And radish is sweet or a word or two about daikon
It is known that the Japanese consume more vegetables than the inhabitants of other industrialized countries. And far from the last place among vegetables takes them daikon, which is called all over the world "Japanese radish".
Although the daikon originally grew in China and Korea, and it was from there that in the 6th century it came to Japan. Now it has become an indispensable vegetable, without which the Japanese cannot live a day. Even on New Year's Eve, guests are offered the ancient odzoni soup, which includes seaweed, legumes, daikon and rice cakes.
Daikon has since ancient times enjoyed a well-deserved demand among the inhabitants of Sakhalin. Not so long ago, they began to grow daikon in other regions of Russia, since its varieties were bred, oriented specifically for our climatic conditions. True, it is not yet as widespread as in Japan. Currently, there are more than 670 daikon varieties and hybrids. Our breeders have also tried, and recently several very good domestic varieties and hybrids have appeared.
What is daikon?
Daikon root vegetables are juicy and very tender, their length can reach 30 cm or even more, diameter ў 10 cm, they have an unusually sweet taste. Compared to radish and radish, they are more juicy, tender and practically devoid of a specific rare bitter-spicy taste. The mass of root crops, depending on the variety, can range from 100 g to 4 kg or more. Usually they are submerged in the soil by half or even one third.
Daikon is an unusually productive crop, from a square meter you can get up to 5-7 kg of tasty and healthy root crops.
It is not for nothing that the daikon is so revered in the East
Japanese scientists claim that daikon helps to remove fat stagnant in the body. Both raw and processed, it facilitates the digestion of food, especially fatty foods. Moreover, daikon restores normal digestion.
Of all the vegetable plants, only radish, horseradish and daikon are capable of dissolving stones in the liver and kidneys. But in horseradish and radish there is a lot of pungency and bitterness, as a result, not everyone can use them without fear. Daikon, on the other hand, contains almost no rare oils, does not taste bitter, and probably everyone will like it. Daikon is eaten both fresh (as is customary in our country) and boiled and salted (in the countries of Southeast Asia, daikon is consumed in any form). Young leaves can also be used fresh (this applies to varieties with non-pubescent leaves). Daikon salads with carrots, onions or apples, vegetable oil, sour cream, mayonnaise are good. Daikon root vegetables are also added to vegetable soups.
In addition, daikon is a real piggy bank of vitamins and nutrients necessary for the human body. Its roots are rich in proteins and carbohydrates, accumulate vitamins B1, B2, PP, C (vitamin C, for example, three times more than in Antonovka apples), calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and iron salts. Its juicy roots contain a lot of pectin, fiber and various enzymes. The roots of this plant are capable of removing heavy metals and radionucleides from the human body. In general, a very promising vegetable crop.
Daikon can be used for food throughout the entire growing season ў and very small, the size of a radish, and in a state of full ripeness with a root vegetable length of 30 cm or more. The pulp of daikon does not coarse with growth, the pungency gradually decreases and the content of ascorbic acid increases. Daikon, among other things, refers to environmentally friendly plants, because does not accumulate either heavy metals or radionucleides.
Some sources even mention that daikon prevents the development of cancer.
In winter, the most valuable vitamin greens can be expelled from its seeds to the cotyledon stage as follows: cotton wool or foam rubber is placed on the bottom of the jar, moistened and sown, and after 14 days the harvest is ready, you can prepare a salad.
Daikon's "tricky" agricultural technology
In general, we can say that the juicy and tender root vegetables of the daikon were enjoyed by many gardeners. Yes, and it grows quickly (the growing season is 40-80 days), and the roots are of unprecedented size. True, not everyone succeeds, well, this is fixable. If desired, it is quite possible to grow a daikon.
About the time of sowing seeds
Most daikon varieties are not suitable for cultivation in the first half of the summer, because with a long day, plants rapidly move to flowering, without producing a normal root crop. In plants planted in the second half of summer, the transition to flowering is delayed, and the roots quickly increase their mass. Therefore, for example, in the conditions of the Urals, the daikon is sown from about 5 to 20 July (later the root crops usually do not have time to fill up, because in cold weather the development of plants slows down sharply, and in our country in the second half of August, in fact, it is no longer summer ). Although in certain areas, warm ridges, with the use of covering material and good agricultural technology, a good harvest can be achieved with later plantings.
