A rather young variety of Veles pear was created in Moscow for Muscovites. Judging by the gardeners' reviews, the attitude towards him is ambiguous. It is necessary to understand in more detail the features and characteristics of this pear in order to help the gardener when choosing a variety for planting.
Description of the variety and its full characteristics
Variety of selection VSTISP (All-Russian Institute of Selection and Technology of Horticulture and Nursery). Included in the State Register in 2001 and zoned for the Central Region. Distributed in home gardens of the Moscow region and neighboring regions.
It has a tree of medium height with a drooping pyramidal crown of medium thickening. By the age of ten, the height of the tree reaches four meters. Fruiting on rather large ringlets, evenly distributed over arcuate cherry-brown shoots. The variety has a high winter hardiness of wood, the ovaries tolerate frosts down to -2 ° C. Some gardeners argue that the assessment of the winter hardiness of the variety is overestimated. Drought resistance is insufficient. Resistance to fungal diseases is high. The early maturity of the variety is 5–7 years from the year of growth in the nursery. Fruits ripen in autumn almost simultaneously. They are usually collected in two steps. First, the largest ones are cut off, after a few days - the rest. The yield is high, annual. The average yield in industrial gardens is 126 c / ha. The disadvantage of the variety is the tendency to crush the fruit with abundant harvests..
By the age of ten, the height of the Veles pear tree reaches four meters
The fruits are regular, wide pear-shaped. Average weight - 120 g. Fruit skin is smooth. The color is greenish-yellow, with a slight orange tan on a smaller part of the fruit surface. The subcutaneous points are small, barely noticeable. The cream-colored pulp has a juicy, semi-oily and delicate texture. The taste is excellent, sour-sweet. Tasting score - 4.6 points. Dessert fruits are of high commercial quality. Store in the refrigerator until mid-November.
Veles pear fruits have a regular, wide pear-shaped shape
The Veles variety is partially self-fertile. Possible pollinators: Voskresenskaya large, Prosto Maria, Chizhovskaya, Rogneda and others.
Video: Veles pear variety
Planting pear varieties Veles
For the successful cultivation of a pear, it is required to create a favorable microclimate for it. Therefore, the first task facing the gardener is to choose the optimal place for planting. Such a place should not be swampy, flooded by close-lying groundwater. Drafts and cold north winds are also unfavorable factors. The best option is a southern or south-western slope, which has a barrier from the winds in the form of thick trees, a fence or a wall of a structure from the north or north-east side. If they are absent, you can protect the landing site for the first time with specially made wooden shields. It is advisable to paint them white with a lime mortar - this will create a reflective effect for the sun's rays, providing additional lighting and heating. You should not plant a pear too close to trees or a fence - the thick shade from them will not allow the tree to bloom and bear fruit. When planting Veles pear trees in a group, the distance between plants should be at least four meters.
When planting Veles pear trees in a group, the distance between plants should be at least four meters
The pear loves loose, light, drained soils. The reaction should be neutral or slightly acidic. On alkaline soils, pears get sick and develop poorly. The pH value should be in the range of 5.5-6.0, 4.2-4.4 is allowed.
The pear should be planted in early spring, when the snow has already melted and the soil has begun to warm up. In this case, the kidneys should not yet swell, there should be no sap flow. In this case, the young tree will have time to take root well, gain strength and get stronger before winter. In this state, it will be much easier for him to endure the first winter.
In the case of planting seedlings with a closed root system, planting timing is not important. You can plant at any time from April to October.
In October, nurseries begin to dig out seedlings and put them up for sale. It is at this time that it is advisable to purchase a pear seedling for future spring planting. They choose a tree with good, developed roots, on which there are no outgrowths and cones. The bark of the trunk should have a flat, smooth surface without cracks or damage. The best age for a seedling is one or two years. In this case, the survival rate is high, the entry into fruiting occurs earlier.
Choose a tree with well-developed roots, which do not have any growths and cones
In order for the seedling to survive safely until spring, you need to dig it into the ground. To do this, first dip its roots into a mash made of mullein and clay with the addition of water. This protection will prevent the roots from drying out. Then, in a suitable place, they dig a small hole 25–35 centimeters deep. Its length should be slightly less than the height of the seedling. A layer of sand is poured into the bottom of the pit. The seedling is laid with its roots on the sand, and the top on the edge of the pit. The roots are covered with sand and watered with water. When the cold comes, the pit is filled with earth to the top. Only the top of the tree remains on the surface.
