) or the organization of natural barriers (trees and shrubs that can absorb particulate matter). It is a good precaution for gardeners to wash the crop thoroughly before consuming it. "
In addition to research on the environmental aspects of urban agriculture, there are many studies proving the benefits of urban gardens for the health of citizens. For example, American scientists have found that urban farmers consume 40% more fresh vegetables and herbs, and significantly less candy and other junk food. Another study has shown that vegetables and greens that have undergone transportation within 5-10 days lose 30-50% of their nutrients, which does not threaten those who eat fresh vegetables from the garden. Also, urban gardens contribute to the improvement of well-being, mental health and social relations.
In conclusion, based on the above, you can give the following recommendations to anyone who wants to plant a yard, wasteland or roof.
When planting a city yard or wasteland, be sure to do a soil or crop examination before eating anything. Most often, in large cities and metropolitan areas, the soil is polluted and completely unsuitable for this. Eating vegetables, fruits and greens grown in the open urban ground, precipitated by heavy metals and other emissions every day, without prior environmental assessment of the soil and crop, can pose a threat to your health.
If your yard is located near roadways, highways or a factory, but you still want to grow something, think about decorative landscaping. Planting your yard and urban areas with ornamental grasses, flowers and shrubs, you thereby make the air in your yard cleaner. Any plants act as a natural protection against atmospheric and noise pollution.
When creating a vegetable garden on the roof, in a clean yard or in an apartment, take care of the quality of the land and water, the absence of main highways, highways and industrial enterprises nearby, and, most importantly, be sure to thoroughly wash your crop before use in order to wash off the settled harmful particles.
Urban vegetable gardens can become successful public spaces that gather urban communities around them, a way of doing business in a metropolis, school farms, or the realization of a city dweller's personal desire to grow a bunch of greens for dinner. The main thing is to take care of the safety of the crop, observing all precautions and equipping your garden in ecologically safe places.
Considered in the text of the study:
1. Mitchell, RG, Spliethoff, HM, Ribaudo, LN, Lopp, DM, Shayler, HA, Marquez-Bravo, LG, Lambert, VT, Ferenz, GS, Russell-Anelli, JM, Stone, EB, McBride, MB, 2014.Lead (Pb) and other metals in New York City community garden soils: Factors influencing contaminant distributions.
2. Attanayake, C.P., Hettiarachchi, G.M., Martin, S., Pierzynski, G.M., 2015. Potential bioavailability of lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in compost amended urban soils.
3. Ortolo, M., 2017. Air pollution risk assessment on urban agriculture. Master thesis.
4. Anne C. Bellows, Katherine Brown and Jac Smit, 2004. Health Benefits of Urban Agriculture.
EXAMPLES OF CITY GARDENS:
Photo album in VKontakte: https://vk.com/album-49560567_271199367
Photo album on facebook: https://www.facebook.com/
ALBUM WITH PHOTOS OF THE MODERN GARDEN. Vegetable gardens with flowers and flower beds with edible herbs and vegetables. Vegetable gardens that not only bring a sufficient harvest, but also decorate the surrounding space: https://vk.com/album-93177936_237872306
WHAT ACTIVITIES CAN BE HELD IN THE CENTER OF "PERMACULTURE, NATURAL AGRICULTURE AND GARDEN CREATIVITY"
- Creation and implementation of a garden-ecological education program, according to which every child, by the age of 16, will be able to grow the necessary food for himself, lay his own garden and vegetable garden, learn to understand wild edible and medicinal plants and will be able to prepare healthy food from edible wild plants.
- Lectures on nature-friendly agriculture and permaculture.
- Master classes on natural agriculture and permaculture (direct work in urban gardens and urban forest gardens).
- Master classes on growing trees and other plants from seeds.
- Master classes on the creation of personal and public seed banks.
