Plant nephrolepis (Latin Nephrolepis) belongs to the genus of ferns of the Lomariopsis family, in some classifications it belongs to the Davalliev family. The Latin name is formed from the Greek words "nephros" and "lepis", which mean "kidney" and "scales" in translation and contain a hint of the shape of the veil. In nature, about 30 species of nephrolepis grow, which are widespread throughout the world, but the nephrolepis plant is native to the shady forests of the tropics of Africa, America, Australia and Southeast Asia.
In culture, nephrolepis fern is used as a pot or ampelous culture to decorate interiors - in addition to being very beautiful, nephrolepis perfectly purifies the air.
Planting and caring for nephrolepis
- Bloom: does not bloom.
- Lighting: diffused light (not far from the window, as well as on the north, west or east windowsill). The plant needs 14-16 hours of daylight.
- Temperature: during the growing season - 20-24 ˚C, during the dormant period - about 15 ˚C.
- Watering: the higher the room temperature, the more often and more abundantly you need to water. The principle is one: the substrate is moistened as the top layer of soil in the pot dries.
- Air humidity: increased. Frequent spraying, occasional showers, and keeping on a pallet of wet pebbles are recommended.
- Top dressing: from March to September 3-4 times a month with complex fertilizers for decorative deciduous plants. In wintering conditions in a warm room, one feeding per month is enough.
- Rest period: from October to February.
- Transfer: young plants are transplanted annually, adults - once every 2-3 years.
- Reproduction: only vegetatively: suckers, shoots and division of the bush.
- Pests: aphids, whiteflies, spider mites, root worms and scale insects.
- Diseases: loss of decorativeness due to improper care and dry air.
Read more about the cultivation of nephrolepis below.
The flower nephrolepis is a herbaceous plant, epiphytic or terrestrial, with a short rhizome, a rosette of light green, short-petiolate pinnate leaves up to 70 cm long, consisting of lanceolate, serrate-crenate segments up to 5 cm long along the edge, on the underside of which on both sides the middle vein has rounded sori. With age, the leaves turn yellow and fall off. Leafless shoots covered with scales and easily rooting depart from the rhizome.
Home care for nephrolepis
If you decide to purchase indoor nephrolepis, then first you need to familiarize yourself with the conditions for its cultivation. Indoor fern nephrolepis prefers diffused light, so it would be better to place it near a window, where direct sunlight does not reach.
If you prefer to keep flowers on the windowsills, northern, western or eastern windows are suitable for nephrolepis. However, the length of daylight hours in the natural habitat of the plant is 14-16 hours, so if you want to see the home nephrolepis fern in its best form, be prepared to arrange additional lighting for it. Nephrolepis is tolerant of fluorescent lamps, so it is often seen in hotel lobbies and large office centers.
The optimal temperature range for ferns during the warm season is 20-24 ºC, but with frequent spraying of the leaves, it can withstand higher temperatures. In winter, a comfortable temperature for a resting nephrolepis is about 15 ºC, but the main thing is to keep the plant as far away from heating appliances as possible. If you do not have the opportunity to place the plant in a cool room during the dormant period, leave it in its usual place and continue spraying and watering - nephrolepis will continue to develop, albeit not as intensively as in the summer.
Caring for the nephrolepis fern includes regular fertilizing of the plant with complex fertilizers for decorative leafy plants in a concentration equal to one fourth of that indicated by the manufacturers. Top dressing is applied about three to four times a month from March to September - provided that the winter is cool, the rest of the year the plant does not need fertilizers. If the fern remains warm in winter, then you can feed nephrolepis in winter no more than once a month.
As for watering nephrolepis, its frequency and water consumption at a time depend on the temperature in the room: the higher it is, the more often and more abundantly watering should be. The topsoil in the pot should dry out between waterings. If in winter the houseplant nephrolepis rests in cool conditions, it does not need frequent watering and a large amount of water - watering is carried out as the top layer of the soil dries up.
In order to organize a high humidity mode for a plant in the warm season, it is recommended to spray its leaves with cold, settled water as often as possible and it is advisable to arrange a shower for nephrolepis at least once a month. You can keep the fern on a pallet with wet pebbles or expanded clay so that the bottom of the pot does not touch the water. By the way, you also need to water nephrolepis with settled or filtered water at room temperature.