Daikon grows well only on fertilized, humus-rich, light, sandy soils - it is on such soils that root crops are more leveled and smoother. The daikon obviously does not like clay soils: the roots are bent, become smaller, and the taste is not at all the same. True, some vegetable growers recommend making holes up to a meter deep with an ordinary manual garden drill on such soils, where then light fertile soil is poured and daikon seeds are sown. I did not check this option, tk. my soil is light and sandy.
As for organic fertilizers in the form of manure and poultry droppings, they can only be applied under the previous culture, while humus will never harm a daikon.
Naturally, in principle, sowing on acidic soils is unacceptable because of the risk of keel injury, but yes, this applies to all cruciferous plants; and everyone knows that plants diseased with keel will give rough, twisted, small and completely inedible roots. Therefore, the soil should be pre-calcified, and when sowing daikon, you should not spare ash. When a large amount of ash is added, the taste of root crops is significantly improved. Before sowing seeds, it is a good idea to fertilize the ridges with humus, sprinkle with some kind of complex fertilizer and add ash.
About lighting requirements
Like all crucifers, daikon, unfortunately, is no exception, and refuses to grow in shade conditions. Better not to try. With a lack of lighting, you will, of course, get tops for the salad, but, alas, no root crops.
It must be remembered that the daikon is extremely demanding in maintaining the optimal feeding area. And what is there to be surprised at: large root crops, of course, require a large area. Therefore, the row spacing for the daikon should be approximately 65-70 cm, and the distance between the seeds should be up to 20 cm. thickened crops will not provide you with the yield promised on colorful bags. Root crops instead of kilogram ones will more likely resemble radishes. Therefore, you should not save on his living space. For a daikon, this is completely unacceptable.
And in order not to waste space in vain, because not every seed can ascend, it is better to sow 2-3 seeds in one hole (then pull out the extra ones for salad). It is better to immediately mulch crops with sawdust, leaf litter or crushed bark with a layer of 1.5-2 cm to maintain moisture and create optimal conditions for plant development.
Usually two-line crops are practiced. It is in this case that the maximum illumination of the plants is ensured. There are recommendations to place the daikon along the edges of the ridges in one line. And, I believe that this would be a very reasonable option, if not for the pests, with which it is almost useless to fight with improvised means (too much time and trouble and too low a result). Therefore, I specifically set aside narrow ridges for this culture, capable of accommodating only one or two lines of plants, but allowing them to be covered with a covering material. Naturally, I do not cut such ridges in the main garden plot (too unprofitable), but use naturally formed small patches of soil.
Later, after the emergence of seedlings in the phase of 2-3 true leaves, the plants are thinned out, leaving one, the strongest and healthiest, in the nest.
Daikon does not require as frequent watering as radish, however, with a lack of moisture, root crops form small and coarse. Water the plantings as needed, avoiding severe waterlogging, because the latter can lead to the development of mucous bacteriosis.
Low-lying areas that do not dry out well after rains should not be allotted under the daikon. All plants will certainly get sick with mucous bacteriosis. Of course, in this case, there can be no question of a harvest.
About care during the growing season
Taking care of seedlings (weeding and loosening) is no different from taking care of the radish we are used to. Therefore, I will not dwell on this issue.
When the first 3-4 true leaves appear, it is a good idea to once again add ash under the plants, scattering it directly over the leaves. If the soil on the site is not fertile enough, then you can sprinkle some complex fertilizers and humus in the aisles at the same time. Top dressing according to the same scheme can be repeated during the period of root crop formation (it all depends on the degree of soil fertility).
About daikon pests
The daikon has the same pests as all other cruciferous plants: the cruciferous flea (damaging the leaves, especially in the germination stage) and the cabbage fly (whose larvae make holes in the roots, opening the path of infection and making the root vegetable completely inedible). These pests can completely destroy your crop. Therefore, an active fight against them is simply necessary.
The strategy for dealing with them is standard: it is dusting with a mixture of tobacco dust, ash and ground red pepper. However, I have long abandoned this technology as unpromising. The most effective way to fight, from my point of view, is to grow this crop only under a covering material, especially since from the beginning of July (even from the end of June) it is released in the beds under most crops.
