Gorse

Gorse

A perennial plant gorse is part of the legume family, and this genus is represented by liana-like and dwarf shrubs. You can meet gorse in nature in the territory of North-West Africa and Western Europe. The plant blooms very luxuriantly, during this period its green dense crown is decorated with many flowers of a golden hue.

Gorse is distinguished by its light-loving nature, therefore, it is most often used to decorate the slopes, and it is also often grown around the perimeter of the lawn. The gorse makes the garden look sleeker and brighter. In addition, it has healing properties and is used in folk medicine.

Description of gorse

The genus gorse is represented by perennial shrubs, shrubs and woody lianas. Its stems are both thorny and smooth. The surface of dense thin branches is covered with a smooth bark of a rich green color. In height, the bush can reach from 0.3 to 1.7 meters. Depending on the type, the shoots can be creeping or erect. Stems cover lateral processes along their entire length. The branches are decorated with lush petiolate foliage. The size of the dark green leaf plates is small, and their shape is oblong-lanceolate, and they can be simple or trifoliate. The foliage surface can be smooth or covered with a short nap.

The first flowering of such a plant is observed at the age of three to six years. In the first days of summer, many brushes of a rich yellow color appear on the bush. They do not fly from the branches for 15-60 days. Axillary flowers are grouped at the tops of young branches. The bloom is so lush that the gorse foliage cannot be seen because of the flowers. After flowering, fruits appear that ripen in August. The fruits are narrow, long and glossy elongated beans, inside which are black-brown seeds.

Planting and caring for gorse outdoors

Taking care of the gorse growing in the garden is quite simple, since it is distinguished by its unpretentiousness. This shrub can grow and develop on its own without any involvement from the gardener.

Seat selection

Best suited for him is a site located on a hill or slope. The plant develops normally in soil with a high content of limestone and sand, which has good drainage.

Transfer

If there is a need to transplant a shrub, then this can be done only until the moment he turns 3 years old. Older bushes have a highly developed root system, which will be severely injured during transplantation.

When the shrub is about 10 years old, it is recommended to replace it with a new one. The fact is that the shoots of the wasp plant stretch out strongly over time, and their exposure is also observed, which has an extremely negative effect on its decorative effect.

Lighting

Even the direct rays of the sun cannot harm this light-loving plant. It is recommended to choose an open place for planting it. If the bush grows even in a little shade, then this will lead to the rapid exposure of the shoots, while the flowering will be less lush.

Wintering

The bush can withstand heat, but severe frosts can destroy it. In mid-latitudes, in late autumn, the bushes should be covered first with a layer of spruce branches, and then with a non-woven material. If the winter in your region is not frosty and snowy, then undersized gorse species for wintering can not be covered. However, in this case, the probability of frost damage to the upper shoots is high.

Watering

This plant tolerates drought quite easily. But the stagnation of liquid in the ground can harm it. It is necessary to water the bush only during a prolonged drought.

Pruning

To form a crown, you should regularly prune the shoots. At the same time, early spring is considered the best time for trimming gorse. If you want, you can give the lush thickets any shape you want. If the bush has thorns, then be extremely careful when working with it.

Reproduction methods

For reproduction of gorse, two methods are used: cuttings and seed.

Growing from seeds

Seeds are harvested in August, as soon as they ripen. After ripening, the fruit turns brown and cracks appear on it. Seed material should be slightly dried, after which it is immediately sown into open soil, and it should be buried 25–30 mm. Sprinkle the seeds with a layer of soil and sprinkle with a little water. Seedlings grown from seeds will bloom for the first time not earlier than in the third year of growth.

Cuttings

Some species of gorse can be propagated by cuttings. The harvesting of apical cuttings is carried out in June, and their length can vary from 12 to 15 centimeters. Immediately after cutting, they are planted in a moistened substrate of peat and sand, and they do not need preliminary preparation. At the time of rooting, the cuttings are covered with a transparent cap on top, or they are transferred to the greenhouse. Please note that on average only 3-4 cuttings out of 10 take root.

Types of gorse with photos and names

The gorse genus comprises 125 different species. Some of these species are suitable for cultivation in mid-latitudes.