Saplings tolerate winter well when dug in the garden
If there is a basement with an air temperature of 0-5 ° C, you can keep the seedling in it. You just need to provide a moist environment for the roots, for example, place them in sand or sawdust and moisten.
After that, you should prepare the landing pit. This is done in the following sequence:
- At the site chosen for planting, you need to dig a hole with a depth and diameter of 70-80 centimeters. For soils poor in humus, the size of the pit is increased. On sandy soils, its volume should be at least one cubic meter.
- If the soil is clayey and heavy, a drainage layer 10-15 centimeters thick must be laid on the bottom. It can consist of crushed stone, expanded clay or broken brick. On sandy soils, a layer of clay should be placed on the bottom to retain water.
- The next step is to prepare the nutrient mixture and fill it into the pit. If the pit is small, you can prepare the mixture right in it. In the case of a large volume, it will be easier to do this on the surface in a trough or in a mortar mixer. The mixture consists of black soil, peat, humus and sand, taken in equal proportions. Additionally, 2-3 liters of wood ash, 300-400 grams of superphosphate are poured and mixed. The hole needs to be filled to the top.
The nutrient mixture can be prepared directly in the pit
- For the preservation of nutrients, the pit is covered with a moisture-proof material.
Step-by-step instructions for planting a pear
In the spring, in due time, they start planting. For this:
- They take out a seedling and make sure it is safe.
- The roots are soaked in a bucket of water, to which growth and root formation stimulants are added (Epin, Heteroauxin, Kornevin, etc.).
- In the center of the planting hole, a part of the soil is removed so that the roots of the seedling can freely fit into the formed hole.
- A small mound is poured and a wooden stake 1-1.3 meters high above the soil level is hammered in 10-15 centimeters from the center.
- A seedling is placed on the mound, carefully spreading the roots.
A seedling is placed on a mound, carefully spreading the roots
- They fill the hole with earth, tamping it in layers.
- The tree trunk is tied to a peg using elastic material. At the same time, it is impossible to squeeze the bark, as this will interfere with sap flow.
The tree trunk is tied to a peg using elastic material
- A trunk circle is formed along the diameter of the landing pit using a hoe or a flat cutter.
- Water abundantly, ensuring good contact of the soil with the root system.
- After the top layer dries up, the soil is loosened and mulched with grass, compost, spruce branches, etc.
- The central conductor of the seedling is cut to a height of 60–80 centimeters, and the branches are cut to half the length.
Features of growing and subtleties of care
It is quite enough to master the basic agricultural techniques for fruit crops in order to grow a Veles pear without any problems.
Water the pear regularly, especially in dry years. With a lack of moisture or nutrition in the soil, the fruits become smaller and may even simply crumble. Begin to water the pear in the spring, before flowering. In the future, watering intervals should be within 3-4 weeks. Young trees with a fragile root system and shallow roots may need more frequent watering. It is necessary to control the depth of moisture - after watering it should be 25-30 centimeters. Before watering, protect the tree trunk with an earthen roller from direct contact with water. This will avoid possible fading.
Before watering, protect the tree trunk with an earthen roller from direct contact with water
After the soil has dried out, the trunks should be loosened and covered with a layer of mulch 5-10 centimeters thick. In the future, you can water without removing the mulch layer - this way the soil will remain moist for a longer period of time and will not require additional loosening. From time to time, you need to check the condition of the mulch - slugs, beetles and other pests can collect in it. In this case, they should be collected and destroyed, the soil should be dried, then the mulch should be returned to its place. In late autumn, one should not forget about pre-winter water-charging irrigation - it contributes to the better winter hardiness of the plant.
The planting pit is the main source of nutrition for the young tree for 3-4 years after planting. In the future, the pear will need additional feeding.
Table: types of fertilizers for pears, when and how to feed
Without carrying out a complex, pruning is difficult to get a decent harvest.
It is recommended for pears of the Veles variety to apply crown shaping as an improved bowl. This shape is suitable for trees of low to medium growth. It provides good ventilation and illumination of the inner volume of the crown. Plus, tree maintenance and harvesting becomes much easier. Such a formation is carried out easily. The procedure is as follows:
- It is assumed that the first step in pruning the seedling was done at the time of planting.
- In the second third year, in early spring before the onset of sap flow, the second stage of formation is carried out. In this case, it is necessary to choose 3-4 strong branches growing in different directions and located at a distance of 15-20 centimeters from each other. These are future skeletal branches. They should be shortened by one third, and all other branches should be cut into a ring.
- The center conductor is cut above the base of the upper branch.
- In the third and fourth year after planting, branches of the second order are formed. For this, two branches are selected on the skeletal branches, located at a distance of 50-60 centimeters from each other. They are shortened by 50%. All other branches that have grown on skeletal ones are cut into a ring.