- Watching and discussing videos on permaculture and conservation agriculture, for example, videos from these articles:
* EXAMPLES OF FARMS AND FARMS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD. PERMAKULTURA - the transition from fighting nature to cooperation with it: https://lubodar.info/permakultura/
* EXAMPLES OF FORESTRIES FROM AROUND THE WORLD AND IN DIFFERENT CLIMATE ZONES. FORESTRIES - A SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEMS OF HUNGER, POVERTY AND FOOD SECURITY OF INDIVIDUALS AND SOCIETY! https://lubodar.info/lesosad/
* NATURAL AGRICULTURE (peeped from nature, according to natural laws) - A SIMPLE METHOD TO PROVIDE YOURSELF WITH FOOD: https://lubodar.info/prirodosoobraznoe-zemledelie/
* AGRICULTURE IS A METHOD OF CONDUCTING AGRICULTURE, PROMOTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY, REDUCING COSTS, EMPLOYMENT, RESTORING LAND, RESTORING LANDS
* Restoration of depleted Sel'kov and economic LAND, river restoration, planting a former industrial mines, afforestation and restoration of biodiversity, using natural ZEMLEDENLIYA, permaculture and forest-gardens CREATION: https://lubodar.info/vosstanovlenie-istoshhennyh-zemel-vosstanovlenie-rek/
- Creation of urban vegetable gardens (in yards, in adjoining territories and roofs of apartment buildings).
- Creation of vegetable gardens in kindergartens and assistance in caring for them.
- Creation of school gardens and assistance in caring for them.
- Creation of urban forest gardens (by the youth and everyone).
- Creation of natural playgrounds by volunteers (youth and everyone).
- Creation of sensory gardens for urban spaces, kindergartens, schools and other social institutions (by volunteers).
- Conducting environmental lessons in schools.
- Planting trees with children (including for reforestation).
- Carrying out garden therapy with certain groups of socially unprotected citizens (difficult teenagers, former prisoners, in nursing homes, in large families, etc.).
- Master classes on growing greens and other products at home, on the windowsill, balcony, etc.
- Lectures and master classes on the creation of forest gardens.
- Carrying out botanical walks, excursions and hikes in order to study plants, including edible wild plants and medicinal plants and collect their seeds.
- Conducting lectures and master classes on environmentally friendly life hacks that are useful in everyday life. For example, about the convenience and benefits of peat toilets, which is very important for villages that allow you to create fertilizers in the absence of an unpleasant odor, they reduce the load on cesspools, more about peat toilets and how to make them yourself: https://lubodar.info/ekologichniy- tualet-i-kanalizacia /.There is also information on how to correctly equip all communications in the house in order to use water and energy resources as efficiently as possible. In this video from 13 min. 50 seconds and up to 20 minutes 20 seconds, an example of such scheduling based on permacultural design is described: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7JA8uZsJokQ.
- Helping people from socially unprotected strata of the population in obtaining land for the creation of forest gardens and vegetable gardens on the principles of permaculture and nature-friendly agriculture. On this land, people can build small houses for themselves and grow food for themselves and for sale, create their own farms. The Constitution of Ukraine provides for the opportunity for every citizen of the country to receive land free of charge. More detailed information in the article “Ukrainians have the right to privatize five plots of land free of charge: https://sud.ua/ and https://protocol.ua/.
- Conducting certified courses in permacultural design
- Education of the population on the correct greening of cities from an ecological point of view, namely:
+ how and why it is correct to green urban spaces, how a really living metropolis should look like (on the examples of various cities in the world): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EQgKpj80HSs
+ "Wildlife in the metropolis". People need to understand that it is necessary to stop destroying landscaping, turning it into a shaved dead surface, and that something that is natural cannot be, as everyone is used to, “pretty neat”:: https://www.youtube.com/watch ? v = EhNM4ZMZCbg.