Dyeing gorse (Genista tinctoria)

This flower can be found in Kazakhstan, Western Siberia and the Middle East. The height of such a spreading, low-growing shrub is only about 100 cm. The creeping stems are weakly branched and they have no thorns at all. The almost bare leaf plates are narrow, oblong and dark green in color. In length, they reach no more than 25 mm. In the upper parts of young shoots, brushes are formed, consisting of yellow flowers. The bush blooms in June, and the flowering duration is about two months (up to 65 days). If the flowers are pollinated, then narrow, flattened beans are formed in their place. Not so long ago, yellow dye was extracted from foliage and flowers, which influenced the formation of the name.

German gorse (Genista germanica)

This shrub loves warmth, and frost can destroy it. In diameter, the bush can reach about 120 cm, and in height - up to 60 cm. On the surface of upright branches there is pubescence, as well as sessile lanceolate leaf plates. On the seamy side of the foliage there is a felt pubescence. In the place where the leaf plate is attached to the shoot, there is a long green needle. Flowering lasts from the first days of summer until August. At this time, ears of a golden hue open on the tops of the branches. Fruit ripening occurs in October. Seed germination of this plant is very low.

Spanish gorse (Genista hispanica)

A half-meter high bush has the shape of a ball and thorns. Its dense crown includes glossy lanceolate leaf plates of a rich green color, which reach about 10 mm in length. The bush blooms in two stages. During the first flowering, which occurs in early summer, lush inflorescences of a rich yellow color are formed. The bush blooms again in the last days of August, while it is less splendid. This plant is not afraid of frosts down to minus 20 degrees.

Lydian gorse (Genista lydia)

In nature, this species is found in southern Europe, despite the fact that it is not harmed by frosts down to minus 15 degrees. The creeping stems are located at the very surface of the soil, and they can also effectively fall from the slopes of the mountains. The shoots are covered with dense oval small foliage of a dark green color. Lush bloom is observed from April to June.

Useful properties of gorse

In gorse, the shoots, flowers and roots contain alkaloids, essential oils, tannins and flavonoids. In traditional medicine, gorse is not used because it is poorly understood. But in most countries it is widely used in alternative medicine, preparing tinctures and decoctions on its basis. These funds have a tonic, sedative, diuretic and laxative effect. They remove all toxins from the body, and also contribute to the rapid healing of wounds and the destruction of skin infections. These funds are used in the treatment of rheumatism, malaria, tonsillitis, hepatitis, allergic dermatitis, stomatitis and bronchial asthma. In order to remove papillomas or warts, fresh gorse juice is used.

Medicinal herbs.

Contraindications

The composition of this plant contains toxic substances, in this regard, improper use of funds can lead to sad consequences. They are categorically contraindicated for women during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as well as for hypertensive patients and children.

Gorse in landscape design

Gardeners especially value gorse for their lush and spectacular bloom. It looks great in a solo landing, and you can land it both near the fence and at the entrance to the house. Low as well as creeping species can be used to decorate hills and rocky slopes of southeast and south orientation. Also, the shrub is suitable for strengthening crumbling soils.

Gorse is often used for planting in rockeries, rock gardens, and somewhat less often in mixborders. The bush looks best next to tree and shrub crops, for example: with cotoneaster, yew, elecampane, juniper, euonymus, barberry or buzulnik.


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Calendula flower. Description, properties, types and care of calendula

Calendula is an original and unpretentious representative of the plant kingdom. The first mentions are present since ancient times. It is well known among the representatives of the Russian ethnic group as a healing plant.

Ancient healers and herbalists used calendula to create infusions and decoctions. Today, calendula is better known as an ornamental plant, but no one forgets about its healing properties.

Description and useful properties of calendula

The people call calendula "marigolds". There is a plant from the Astrov family. It can reach a height of about 70 cm, an annual. Marigold flowers have a reed shape, most often from yellow to red, a combination of these colors is observed. Flowering occurs at the end of the summer season. Calendula is native to the Middle East, southern Europe and Asia.

Immediately after the flowers bloom on the plant, they must be harvested. It is at this moment that they are saturated with useful elements. The inflorescences are dried at a temperature of 45 degrees Celsius using special dryers. Such inflorescences are stored for no more than 2 years.

Thanks to the content in flowers of medicinal calendula carotenoids, they are painted in the colors characteristic of this plant. The greater their number, the brighter the color, respectively, according to the intensity of the color, one can judge the number of carotenoids.