Read the continuation of the article "Daikon - Japanese radish" →
Svetlana Shlyakhtina, Yekaterinburg
As a rule, the following daikon varieties are grown in Russia:
- with a round root crop - Sasha
- with a long root crop - Fang of an elephant, Dragon, Dubinushka.
Of the Japanese varieties and hybrids, Blue Sky, Harutsuge, Tokinashi and others are cultivated.
Growing conditions and technique. The agrotechnics of daikon are in many ways similar to radish. To obtain a good harvest of root crops, humus or compost (1 kg per 1 m2) and mineral fertilizers (g per 1 m2) are applied to the area allocated for the daikon: ammonium sulfate 20, superphosphate 40, potassium sulfate 20.
Best sowing time - end of July - beginning of August.
Seeds are sown in rows 45 cm apart. The furrow is made 4-5 cm deep, spilled with water, and then the seeds are laid out in 2-3 pieces every 8-10 cm. The grooves are covered with loose soil and slightly pressed down.
Daikon seedlings usually appear in 3-5 days. At this moment, a cruciferous flea is a particularly dangerous pest, which can quickly destroy all plants in the germination phase. The crops are protected from damage by dusting with ash.
After the formation of 2-3 true leaves, the plants are thinned out, while removing the weakest.
Distance in a row 20-30 cm. Plant care consists of weeding, loosening row spacings, regular watering.
Daikon is a very early maturing plant: the growing season is 50-70 days.
Root crops are harvested in dry weather in late October - early November, digging in with a shovel. The tops are cut, the roots are cleaned of soil and stored in wet sand in a basement or cellar.
Features of obtaining daikon seeds.
When growing seeds, it must be remembered that the daikon is a cross-pollinated plant, therefore, it is necessary to observe spatial isolation from flowering plants of radish and radish
The technology of growing uterine root crops, their selection and storage, as well as caring for seed plants is similar to the culture of radish. Daikon seeds remain viable for 4-5 years.
Japanese daikon radish: varieties, cultivation and care
The daikon vegetable is a root vegetable from the cruciferous family. The culture is considered a close relative of the familiar radish and radish. There are few mustard oils in the fiber, so the product has a mild taste and pleasant aroma. The delicacy has long settled in Asian cuisine, often used in national Japanese and Chinese dishes. Europeans prefer to use all varieties of the species as a component of salads.
It is difficult for an Asian guest to adapt to the conditions of the domestic climate. So that no problems arise during cultivation and care, you need to understand what a daikon is and what it is eaten with. If you fulfill all the requirements of an overseas vegetable, then it will delight you with a rich harvest.
Another, no less common name for daikon is Japanese radish. This is due to the fact that the culture appeared by crossing radish and radish, and the homeland is Japan. There it is cultivated in large areas, because the vegetable is used for food every day.
The cultivation technique involves compliance with the requirements for soil, crop rotation, climatic and weather conditions. Daikon is a cold-resistant plant, demanding for timely watering, sufficient, but not excessive lighting. Different varieties have some peculiarities in characteristics and properties, but the general recommendations for cultivation are the same for all.
It is possible to grow a daikon in the country in the presence of loose loamy or sandy loam soil. Certain varieties can thrive on heavy, clayey soils. Acidity needs neutral or slightly alkaline. In the earth with an acidic reaction, root crops are not formed, the aboveground part suffers from diseases. Outdoor cultivation requires soil rich in essential nutrients. The characteristics of the land can be brought to suitable with preliminary preparation of the beds.
Precursors of culture
Daikon is a plant of the Cruciferous family. It is advisable not to grow it in areas after other crops of this group, as well as in the vicinity of them. You can return the vegetable to the same place only after 3-4 years in order to avoid possible infection with diseases.
Legumes, grains, tomatoes, carrots, pumpkin seeds, nightshades, dill, garlic, and onions will be good predecessors. Cannot be planted after radish, turnip, radish, swede, cabbage.
The culture is grown by seedling method or by sowing in open ground. The latter method is considered more acceptable, since the roots can be injured during transplantation, but in a number of regions it is necessary to use preliminary distillation of seedlings. Japanese radish seeds germinate at + 5-10 ° C, the optimum temperature is + 20-25 ° C. Seedlings can withstand short-term frosts of -2 ° C, and adult plants up to -4 ° C. A sharp cold snap negatively affects yields, and freezing of young seedlings becomes the reason why the culture goes into the arrow prematurely.