+ CREATING WILD NATURAL MEADOWS IN GERMANY CITIES! Currently, there is a catastrophic decrease in the biodiversity of plants and insects that live in symbiosis with each other. The plowing of fields, chemicalization, urbanization of space leads to the fact that their species is becoming less and less. Many of the insects are pollinating insects. Their disappearance will lead to an inevitable decrease in the yield of our orchards. In some of them, because of this, artificial pollination is already practiced. Small wild meadows, so necessary for insects to feed, live and reproduce, in cities are ruthlessly mowed by brushcutters at the root, which leads to their disappearance. But people began to appear in Germany, who were engaged in saving such wild islets of nature in cities. Expanding them, aesthetics and increasing the biodiversity of plants living on them: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mpNWaePQ8nQ
- Lecture and presentation for representatives of agricultural business on the importance of the transition from traditional agriculture to permaculture agriculture and agroforestry.
- Carrying out actions to collect garbage and clean up areas.
A striking positive example is how the Estonians cleared the whole country of garbage in 1 day: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G1MGRHImmfU. The goal of the unique Let's Do 2008 campaign is to collect 10,000 tons of garbage that has accumulated in the forests and along the roadsides of Estonia. More than 50,000 people went out on May 3, 2008 to clean up and cleansed the country. The project was organized with the help of over 600 volunteers. To achieve such a result, the state would have needed 3 years and 22,500,000 euros, but the inhabitants of the country together coped with the task in one day and 500,000 euros. The advertising campaign cost 0 euros. The initiators of the campaign are ordinary residents of the country who love their land and want to live in a clean and comfortable country. More about the campaign: http://www.teeme2008.ee.
Master class from the founders of the international movement "Let's Do" (Estonia). The topic of the master class is the organization of the nationwide and all-planet subbotniks "Let's do it!" using IT and volunteer help “Let's Do” - a global action to clean up Estonia from rubbish in 2008 in one day, spawning a global movement with a common goal: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1TH15g0gBBE.
- Carrying out garden and ecological festivals and holidays.
COMMERCIAL COMPONENT TO MAINTAIN THE CENTER'S OPERATION
- Sale of books by B.A. Bagel, Kurdyumov and other specialists in permaculture and nature-friendly agriculture.
- Sale of seeds and seedlings. Useful information on this topic:
- Sale of biological products with symbiotic microorganisms for better development and growth of plants.
- Conducting paid master classes.
- Conducting certified courses in permacultural design.
- Creation of green roofs by order of individuals and organizations.
ADDITIONAL TOPICS THAT CAN BE PROMOTED THROUGH THE CENTER:
- A story about the importance of separate waste collection (show a video on this topic).
- Tell the centers that you can live a simple life: LIFE IS SIMPLE. Why are we complicating it? LIFE IS INTENTIONALLY COMPLICATED BECAUSE THE SYSTEM IS INTERESTED IN CREATING FULL EMPLOYMENT OF THE POPULATION! https://lubodar.info/zhizn-prosta-zachem-my-ee-uslozhnyaem/
- To talk about the fact that you don't have to buy an apartment or build an expensive house in order to live in your own home. You can live comfortably in small mobile homes on your own land. Now the tiny house movement is gaining momentum in the world. You can read about what “Tiny House” is in this article: https://pikabu.ru/story/chto_takoe_tiny_house_5895934.
Here is a site about tiny houses: http://tiny-house.me/
Greening cities, creating green public spaces, vegetable gardens, orchards and spreading knowledge about this can become a mission, the meaning of life and a service to Nature and people. The dissemination of knowledge about permaculture, nature farming, landscaping and the creation of vegetable gardens and forest gardens (from very small to large farms) is one of the most rewarding activities that can be done today.
Join the green movement! Let's green cities, make them green oases, bring nature back to the city and enjoy creation and beauty!