In addition, this representative of the plant world is saturated with other equally useful substances. These are saponin, resin, proteins, phytoncides, and acids of organic type - malic, salicylic and pentadecyl. Also, calendula contains an essential oil that has a wonderful aroma.

Apply calendula flowers against inflammation in wounds and for their healing. In addition, to properties of calendula flowers include the ability to relax the smooth muscle tissues of the stomach, liver.

This contributes to an increase in the formation of bile, as well as an increase in the activity of the secretion department. The plant is so useful that, if used correctly, it can even increase male potency.

Tincture of calendula flowers used for stomach ulcers, washed wounds, burns. Fresh flowers can be used to get rid of warts.

You can cook calendula flower extract for the prevention of influenza. Helps fight acne, generates skin, tightens pores, heals boils.

Calendula flowers are contraindicated people with dry and delicate skin, as well as pregnant women. If a person is healthy, then calendula will only benefit.

Hand picking flowers is, of course, better, but you can buy marigold flowers at a pharmacy or store. Calendula flowers in the pharmacy cost about 65 to 100 rubles. Wherein calendula flowers price varies according to freshness and type.

Planting and reproduction of calendula

Before planting, sowing is carried out with seeds, that is, planting is carried out in seedlings. The seedling is planted in the ground when 5–6 leaves have already appeared on it. Before planting, the plant must be prepared.

Calendula can tolerate low temperatures, but still, for better survival, and in the future for productive growth and development, the seedlings should be hardened. Indeed, during this period, future organs are laid in the plant, and fate is decided.

In this case, you need to take out the cups or any container with seedlings to the balcony or open the window for a short time. After that, the seedlings will get used to it, and will no longer be afraid of night frosts.

"Marigolds" love sunny places. The soil should be moderately fertilized, moderately provided with moisture, with aeration, that is, well-permeable air. The plant is planted in mixed plantings, as it has a repellent effect on pests.

The planting distance is adjustable depending on the species. If this is a decorative type, then the distance between rows should be 60–70 cm, and between plants 25–30 cm.

If it is a medicinal calendula, then the distance between rows is 30–40 cm, and between plants is 7–10 cm. From the moment of sowing, the calendula blooms in 35–50 days. Reproduction is carried out generatively, that is, by seeds.

Calendula care

Like all plants, calendula needs timely watering, especially in dry weather. Shallow loosening of the soil is necessary in order for oxygen to enter the root system.

The plant needs to be fertilized in moderation, preferably with natural fertilizers. The best option in this case would be green fertilizers. These can be any weeds.

They make a mulching surface, which reduces the evaporation of water and protects the soil from direct sunlight. To do this, you can make a special herbal infusion, which will contain a large amount of nutrients and trace elements.

It is advisable to make the infusion in barrels or in other large containers. We fill the container 1/3 of the part with green fertilizers, the rest is water, and we insist for two or three days, depending on the weather.

The warmer it is outside, the faster the infusion will be prepared. Before watering the plant, the infusion must be diluted with water. Thus, you can immediately fight against weeds.

Among the pests, only aphids are worried about calendula. She sucks juice from young shoots. Insecticides can be used against aphids, but soapy water is best.

If there is no desire to spray chemicals on the plant, then you can wait until nature cope on its own by sending ladybirds to help the plant.

Among the diseases, fungal diseases, black spots and powdery mildew can sometimes be observed. Most often, the plant is affected by powdery mildew, which forms a white bloom on the surface, the diseased tissues of the flower turn black and die off.

The prevention against powdery mildew is a simple thinning of the plants, and the absence of excessive moisture. You can get rid of fungi with mulch, avoiding contact of the aboveground parts of the plant with the soil. As a last resort, herbicides can be used.

To completely protect the plant from infections and infections, you need to strengthen its immunity. For this, timely fertilizing is performed. Watering is important.

It should not be watered at the root, because the flower will form a superficial root system, and will wither under any drought. It is better to do this near, at a distance of about 10-15 cm from the flower. Watering should not be frequent, but volumetric. This will also strengthen the roots and boost immunity.

Types and varieties of calendula

The most popular in landscape design and floriculture is calendula medicinal and field (there are 20 species in total). Among them, the most common is the medicinal form.