- In the future, you need to make sure that all branches remain the same length. If any of them begins to dominate, then it will take on the role of a central conductor, and this should not happen.
When forming like an improved bowl, good ventilation and illumination of the inner volume of the crown is ensured
It lies in the fact that when it is carried out, the thickening of the crown is regulated. To do this, cut out part of the shoots that grow inside the crown, creating conditions for its good ventilation and illumination. This pruning should be done only when necessary. If there are branches growing inside the crown, but they do not intersect and do not shade the neighboring ones, you should not cut them out. After all, they also have rings on which fruits grow. This pruning is carried out in early spring.
Needed to maintain stable yields. A simplified version is the chasing of young green shoots, carried out in the summer by shortening them by 5-10 centimeters. This provokes the growth of additional rings on them, on which flower buds are laid. More experienced gardeners use the method of replacing fruiting shoots, forming replacement shoots according to the type of grape formation.
Experienced gardeners use the method of replacing fruiting shoots, forming replacement shoots according to the type of grape formation
Sanitary pruning is carried out annually in late autumn by removing dry, diseased and damaged branches. If necessary, it is also carried out in early spring, if frostbite and broken branches have formed as a result of winter.
Rules for pruning
Certain rules must be followed when pruning wood. Otherwise, you can harm the plant instead of benefit. The rules are simple and straightforward:
- Do not start pruning if the cutting tool (pruner, delimber, saw, knife) is not sharpened.
- Before starting work, it is necessary to treat the instrument with a disinfectant solution. You can apply:
- 1% solution of copper sulfate;
- 3% hydrogen peroxide solution;
- alcohol, etc.
- Cutting branches leaves no twigs or hemp. When they dry out, they will become a breeding ground for fungal diseases.
- Large-diameter shoots are cut in several steps.
- All sections with a diameter exceeding ten millimeters should be cleaned with a knife and covered with a layer of garden varnish.
Diseases and pests - the main types and methods of control
Defeats by various diseases and pest infestations usually annoy the gardener, who neglects regular sanitary and preventive work.
It is much easier to carry out simple work on the prevention of diseases and insect attacks in due time than to deal with their consequences. The list of such works is small:
- Every autumn, gardeners clean up the territory of the plots. In this case, you need to collect all the fallen leaves, weeds, branches, etc. In all this garbage, various pests are probably hiding for the winter, so it needs to be burned. You should not use this litter for composting.
- An important point is control over the condition of the tree bark. She needs to be examined. If cracks or damage are found, they should be healed. For this, cracks are cut to a healthy bark and (or) wood, treated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate and covered with a layer of garden varnish.
- Further, the trunks and skeletal branches are whitewashed with a lime mortar with the addition of 1% copper sulfate. And you can also use special garden paints for this. This is done in order to prevent possible sunburn of the bark, as well as to create an obstacle to the movement of pests along it.
- Before the onset of frost, they dig deeply into the soil of the trunk circles. At the same time, pests wintering in it will be raised to the surface and affected by the coming frosts.
- After digging, the soil and tree crowns are sprayed with a 3% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid. In early spring, the treatment is repeated. It is possible to use a 5% solution of ferrous sulfate.
- In early spring, it is also advisable to treat the crown and trunk with DNOC to prevent all known diseases and pests. Such processing is carried out once every three years, and in other years Nitrafen is used.
- To prevent insect pests from crawling onto the crown in early spring, a trapping belt must be installed on the trunk of each tree. They make it from a strip of roofing material, thick film, burlap, etc.The belt is installed at a height of 50-60 centimeters from the ground.
- After flowering, you need to start regular treatments with systemic fungicides to prevent fungal diseases. The processing interval is two to three weeks. The best and proven drugs are Horus, Skor, Quadris, Strobi and others. Each of the drugs should not be used more than three times a season. The fungus gets used to the drug and becomes ineffective.
Pears are mainly affected by fungal diseases. The methods of control, prevention and the drugs used are practically the same. These are mainly fungicides mentioned above.
Table: the main diseases of the pear
Photo gallery: signs of the main diseases of the pear
The preventive measures described above are most effective in pest control. Insecticides such as Decis, Fufanon, Iskra, Iskra Bio and others are used as the main means for treating insects.
Table: the main pests of pear
Photo gallery: the main pests of pears
Veles pear has become widespread and popular due to the commercial quality of the fruit, as well as its excellent taste. This variety is especially fond of Muscovites and residents of the Moscow region. And although some gardeners mention its insufficient frost resistance, other reviews say the opposite. And if a gardener who decides to plant a Veles pear creates favorable conditions for it, he will not lose and will receive good harvests of tasty and beautiful fruits.