Young ferns are transplanted every spring, adults - once every two to three years. It is preferable to grow nephrolepis in a plastic container rather than a ceramic one - plastic retains moisture in the soil longer. Since the plant has a shallow root system, choose a shallow, wide pot for it. Before transplanting nephrolepis, put a layer of expanded clay in a new pot so that excess water does not stagnate in the roots of the plant, then place a layer of substrate in it.
The soil for nephrolepis should be light: high peat, greenhouse and coniferous land in equal parts. It is advisable to add a little bone meal to the soil mixture in a proportion of 5 g per 1 kg of soil. If you don’t want to mess around with potting, get a ready-made acidic fern substrate from the store, although Nephrolepis and a soil for camellias, calla lilies or hydrangeas with a pH of 4.5-5.5 are suitable for nephrolepis. When transplanting, the root collar is left above the soil surface. The transplanted plant needs constantly moist soil and high humidity for the first time.
Pests and diseases
Nephrolepis at home with insufficient care is affected by whiteflies, aphids, scale insects and spider mites. You can cope with these harmful insects by treating the plant with insecticides Aktellik, Aktara and similar preparations.
Sometimes readers ask why the leaves of nephrolepis are drying. Most often, nephrolepis dries out from insufficient or rare watering. If only the tips of the leaves dry, this is a sign that the room has a low humidity level for the plant.
If the leaves turn brown, curl and fall off, drafts, low temperatures, or watering with cold, chlorinated or hard water may be the cause. When dry spots appear on fern leaves, these are most likely burn marks from direct sunlight.
It is believed that nephrolepis absorbs energy and electromagnetic radiation harmful to humans, enhances immunity, invigorates, and cleans the air of dust and harmful fumes. You can keep nephrolepis at home, placing it near the TV or next to the computer, or you can grow it in the office, and everywhere it will be in place. Psychologists say that the neighborhood with nephrolepis reveals perseverance, perseverance and prudence in a person - just those qualities that we all lack so much, but it should be borne in mind that tobacco smoke reduces the effect of these wonderful properties of the plant.
Reproduction of nephrolepis
Nephrolepis reproduces by dividing the rhizome, shoots and offspring. The fact is that many varieties of this genus are sterile, and even if they form spores, they do not convey the characteristics of the mother plant. That is why nephrolepis is propagated vegetatively at home.
Dividing the bush
Usually the bush is divided in the spring, at the same time as the plant is transplanted. You can only divide a large plant that has several points of growth. Delenki, each of which must have at least one growth point, are seated in a separate plastic container, watered and rooted, creating conditions of high humidity at a temperature of 15-18 ºC. However, do not expect quick success: for normal development, the dealerships need to build up the root system, and this takes time.
Reproduction by offspring
The whiskers of nephrolepis (leafless shoots) are taken to the side and dropped into a bowl with light soil to a depth of 0.5-0.8 cm, leaving the tops above the surface. During the rooting of the offspring, the soil in the bowl should be slightly damp all the time. After 10-15 days, the offspring take root, and after a while new shoots appear. When the plant grows stronger, they are separated from the mother plant and transplanted into individual containers.
Types and varieties
Not many types of nephrolepis are grown in culture, but we will tell you about the most popular ferns.
Nephrolepis exaltata (Nephrolepis exaltata)
In nature, an epiphyte or a terrestrial herb with a vertical rhizome, on which a rosette of large, pinnately complex light green leaves up to 70 cm long on short petioles develops. The leaves consist of lanceolate segments up to 5 cm long, serrate-crenate at the edges. Having aged, the leaves turn yellow and fall off. Sori with spores mature on the underside of the segments on both sides of the midvein. Scaled lashes (stolons) are formed on the rhizome, which take root easily. Nephrolepis is native to the tropical regions of Southeast Asia.
This species has many garden forms and varieties:
- Roosevelt's nephrolepis is a large fern with wavy segments sticking out in different directions;
- nephrolepis of Maasa is a compact variety with wavy leaves;
- Scott's nephrolepis is also a small plant with segments twisted along the edges;
- nephrolepis Green Lady is a very beautiful fern with a lush fountain of openwork wavy leaves with a pointed top, crowning a vertically located rhizome;
- nephrolepis Emina is a short, compact variety with almost erect fronds with curly leaves in carved teeth along the edges;
- Nephrolepis Boston, or Nephrolepis Boston, is an upright plant that was bred in the USA and literally immediately became popular among breeders: on its basis, varieties with double-, triple- and four-pinnate fronds were bred, reaching a length of 120 cm, the segments of which, depending on varieties can be wavy or twisted:
- Nephrolepis Hills and Fluffy Raffles - ferns with double-feathery leaves;
- Whitman's nephrolepis is a plant with triple-feathery leaves;
- Smith's nephrolepis is a nephrolepis with four-pinnate leaves.