Most of the currently existing species and varieties that are used in pharmacology came from the medicinal calendula. Plant height approximately 100–300 cm. Reproductive period May – June (flowering).

From these species, landscape breeders have created many varieties that have great colors and aromas. Among them, the most popular are such as: "Bon Bon", "Gitana", "Kabluna", "Patio", "Pacific Beauty".

The bred varieties have a variety of colors: from bright orange with a dark center to apricot yellow, golden yellow, with different stripes and shades on the petals. Marigold flowers are noteworthy not only for their healing properties, but also for the incredible beauty of flowers.


Useful properties of black elderberry

Since ancient times, black elderberry was considered a medicinal plant, but berries were rarely used for table purposes, considering them dangerous. Due to the abundant presence of hydrocyanic acid in the foliage and berries of elderberry, excessive consumption can become destructive, therefore, only ripe black elderberry berries are suitable for consumption and are often used only for medicinal purposes.

Homeopaths and herbalists use crushed black elderberry raw materials for brewing and obtaining healing fees and infusions.

Black elderberries are used for disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, diseases of the gallbladder, as an antibacterial and choleretic agent, in the fight against urolithiasis, diseases of the urinary tract, with acute respiratory viral infections and acute respiratory infections. Elderberry leaf decoctions have antiseptic and anti-inflammatory effects. Elderberry bark decoction treats gout and skin conditions.

Elderberry leaves are part of the kidney fees, help in the treatment of cystitis and urethritis.

Without a doubt, the black elderberry is a very useful plant, however, treatment should be done only under the supervision of an experienced homeopath, since there is a risk of complications when using elderberry, in addition, black and red elderberries are easy to confuse, and the use of the latter will lead to death.

Elderberry rhizomes contain a lot of saponins, and with reasonable use, the ready-made broth has an expectorant and thinning effect (therefore, it is indispensable for diseases of the upper respiratory tract).

In addition, herbal raw materials also have a sedative effect, normalizing the state after nervous breakdowns.

The content of carotene in inflorescences makes it possible for infusions and decoctions of black elderberry flowers to have an antioxidant and tonic effect on the body.

Black elderberry fruits and their moderate consumption increase immunity and create a powerful anti-inflammatory barrier in the body. The anthocyanins and tyrosine contained in the black elderberry juice stimulate the production of melanin in the body.

The bark and foliage of black elderberry has a hemostatic and wound healing effect when brewed.

Elderberry can become the guardian of garden plants, due to its phytoncidal properties, the shrub repels pests. Essential oils, acids and resins are hidden in the elderberry branches, which have a laxative effect for constipation.

In Russia, elderberry tincture reduced age spots and got rid of scars, and girls wiped their face with elderberry broth to preserve youth.


Perennial evening primrose - planting and care

Perennial evening primrose - planting and care

Enotera is an unpretentious, perennial, flowering plant that does not need special care. Landing of this perennial does not require much effort, and in the end you have Location on an unusual and beautiful flower will appear. Evening primrose (primrose) or night violet, Is an amazing and beautiful flower. The flowers of this plant bloom only when the sun goes down. It is a wonderful sight when, in the rays of the setting sun, a green bush with a blue tint quickly becomes covered with bright yellow spots - it is impossible to forget.

And therefore, evening primrose can be increasingly found in flower beds in garden plots. And for those who would like to plant this original flowering perennial, but do not know how to do it correctly, below will be given recommendations for planting and caring for a night violet, and also about the reproduction of evening primrose and preparing the plant for winter.

Evening primrose - description of the plant

There are more than 20 cultivated species of this perennial. Their height (depending on the variety) varies from 0.3 to 2.0 m. The blossoming buds are quite large in size, very similar to poppies. The color of their petals is most often yellow, but can be white or pink. The aroma from blossoming flowers is strong enough, enchanting, floral.

Most evening primrose varieties bloom only after sunset, but there are some that bloom in the morning. If the weather is cloudy or cool, then this perennial can bloom all day.

Evening primrose missouri gold

These beautiful flowers "live" only one night and then wither. And new buds bloom every night. This flower is not only beautiful but also known for its medicinal properties. Decoctions from its roots are used as an antiseptic when washing wounds, and infusions from the aerial part of a perennial are used for diarrhea and other gastrointestinal disorders.