Hello! My name is Pyotr Vladimirovich. I am 63 years old. By education - a mechanical engineer.
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Description of Veles pear
Veles pear is one of the most common varieties of fruit trees. Most often, this species is grown in the Moscow region. Many summer residents note the resistance of the variety to frequent diseases. It is also characterized by excellent taste and aroma.
- General information about the variety
- Description of the plant
- Features of the fetus
Description of the variety
Pear Veles is one of the varieties obtained by Russian breeders. The State Register of the Russian Federation indicates that the optimal region for its cultivation is Central. However, farmers from the southern territories also have no difficulty in planting crops.
Attention! Some farmers call this variety Daughter Excellent.
The tree is medium-sized. The height of an adult specimen is 4 m. The foliage of a pear has a classic oblong shape. Its outer part is glossy, the edges have small teeth. The flowers of the plant are predominantly bisexual. The crown of the 5-year-old culture resembles a wide pyramid.
The photo shows the fruits. They are oblong-rounded, smooth. A ripe pear is colored in a yellowish-green tone, has an orange-red barrel, weighs 150-200 g. Dark green dots are visible on its surface.
Creamy pulp. Its structure is delicate, slightly oily. Sweetness prevails in the taste of pear, but there is a barely perceptible sourness.
Attention! Fruits appear in the 5th or 6th year of the growing season of the crop.
|Winter hardiness||High, up to -40 ° С|
|Fruit weight||150-200 g|
|Adult tree height||Medium|
|Diseases||Good resistance to fungal infections|
Pear "Veles" - description of the variety. Photos and reviews
Pear "Veles" ripens in autumn, but its taste is in no way inferior to summer varieties. She is also called the "Excellent Daughter." The litter was brought to VSTISP by Yu.A. Petrov and N.V. Efimova. The authors crossed the varieties "Venus" and "Forest Beauty". The variety was included in the State Register in 2001 and became widespread in the Moscow region and neighboring regions.
Pear "Veles": description of the variety
A young tree of the "Veles" variety is spreading, the crown is of medium density. But with age, the crown becomes wide-pyramidal. The height of the tree is average - up to 4 meters. The main branches are thick, long, curved downward, the shoots are brownish-brown. The leaves of "Velesa" are medium in size: dark green, smooth, their edges are curved, finely serrated.
Velesa has medium-sized fruits - from 150 to 180 grams. Sometimes the fruits reach 200 grams. They are wide pear-shaped in shape, symmetrical and have an even, smooth skin. Fruit color is yellow-green with a slight reddish tan.
The pulp of the fruit is creamy, soft and very juicy, with a semi-oily structure. Taste qualities are excellent: pears are tender, sour-sweet and are in no way inferior to young dessert varieties. It is generally recommended to use them fresh, but in Veles pears they are not bad either.
"Veles" begins to bear fruit in the 5th - 7th year after planting. Ripening of the fruits of this variety ends in autumn. However, do not wait until the pears are fully ripe. It is better to remove "Veles" slightly unripe, when the skin of the fruit has a greenish tint with a slight yellowness. It is better to shoot the crop in two passes. First, collect the largest fruits at the end of August, and after a couple of weeks - all the other pears. Pears collected in this way are stored longer and retain their taste in the refrigerator until mid-November.
The advantages of the variety include good winter hardiness, resistance to fungal diseases, good and stable yields, simultaneous ripening and excellent taste of the fruit. Disadvantages of Velesa are much less: crushing of fruits with abundant harvests, rather late entry of trees into the season of fruiting, the tendency of flower buds to freeze.
Pear "Veles": planting and leaving
It is recommended to plant Veles pear, as well as other pear varieties, in autumn or spring. According to some experts, spring is preferable for planting, which makes it possible for the seedling to begin, grow and get stronger before the onset of the first cold weather. If planting is planned in the fall, then a planting hole up to 1 meter deep is dug ahead of time so that it warms up.
The presence of sand under the fertile soil layer is encouraged, which is an ideal environment for the roots of the tree. The proximity of groundwater to the soil surface and stagnation of water are not encouraged. The pit is fertilized with humus, superphosphate or sodium sulfate, wood ash. For better fruiting, it is advisable to plant Velesa next to pollinators - pear varieties Severyanka and Rogneda. In general, it is best to plant a tree among other garden plants or near the house, which will provide its protection from frost and piercing cold winds.