It differs from sublime nephrolepis in swelling on underground shoots, similar to tubers, covered with silvery or white scales, and also in that its fronds with a denser, sometimes tiled arrangement of rounded segments are directed upwards almost vertically. Nephrolepis cordifolia comes from the subtropical forests of both hemispheres, this species has been cultivated since 1841, it is often used to make bouquets.
Nephrolepis xiphoid (Nephrolepis biserrata)
Originally from Central America. Differs in long leaves, sometimes in greenhouse conditions reaching 2-2.5 m in length. It is possible to grow xiphoid nephrolepis only in large rooms.
Nephrolepis - signs
Fern nephrolepis is a very popular plant, maybe that is why legends go about it, it is the central character of many superstitions and will be accepted. Some talk about the positive effect of the plant on human health and the environment, while others attribute witchcraft properties to nephrolepis that can influence the fate of a person. An ancient legend says that none of the people could see the fern flower, because on the night of Ivan Kupala, when it blooms, an invisible hand rips it off, and all sorts of mystical horrors await those who go to the forest in search of this flower.
Another belief says that the fern scares away evil spirits, protects the house from evil witchcraft and black magic, not allowing the evil eye or damage to be put on the owners. They also argue that the fern brings success in business, has a positive effect on material well-being - it attracts money to the house, protects its owners from irrational actions and impulsive spending. They say that there were cases of sudden enrichment, which are associated with the presence of a fern in the house.
If people of different temperaments live in the house, the fern contributes to the establishment of good harmonious relations between them. Under the influence of his aura, aggressive manifestations of people's character are softened, hot temper passes, confrontation is smoothed out. This is probably why nephrolepis is called the “golden mean” plant.
Which of the stories about the fern is true and which is fiction, everyone decides for himself. However, I must say that I personally have not felt any negative effects of indoor nephrolepis on my life. For me, nephrolepis is a non-capricious spectacular plant that brings beauty to the house, purifies the air in the apartment and creates a cozy atmosphere. And let me finally give you some advice: do not be afraid to grow nephrolepis in your home and do not listen to those who themselves live by fears and prejudices.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Nephrolepis family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Indoor Plants Information
Sections: Houseplants Epiphytes Ornamental-deciduous Shade-tolerant Plants on N Nephrolepis ferns
Nephrolepis is a fern from the category of the most famous herbaceous species of domestic plants, belonging to the family Nephrolepidaceae. So it was once, and even now, albeit not as before, but not forgotten, a freely growing flower is common in apartments and offices. Its advantages are not only decorative leaves, attractive appearance and effective air purification, but also ease of cultivation. House ferns are popular houseplants that are now a little forgotten, which is a pity. If you like this look, we have prepared a guide to caring for nephrolepis at home.
Fern nephrolepis - (Nephrolepis) from the genus of ferns of the family Lomariopsis or Nephrolepidaceae. In some botanical publications it is classified into the Davalliev family. In natural conditions, there are 30 species of this fern, almost all over the world. Native to the same plant from the tropics of America, also found in Australia, Southeast Asia, and in some parts of Africa. Most often, gardeners grow this type of fern as an ampelous, potted house plant. It has proven itself as a stylish flower that brings a special comfort and is used in the decor of various interiors, both apartments and offices. It is important to note that nephrolepis is appreciated not only for its spectacular appearance, but also for its beneficial properties - it perfectly cleans the air.
Compared to other types of potted, indoor ferns, this is an unpretentious plant.Indoors it grows to about 50 cm in height. We advise you how to care for a potted fern so that it becomes a beautiful decoration for our apartments.
Signs and superstitions about nephrolepis
Nephrolepis is very popular, so many legends have been created about it. Some superstitions say that the plant has a beneficial effect on health, while others point to the magical properties of nephrolepis. It is believed that nephrolepis can change human destiny. According to one of the legends, not a single person has seen the flowering of nephrolepis, because it blooms only on the night of Ivan Kupala and an unknown person picks the flowers. If someone goes in search of blooming nephrolepis, various magical horrors await him.