Enchantingly beautiful evening primrose with large yellow - golden flowers evening primrose missouri gold , this variety blooms very profusely and for a long time - from June to September. Plant height up to 25 cm, multiplies quickly both by seeds and by dividing the bush. Plants are planted according to the scheme of 30 x 30 cm. Seeds can be sown for seedlings in March - April in boxes. Seedlings are planted in open ground in May.

Planting rules for Evening Primrose

Usually this flower is planted with seeds. Usually they are planted for seedlings at home in containers or containers, or directly in open ground when the threat of spring frosts has passed. But in the latter case, the plant will bloom only in the next season. The seeds are not buried deeply into the ground - no more than 2.5 cm.

This flower grows beautifully both in the sun and in the shade. It is much more important that there is no stagnation of moisture in the soil, and the groundwater does not come close to the surface of the earth. Therefore, it is better to carry out drainage in the area where it is planned to plant a night violet. After all, this flower can safely tolerate a slight drought, but the stagnation of moisture in the soil can lead to rotting of the roots.

Planting evening primrose seeds is no different from planting other flowers. Seeds are planted for seedlings about 1.5 months before the expected time of planting seedlings in open ground.

The main thing when growing seedlings is the moderation of watering, the next watering is carried out if the topsoil is dry. The soil for it can be any, but the plant feels best on light loamy soil, which is regularly loosened.

In mid-May, strong, strong seedlings can be planted in flower beds. The distance between them should be at least 0.5 m. Only in this case the plants will not interfere with each other in the process of growth and flowering. After planting seedlings in open ground, the soil around the base of the flowers should be moistened.

Important! When planting evening primrose seedlings in open ground, it is buried in the same way as it grew at home in containers.

Features of Enotera care

Another feature of this perennial is its unpretentiousness. After planting seedlings in flower beds, special care for the flower will not be needed.

Before planting, complex fertilizers are added to the holes, and then the soil is regularly loosened and weeds are removed at the same time. Although the plant tolerates drought calmly, it is still necessary to periodically moisten the soil around perennials. Fading buds should be removed during the flowering period.

For the plant to be more lush and bloom more abundantly, it should be fed during the summer season. Before the buds begin to bloom on the plants, superphosphate should be added under them (30 g for each m2). As soon as these perennials begin to bloom, they are re-fertilized, this time using a special complex fertilizer for flowering perennials, or any potassium salt.

Many growers also bring in wood ash (about a glass per 1 m 2).

Reproduction of evening primrose

Usually, the reproduction of this perennial is carried out by dividing the mother bush or by seeds.

Seeds usually harvested from plants as they mature, dried and sown in open ground before winter. But the plants grown in this way will bloom only in the second season.

By dividing the bush perennials are propagated in the spring or autumn. To do this, the flower is dug up and divided into divisions. Usually, evening primrose breeds (and at the same time rejuvenates) by a similar method for the 6th season. The resulting cuttings are immediately planted in open ground.

You can also multiply this plant "Kids"that grow from the main root around the mother plant.

Interesting! Evening primrose adapts so easily after transplanting that a similar procedure, if necessary, can be carried out at the time of flowering of the plant.

Preparing Evening Primrose for Winter

At the end of the season, all shoots of the plant should be cut to the base. In regions where winters are cold, as well as if there is too little snow in the area, it is recommended to cover the evening primrose with spruce branches, sawdust or other materials at hand.

Diseases and pests of evening primrose

This flower is practically not damaged by pests, and it is also not susceptible to diseases. Therefore, the perennial does not need preventive treatments against diseases and pests.

The combination of evening primrose with other flowers in the flower bed

Evening primrose quickly develops a root system. And this should be taken into account when planting it next to other plants. To prevent evening primrose roots from clogging the “neighbors” in the flower bed, you should observe the appropriate distance between flowers when planting them on a flower bed.

And the growth of evening primrose roots can be prevented by digging slate sheets or metal plates into the ground around the flower.

Conclusion. This flower looks great on a flowerbed during the day, its blue-green foliage perfectly complements the plants blooming nearby. Evening primrose blooms when almost all the flowers in the flowerbed are already covering their buds, so this plant is a great addition to the flower garden.


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