In the Moscow region, it is customary to plant a daikon in open ground.It is best to sow mid-season and late varieties used for winter storage in early August. At the same time, it is important to have time to harvest the crop before frost, which reduces keeping quality. Recommended varieties of culture - Moscow Bogatyr, Dubinushka, Dragon, Sasha, Favorite.
In the middle lane, sowing should be carried out in late June or early July, you can use the seedling growing method. Early and mid-season varieties are suitable - Sasha, Flamingo, Elephant Tusk, Caesar.
In Siberia and the Urals, it is advisable to grow Japanese radish in greenhouses due to unfavorable climatic conditions. Frost, constant drafts, strong winds, torrential rains can lead to crop loss. For the southern regions, it is permissible to use podzimny sowing; spring planting dates can be shifted 2 weeks earlier.
Daikon does not need special care. It is enough to carry out watering in a timely manner, loosen the soil, remove weeds and apply fertilizers. It is also imperative to spud the Japanese radish, as the roots peek out strongly from the soil.
Watering should be regular and abundant. Due to a lack of moisture, the roots will lose their pleasant taste, become bitter and very hard, and the shelf life will be significantly reduced and an unpleasant odor will appear. It is necessary to water the white radish at least once every 5 days. After each watering, be sure to loosen the soil, but do it very carefully so as not to damage the roots. Weeds should be weeded as needed.
Top dressing and fertilizers
If the daikon is planted in fertile soil, which was fertilized before planting, then there is no need to additionally feed the plant. But if the soil is not nutritious enough, it is necessary to apply balanced complexes of mineral fertilizers for vegetable crops a couple of times per season, which perfectly compensate for the lack of nutrients in the soil.
Pest control and disease prevention
For prevention purposes, you need:
- observe crop rotation and agricultural techniques
- grow disease resistant varieties
- carry out pre-sowing processing of planting material
- timely destroy pests
- regularly remove weeds.
For protection after sowing, dusting with wood ash is carried out, and sprinkle the soil with lime or a layer of powdered superphosphate. A good result is given by spraying with onion-garlic infusion or bioinsecticides in the form of "Aktofit", "Bitoxibacillin" and "Lepidocide" according to the instructions attached to the preparation.
Pre-sowing preparation of daikon seeds is an effective prevention of many diseases, which is not recommended to be neglected. The material is processed in several stages:
- The seeds are poured with moderately hot water (about +50 ° C) for 20 minutes.
- After heating, the material is immediately immersed in ice water.
- The processed seeds are kept in the vegetable compartment of the refrigerator for 24 hours.
For the convenience of carrying out the procedures, it is recommended to place small seeds in a knot made of gauze or cotton fabric.
The latest research has discovered an interesting substance in the composition of daikon - isorodanoic acid. It has powerful anti-cancer properties. Therefore, for the prevention of cancer, it is worth including Japanese radish salad in your menu.
Daikon contains practically no mustard oil, unlike radish or radish. Therefore, it can be safely eaten by people with cardiovascular diseases. It does not provoke surges in the work of the heart, therefore it does not cause relapses or excitement of cardiac activity.
Everyone knows that vegetables and greens contain practically no protein. The Japanese radish outperformed everyone here, too. The protein compounds found in the pulp of the root vegetable are perfectly absorbed by the body. Vegetarians should take note of this fact. After all, it is protein that is the main problem in compiling the diet of people who do not eat meat, milk and eggs.
A raw root vegetable will be most beneficial. Although in Asia it is used in cooking for both cold dishes and hot ones. But what can I say, they even bake pies with daikon!
Did you know? It turns out that daikon does not require special growing conditions. He feels great in any region of our country. Therefore, if you have a plot of land or a vegetable garden, you can not spend money on buying a wonderful root crop. It will be safer to grow it yourself.
Well, we got to know better what a daikon is. The benefits and harms of Japanese radish are also no longer a secret for you. In order to use all the valuable vitamins and minerals to the maximum, we will tell you a little secret. Daikon salads are best prepared in small portions and eaten immediately. It is advisable not to store or cook in reserve. Because after a while, the plate will no longer be the useful composition that we described, but only a handful of fiber.