Another legend says that the house plant scares away evil spirits, protects the house from evil spells and magic, not allowing harm to the owners and damage. Some beliefs say that nephrolepis brings good luck, has a beneficial effect on the financial situation. They also attract money, save you from wrong decisions and rash actions. It is believed that nephrolepis helps to improve relationships between people of different temperaments, to cheer up, to smooth out confrontation.
How to care for a fern - Everything will be good - Issue 334 - 02/04/14 - Everything will be fine
Fern and Ivy - Flower Shop
Fern nephrolepis - home care: transplant, reproduction and signs
Pests and diseases (how to treat them)
The most popular diseases and pests affect the fern with one problem - improper watering. For example, leaves may turn yellow and dry out or turn brown and brown and fall off. This is either due to insufficient watering (with yellowing) or vice versa due to too much watering (with brown spots).
In addition, if the soil is initially selected incorrectly and water stagnates in it, nematodes can start inside. These are worms that eat plants. If detected, it is necessary to replant the planting as quickly as possible and it is best to do this after treatment with a chemical (for example, Aktellik). It is necessary to spray with the chemical not only the roots and soil, but also the leaves, since the nematode can penetrate into them.
If the air, on the contrary, is too dry, pests such as aphids, scale insects or thrips may appear. These are also insect pests that suck the sap, and with it the vitality of the plants. If you saw them on the fern, you also need to apply measures to exterminate them with the help of chemicals. In this case, the popular "Karbofos", the aforementioned "Aktellik" or "Aktara" will help.
Types and varieties of nephrolepis
Of all the species, one of the most hardy is the most popular among flower growers - Nephrolepis sublime (Nephrolepis exaltata), common in Southeast Asia, northern Australia and America. This fern is medium in size. The leaf plates (for brevity, we will call them leaflets, although they are not leaves) are deltoid, with a slightly serrate edge. In the original species form, frond grows upward, rushing to the sky, but this fern has an interesting variety, called Nephrolepis boston (Nephrolepis' Bostoniensis’), With arched drooping fronds. In culture, it was she who became the most common, as well as numerous varieties that differ in size, the degree of ruggedness of the leaf plates, their waviness and color.
- Roosevelt - a variety with large wavy leaves
- Maassii - similar to the previous variety, but compact in size
- Scottii is another medium-sized cultivar with curled leaf edges
- Fluffy Ruffles - has very stiff double-feathery leaves with wide bases
- Fluffy Duffy is a compact variety with double- and triple-feathery leaves, strongly overlapping each other
- Whitmanh - large variety with triple-feathery leaves
- Smithii - with four-pinnate leaves
- Compacta - a variety that differs from Bostoniensis only in small size
- Dallas Jewel is also a fairly short variety that is also extremely hardy
- Teddy Junior - with corrugated edges of the leaves
- Linda - the edge of the leaves is comb-like
- Tiger Eye - variegated form with light green wedges along the lateral veins of the leaves.
Nephrolepis cordifolia (Nephrolepis cordifolia), a native of northern Australia and Southeast Asia, is another attractive species found in indoor culture. In this fern, frond 60 - 90 cm long, about 12 cm wide, grow upward without bending, and the leaf plates at the ends are rounded like tongues. And, unlike the previous type, they sit quite tightly, partially overlapping.
In addition, this species also produces underground, root stolons, on which spherical tubers are formed, reaching 1.5 cm in diameter in adulthood. They serve as a kind of storage of water and nutrients.
Home care for indoor fern
Ferns - appeared in the distant Paleozoic era and were the basis of the flora of that time. Thanks to this, they have developed such resistance to different conditions. Indoor ferns are native to the tropics. Now there are so many varieties that everyone will find something for themselves. It all depends on what interests you: a homely unpretentious flower that will delight the eye, but not require a lot of effort to care for, or a fern for a sophisticated grower, which will be an addition to your personal collection.
Popular types and their brief description:
It is necessary to care for the fern carefully, regardless of the species. It needs to be watered, fed, sprayed, transplanted, maintained at a temperature and followed the rules of illumination.
All ferns are very moisture-loving, so watering is one of the most important procedures. Watering is worth once a week, after checking the soil. It shouldn't dry out. It is worth letting dry only the top layer of the earth. It is better to use bottom watering. Fern can also be sprayed. The humidity of the air for the plant should be increased; from a too dry environment, the leaves of the flower will dry out and fall off.
Sometimes the fern should be fed. To do this, you must either select specialized fertilizers for deciduous plants, or do natural.
As with any plant, indoor fern requires a transplant for home care. It is worth replanting only if the roots completely occupy the pot. The procedure must be carried out very carefully, since the fern rhizome is fragile, and it is important not to damage it. To do this, it is worth replanting the plant without washing away the old soil from the roots. You can prepare a large pots, pour drainage on its bottom, then cover it with moss and pour a little earth. Next, place the transplanted flower and cover it with earth so that there are no voids left. Be sure to water abundantly.
Ferns are difficult to tolerate the transplant procedure and can be rehabilitated for several months. During this period, the plant requires a lot of care and attention.
It is best to propagate a plant during transplantation, because reproduction by spores is a very complex and time-consuming process. To do this, during transplantation, you should carefully disconnect the young root sockets from the parental roots, transplant them into small pots and put them in a warm place.
The plant should be placed in a lighted place, contrary to the opinion that ferns are shade-loving. But you need to protect it from direct sunlight - they can damage the foliage and destroy the plant. In summer, it is best to take the flower out to the balcony. In winter, the apartment must be kept at a temperature of 15-17 degrees.
Like all plants, ferns are susceptible to disease. The most effective fight is prevention. It is worth ventilating the room when watering, inspecting the flower once a week for the presence of pests. Do not use unsterilized soil.
Fern diseases are very diverse: parasites and pests, drying and decay, bacteria and fungi. The most popular problem is overflow. When the soil is waterlogged, the flower begins to rot from the roots. In this case, it is worth removing all infected areas and planting the plant in new soil. To avoid overflow, it is worth using a grassroots irrigation method. When drying or wilting (a sign of a lack of moisture), you need to increase the humidity level and increase the number of sprays.
Also, the fern is susceptible to parasites and pests:
- 1. Whitefly. A very unpleasant "neighbor" for a fern. Insects bring a lot of discomfort to the flower. To remove the pest, it is worth taking the plant out to the balcony in cold weather, and then shaking it. Adults will scatter, and to eliminate the larvae, you need to use funds purchased in specialized stores.
- 2. White podura - worm-like insects, appear due to waterlogging of the soil. The location is in the roots. To eliminate them, it is enough to dry the ground and fill it up with a new dry one.
- 3. Root mealybug. Outwardly, it resembles a spider web made of fine cotton wool. To eliminate it, it is worth throwing out the earth, rinse the roots in running water, wash the pot with a brush in warm water.
- 4. Spider mite. Outwardly, only a small cobweb is visible on the surface of the leaf and between the branches, sticky to the touch. First, wash the plant with a damp, slightly soapy cloth. For a complete elimination, it is worth purchasing a spider mite control agent in a specialized store.
- 1. Spot on fern leaves is a sign of a fungal disease. First you need to remove the damaged leaves, then spray the plant with a fungicide. After that, do not spray for several days.
- 2. Gray mold - looks like white mold. The best treatment is prevention (frequent ventilation and avoidance of water getting on the leaves). If it was not possible to avoid infection, then it is worth removing the diseased plant from healthy ones and removing the affected areas. After that, treat with anti-gray rot agents according to the instructions.
Diseases and pests
Nephrolipis is a plant that is resistant to pests, however, with improper care and non-compliance with the conditions for its maintenance, the defenses weaken.
Most often, nephrolipis is attacked by the scale insect, spider mite, whitefly and mealybug. Natural insecticides such as alcohol or laundry soap should be used to control pests.
Signs of a fungal infection are blackening and rotting of the leaves. In this case, it is necessary to immediately remove the affected sheet plate.
Nephrolepis is an excellent choice for both an experienced and a beginner grower. This plant will be an excellent element for landscaping your home, office or garden. Even in conditions of lack of sunlight, nephrolepis will feel great and will be able to please you with a lush shock of vegetation. In addition, the culture will saturate the surrounding air with oxygen, cleanse it of impurities and fumes harmful to households.
Turning to popular beliefs and omens, it is recommended to start growing nephrolepis for those who are particularly shy, self-doubt. It is believed that the plant gives the owner confidence, and also attracts harmony to the house.