Once again, we will duplicate the selections for the main materials telling about nature-friendly agriculture and permaculture. More information and knowledge on the topic of permaculture at these links:
Forging in the garden
Quote post by Fantazy_Carnaval
Modern art forging has reached its climax. We see amazingly beautiful forged products of the masters. In architectural and landscape design, the traditions of making small architectural forms by means of hand-made artistic forging are being revived. This kind of decorative and applied art is magnificent for its aristocracy and grace!
Forged items have become extremely popular. Of course, this is an expensive pleasure, which speaks of the status of the mansion. But you can decorate it not pretentiously and on a large scale, but in small quantities - a gate, a gazebo or a table with wrought iron legs in the garden - this is exactly the impregnation of style that will completely transform the atmosphere of the garden and the infield.
Beautiful forged products will emphasize the individuality of the territory and the amazing taste of the owners. Nowadays, forged products are at the height of fashion. You can choose openwork grilles for windows, fences, gates and gates, as well as magnificent handcrafted lamps and garden furniture. Craftsmen offer exclusive options for forged products according to individual sketches.
Universal open architecture and construction system of multi-storey buildings "ARKOS"
architectural and construction system
multi-storey buildings "ARKOS"
To build quickly, efficiently, with minimal costs - any investment and construction company strives to implement this formula. In the context of increasing competition in the construction market, the choice of a particular house-building system can play a decisive role in achieving these goals and strengthening the leading position of a construction organization.
Recently, house-building systems have become increasingly widespread, the basis of which is monolithic and prefabricated monolithic frames. A comprehensive analysis of existing frame systems on the market (including CAPET, Monolith, “KUB” variants) and long-term practice of their application allows us to single out the ARKOS house-building system (B1.020.1-7 series) as the most effective frame system, in the greatest degree that meets modern requirements and tasks.
Table 1 shows comparative data on the consumption of metal and reinforced concrete in the construction of frames for 9-10 storey buildings.
Precast-monolithic with hollow core slabs
Decking with protruding ledgers
Decking with protruding ledgers
Analyzing the data in the table, it can be noted that the best indicators for the consumption of metal and reinforced concrete (per 1 sq. M.) Are possessed by a precast-monolithic frame with hollow flooring slabs ("ARKOS" system).
The advantages of the precast-monolithic frame were confirmed by the high technical and economic indicators obtained during the construction of a number of objects, in particular during the construction of the Premier-Rachmaninov business center in Tambov (see photo).
Photo. Construction of the building of the "Premier-Rachmaninov" business center in
Mass construction of 4-17 storey residential buildings with a prefabricated monolithic frame is carried out in the cities of Stary Oskol, Bryansk, St. Petersburg, Volgograd, Rostov-on-Don, Voronezh, etc.
An important advantage of the ARKOS house-building system over other similar systems is the ability as quickly as possible, on the basis of existing enterprises of the construction industry, without additional investments for re-equipment of production, to launch the mass construction of buildings for various purposes (residential, office, retail, healthcare and education facilities, multi-level garages, etc.) .) and diverse architecture on a single technological basis. The practice of using "ARKOS" in various regions of Russia shows that any construction organization is able to master this technology in a few days and start building comfortable housing of the European level at the lowest cost price.
House-building system "ARKOS" allows you to stage-by-stage reform and modernization of existing enterprises in the construction industry. The uniqueness and versatility of the system lies in the possibility of using both traditional reinforced concrete elements and those made using new progressive technologies.
The use of traditional hollow core slabs and 40x40 columns as the main structural elements opens up wide possibilities for increasing the load for numerous precast factories throughout the country. Construction companies, on the other hand, receive a huge choice among suppliers of standard products, which cannot but lead to a decrease in the cost of purchasing materials, and also avoid dependence on manufacturers of unique structural elements (which is typical for other prefabricated monolithic systems). Less dependence on manufacturers of building structures makes the construction process more flexible and faster, which again leads to additional savings in material and time resources.
How is the significant savings in metal and reinforced concrete achieved in the ARKOS system in comparison with other systems?
The fact is that the calculation of the frame is carried out according to the laws of statically indeterminate systems. When we have two walls, we put an overlap on them and apply a vertical load, then everything is easily described according to the laws of statics. If we pinch a slab between two crossbars, then the behavior of such a system becomes statically indefinable and is described by other formulas. It is necessary to take into account the spacer effect that occurs between the slab and the girder, which was first implemented in practical conditions by the authors of the system. This spreader acts unloading and allows you to exclude metal in those places where it does not work. Monolithic crossbars allow redistributing the load in the plane of the entire overlap disk, which acquires the properties of a membrane, and the entire frame becomes spatially distributed and behaves as a single whole.
All of the above is based on rigorous calculations and is confirmed by many years and numerous field and laboratory tests.It was the fundamental scientific approach that made it possible to achieve impressive indicators in terms of the material consumption of the system: metal consumption no more than 15 kg / m. sq.
Based on the experience of using the system, it can be argued that the cost of a frame made in the "ARKOS" system varies within the range of 80-90 dollars per 1 sq. M. m (materials, works, mechanisms without a foundation and walls), depending on the complexity of the architectural solution.
The ARKOS system provides for two design schemes - ARKOS-1 and ARKOS-2.
Type series B1.020.1-7 ("ARKOS-1") of multi-storey buildings for various purposes was developed on the instructions of the Ministry of Architecture and Construction of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of BelNIIS's own technical solutions and research, as well as analysis of the results of extensive research by NIIZHB, TsNIISK, MISI, TsNIIEPzhilishcha and dr.
In the structural system of buildings, the functions of load-bearing and enclosing structures are separated. The basis of the "ARKOS-1" system is precast-monolithic frame with flat floor discs, formed by hollow-core slabs... The enclosing structures are made in the form of external walls and floor-by-floor partitions, placed anywhere on the floor disc. External walls, as a rule, are made in the form of masonry from various piece products (made of aerated concrete, ceramics) supported by floor on floor disks. They can be single-layer or multi-layer. External walls can be made hinged on a frame, as a rule, from strip-cut panels.
A feature of the frame is the consideration of the action of thrust forces in the planes of the floor disks along their both axes, which, in comparison with all known floor structures, provides a noticeable reduction in the consumption of metal and concrete. Prefabricated columns can be both floor-by-floor cut, and multi-storey with a height union by means of VINST welded joints on bolted joints developed within the framework of the structural system. The installation of columns does not require the use of conductors.
Hollow-core slabs in each floor are united by monolithic reinforced concrete girders, hidden in the floor plane and supported by precast or monolithic columns. The column spacing can be of any required size up to 8.4 m both along and across the building, and the grid of columns can have an irregular structure in plan with variable spans along any axes of the building.
Hollow-core floor slabs should have cavities open at both ends to a depth of 100 ± 10 mm. Hollow-core slabs are laid in the design position using supporting devices in the form of spatial metal frames. To pass communications in the floor disks, through openings are provided (arranged using either inventory formwork or a prefabricated plumbing plate with a trough profile), and for balconies and bay windows - special consoles.
The constructive system is efficient both in terms of material consumption and the pace of construction. The developed construction technology is all-weather and allows to ensure the rate of construction up to 4.0-4.5 or more floors per month. Thus, according to OOO Akadem-grad (Yekaterinburg), “… due to the low metal consumption and the reduction of“ wet processes ”, production costs are significantly reduced. Due to the fact that 90% of the frame elements are manufactured at the factory, and the rest (monolithic) parts are created at the construction site, the cost of the frame is 15–20% cheaper than in other architectural and construction systems. In addition, in comparison with the monolithic method, the speed of building houses increases significantly ... ”. The above is fully confirmed by the data of Gorstroyproekt CJSC (Omsk), Orelgrazhdanproekt CJSC, GRM-stroy (Moscow), etc.
The houses of the ARKOS-1 system are characterized by the following indicators: