Representatives of the genus Rhynchostylis are represented by only six plant species and belong to the orchid family. They are found in southeast Asia, the Philippines and Indonesia. The name is associated with the appearance of the reproductive organ, which has a specific shape. Rhynchostylis has Greek roots and literally translates to "beak".
The rhynchostilis plant is characterized by a monopodial type, which means that it has only one upright stem. As they grow, the lower leaves begin to die off and fall off over time. In the area of the sinuses, air roots are formed. They are distinguished by their sturdy structure, and the outer surface is covered with a thick layer of velamen.
The leaves have a rich dark green color and are characterized by a fairly tight fit to the shoot. The belt-shaped plates are thick and hard to the touch, and the tip looks like it has been chopped off. Peduncles begin to form from the location of the lower leaf sinuses. They form multi-flowered inflorescences that cluster in large clusters. The shape of the flowers is round and they are small in size, and when flowering, the rhynchostilis exudes a fragrant aroma. They usually do not exceed 2 centimeters in diameter and have 3 broad-oval sepals.
The separation angle of the sepals is about 120 degrees. Real petals grow in pairs so that each one is opposite the other. Compared to sepals, they differ in shorter length and width, but have the same color. The third true petal is characterized by a contrasting color and perpendicular position in relation to the calyx. It has a spade-like shape and a dissected edge, which is sometimes crenate.
Caring for the rhynchostilis orchid at home
Rhynchostilis orchid does not require special and complex care at home. For normal development and growth, it is enough to control a constant temperature, humidity and light indicators.
Location and lighting
Rinchostilis belongs to the category of light-loving plants, so experts recommend choosing a sunny place. In this case, it is necessary to exclude direct rays from hitting the shoots. To exclude burns, it is better to shade them during the period of solar activity. Too bright lighting will lead to the fact that the leaf plates begin to change color. A sign of trouble is the appearance of a reddish tint in them, but after placing the plant in a shaded area, the leaves turn green again.
Peduncle formation occurs provided sufficient lighting is provided. An important role is played by the duration of daylight hours, which should be from 10 to 12 hours all year round. Due to this feature, in winter, it is required to provide additional illumination with the help of special lamps for plants.
Features of the temperature regime
Rhynchostilis orchid needs to maintain a moderately warm temperature regime. An important condition is the provision of daily fluctuations in indicators. At night hours, values from 17 to 20 ° C are taken as the norm, and during the day they should vary from 22 to 28 ° C. The total temperature difference should be kept around 5 ° C.
The orchid does not need to prepare a special substrate, as it can grow and feel great on a block with open roots. A piece of pine bark is often used as a device, on which the base of the stem and root system are fixed. It is permissible to use lattice baskets made of plastic or natural wood for growing a flower. A mandatory requirement for such options is to provide a draft of the holes necessary for the free growth of root segments through them.
Watering rhynchostilis is carried out by completely immersing the root formations in a container, which is pre-filled with water. The water temperature should vary between 30 and 40 ° C. The orchid can be returned to its permanent place of cultivation only after the complete eruption of the leaf sinuses. If necessary, remove excess fluid using available tools. Neglecting such a recommendation is fraught with rotting of the bases of the leaf plates.
The rhynchostilis flower needs increased indoor air humidity. The optimal range for growth is considered to be from 60 to 65%. To maintain this regime, it is required to carry out regular spraying or use a household steam generator. When choosing the second option, the air stream should be directed to the roots of the plant.
Fertilization works are carried out from March to the end of November. Feeding the orchid rhynchostilis is done 1 time at intervals of 2-3 weeks. For these purposes, it is required to use special complexes for orchids. The solution is prepared taking into account taking a dose in a volume of ½ of the norm recommended in the manufacturer's instructions. Fertilizers should be diluted in water that is intended for watering or spraying the plant.
Being in the air
Exposure to the air provides the plant with the temperature differences necessary for growth. In this case, you should choose places in which the requirements for humidity indicators will be met.
The orchid can bloom in any month. Due to this feature, the plant does not need to specifically provide periods of rest and rest.
Rinchostilis how to grow and properly care for. Also my landing is Rhynchostylis
Reproduction of the rhynchostilis orchid
At home, the rhynchostilis orchid is not subject to reproduction. In rare cases, the formation of a baby is possible on the shoot. In such a situation, you should carefully separate it from the mother plant, but only after the appearance of air roots. In industrial conditions, the flower is grown by cloning or seeds are used for these purposes.
Diseases and pests
Putrefactive formations often appear on the plant. A similar problem is directly related to excessive waterlogging of the rhynchostilis. Often, due to insufficient watering, drying of the roots is observed.
The lack of flowering can be due to a large number of reasons that are associated with neglect of the rules of care. In most cases, the source of problems is low air humidity, deficit or excess watering, low illumination in the growing area.
Types of rhynchostilis orchids with a photo
Among gardeners, two varieties of the rhynchostilis orchid are popular.
Rhynchostylis giant (Rhynchostylis gigantea)
The flower is impressive in size. The leaves have a fleshy structure, the width of each plate is 5-6 cm, the length can reach 40 cm. Flowering occurs in the autumn-winter period. On the peduncle, dense cylindrical inflorescences are formed, capable of reaching a length of 40 cm. They consist of flowers with small spurs, the number of which can vary from 20 to 60 pieces. The diameter of each is about 2.5 cm. At the base of the flower, the petals and sepals are narrowed, which leads to the formation of tomorrow between them. The lateral lobes of the three-lobed lip are strongly elevated.
Orchid on the Russian market is presented in two varieties. One has a snow-white color of leaves. On the second, small purple-pink spots are formed. The lip is characterized by exactly the same shade.
Blunted Rhynchostylis (Rhynchostylis retusa)
The flower leaves are smaller than those of the giant rhynchostilis. The peduncle is longer and can reach 60 cm. The inflorescences can contain up to 100 small flowers, the diameter of which is 2 cm. A pair of large, round sepals are located below. Narrow petals are superimposed on them, as a result a whole cup is formed without gaps. The flowers are light pink. The lip has the same delicate color. The process of their formation of inflorescences begins at the end of winter and can continue until the beginning of spring.
authors: Kulishenko Elena and Evgeniya, photos by authors
Miniature orchids are like small diamonds: their size is small, and how they shine, how much joy they give!
About these living crumbs from the world of orchids, one can also say “the spool is small, but dear” ...
In many genera there are groups of miniature orchids that are content with a minimum of space and bloom tiny flowers.
Last year (2011) we admired them with surprise and delight at the next orchid exhibition in the city of Monte Porzio Catone (Italy).
Before we talk about the miniature orchids on display in this Italian exhibition, here's a brief botanical overview of some of the more famous representatives of these small plants.
Variety of orchids
The orchid family has over 880 different types (called genera) and over 22,000 species. These numbers are growing every year, making orchids the largest and most diversified family.
Orchids are tropical plants that live like "air plants" hanging from trees. There are lithophyte orchids or "stone plants" growing on or among rocks. The rest of the orchids are "earthlings" that grow in the loamy soils of the jungle.
Despite this, only a few dozen species are available for breeding at home, or rather, their hybrids.
These hybrids were created by crossing different species, and sometimes different genera, to obtain the desired characteristics such as color, aroma, flower size, ease of care and reproduction. Today's orchid hybrids are very useful houseplants that are relatively easy to care for given their basic needs.
Feeding for venereal shoes
I try to feed pafiopedilums after watering (so as not to burn the roots) with fertilizers for orchids. It is useful to hold them once a month in a solution of ash (0.5 teaspoon per 1 liter of water), once every 5-6 months spill with a thin stream of dolomite solution (1 teaspoon per 1 liter of water). Plants also respond well to spraying. From the salts deposited during spraying, I occasionally wipe the leaves with a swab dipped in a weak solution of vinegar.
There are many recommendations for compiling the soil. I use a fine fraction of pine bark (which I must boil), walnut shells, hazelnuts, pine nuts, some eggshells. And the shoes love pine cones, which I also pre-boil. I also add a little sphagnum moss.
In the summer, I put papiopedilums on the east glazed balcony. I hang the glasses with light tulle, but more often I put amorphophallus there, which, with its sheet spread over the entire width of the balcony, creates optimal conditions. In winter, I put the plants in the kitchen on a shelf mounted on the window: it is humid and warm here. On very frosty days, I put a strip of thin foam rubber between the glass and the leaves.
Last year one slipper tied seeds. Maybe the ubiquitous fly contributed to this? Of course, I did not hope to get seedlings from them, but it was interesting.
At one time, instead of a lath, I laid a layer of moss. But I did not like this option, since mold subsequently appears.
An important point
Although the roots of the shoes are located in the upper layer, care must be taken that they do not penetrate down into the water: they can rot away. This can happen if the soil dries out frequently. Then the roots begin to reach for the water in the lower container.
REPRODUCTION OF MYRTH
When pruning in early spring, I leave the apical cuttings for propagation. I root both in water and in light soil. Young plants are very sensitive to changes in soil moisture, do not tolerate overflow and overdrying. Their root system is weak, and they may not cope with such stress and die. Therefore, when watering, it is important to uniform and moderate soil moisture.
Myrtles grow quickly, the strongest bloom with rare flowers by autumn. I transplant young plants by transshipment, as soon as the pot becomes small, I do not immediately plant it in large containers. During transshipment, even in a flowering state, the plants do not get sick. Be sure to lay drainage on the bottom of the pots.
From observations of myrtle
The plant can overwinter at moderate room temperature. In this case, water it, as in the summer, is often sprayed and bathed in the shower once a week.
If myrtle hibernates in a cool place, it is better to postpone pruning until spring - more buds will wake up and the effect of pruning will be more noticeable. With a warm winter, the pruning time does not matter.
When transplanting, it is impossible to deepen the root collar, so as not to cause rotting of the trunk.
Frequent cutting of myrtle has a negative effect on flowering.
Why do the leaves turn yellow?
Orchid leaves turn yellow for several reasons. Usually, specimens are bought that bloom beautifully, magnificently. Trying to extend the flowering time, inexperienced amateurs make a bunch of dangerous mistakes - they abuse inappropriate dressings, water too much, transplant, put in the hot sun.
But when environmental conditions change, a plant, especially a flowering one, experiences stress, therefore it requires a long adaptation period. Quarantine is tolerated for at least 12-15 days - the orchid should be kept separately all this time, observing it daily. If the roots were still in the store substrate from the bark, sphagnum, then after 2 weeks they can be transplanted and then not disturbed for at least 2-2.5 years.
When the plant is out of order, it becomes noticeable almost immediately by the state of the leaves - after 4-6 days. If a flower periodically dies off, several lower parts fall off, this is considered a normal aging process - a leaf is born, develops, gradually matures, dries up.
In the Nobile orchid, sometimes the entire crown falls off, which is also the norm. When a part withers, it is not recommended to tear it off immediately - later it will fall off by itself. This process takes place several times annually. Cases of drying out of the lower processes in a freshly acquired specimen are just the consequences of stress.
The cause of the problems is improper watering
Parts of the plant can turn yellow, fall off on grounds that are not associated with natural processes. With improper care, various alarming symptoms appear - it does not bloom for a long time, stops growing, growths appear on the leaves, stem, unusual for the type of spot. All this indicates that the flower should be treated a little differently.
One of the most common mistakes in orchid care is watering irregularities. This reason is the leading one, since the flower is overly sensitive to fluctuations in soil moisture.
When the problem is overflow, more water is required for normal growth, it stagnates. As a result, the earthen lump becomes denser, the roots lack air, the lower leaves turn yellow. If bacteria begin to multiply in a humid environment, black-brown spots appear on various parts of the plant, foliage, stem, roots become too soft.
Those who have been cultivating crops for a long time recommend using transparent pots - it is convenient to control the state of the middle, lower layers of the soil in them. Some simply pierce the ground at the edge of the container with a wooden knitting needle - if the stick gets wet, this is a sign that there is still enough water. By the weight of the flowerpot with a flower, it is determined whether watering is needed.
A lack of moisture occurs with the wrong method of irrigation - with a large drainage, it simply leaves, not having time to nourish the root system. Young shoots require a lot of nutrition for active growth, therefore, the old leaves are sorely lacking, they turn yellow, dry out. In this case, the irrigation method should be changed - for 2-3 weeks, a flowerpot with a flower should be placed daily in a moist structure so that the soil is completely saturated. The condition of the flower quickly returns to normal.
Poor moisture quality. When there is enough of it, but it has many impurities of heavy metals, chemicals, it is not useful. Overly tough leaves will continue to turn yellow due to the "salting" of the soil. You can soften the water if you pass it through a filter or stand for 3-4 days. Experts recommend using rain, thaw, snow, spring. Watering with boiled liquid is undesirable. The salty soil needs to be replaced with a new one when the plant has faded.
Excessive or insufficient lighting also has a detrimental effect on the condition of the flower, which is very picky in this regard. Its different types are accustomed to different brightness - some are considered shade-tolerant, others need a lot of sun, artificial lighting. Only knowing the exact name, you can create the required mode:
- Light-loving varieties, such as Dendrobium, Oncidium, Cattleya, Lellia, Wanda, are placed on southern windows, but not in direct sunlight. The temperature for them is acceptable + 28-32 degrees.
- Cambria, Miltonia, Odontoglossum, Cymbidium, and other flowers for which the morning, evening sun is enough, are placed in the area of the eastern, western windows.
- There are some species that require very little light. They are placed on the northern windowsills, the sufficient temperature for such plants is 19-26 degrees. These include Phalaenopsis, Lady's slipper.
In winter, when there is not enough lighting, fluorescent lamps come to the rescue, which should be turned on for 2-4 hours in the evening. In this case, it is necessary to observe that the plants do not overheat - this can lead to their death.
Sunburn is not uncommon for hybrids sold in most stores. If, under direct rays, the orchid has yellow-brown spots - the plant has received a burn, and will soon lose diseased leaves. It is difficult to treat this problem, it is easier to prevent it. When even a small damage is noticed, urgent action is required - to close the window with a newspaper, a curtain, hide the flower behind other spreading tones, etc. If a very small area is damaged, the plant will be able to restore it in a couple of weeks.
Often there are problems with feeding - in addition to normal lighting, watering, sufficient nutrition is required. Inexperienced growers sometimes overfeed plants, believing that the more the better. This is not so: a sense of proportion is important in fertilizer, the choice of a special composition suitable specifically for the orchid.
There are many rules to follow when feeding most hybrids:
- each variety has its own feeding - composition, frequency, fertilizer dose for any variety is different
- fertilize should be done in spring, autumn - summer, in winter it is better to refuse it
- from the moment of purchase, the orchid is not fed - it must adapt well
- the prepared fertilizer is thoroughly shaken so that the nutrient components are evenly distributed
- when the flower is sick, damaged by pests, you should first solve these problems, feed after
- for young orchids, nutrition is done through watering - the solution is added to the water
- any fertilizer must necessarily contain phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen in various proportions
- in some regions, the moisture from the tap is poor in iron, therefore it should be periodically added as part of special solutions
- one dressing should contain no more than 50% of the dosage recommended by the instructions
- special formulations that are designed to stimulate growth are not needed by the orchid.
When there is an overkill with useful elements, the life of a flower is unlikely to exceed 2-3 years, it will look bad, then it will die. The yellowing edges of the leaves indicate that there is too much calcium in the ground - the soil needs to be replaced. Lack of power is dangerous. With a deficiency of potassium, the upper part of the crown turns yellow. Later, dying streaks become noticeable. Young shoots, leaves take mineral substances from older ones, sometimes the whole plant falls off completely. To save the hybrid, they immediately change the substrate.
Yellowness of leaves due to diseases or parasites
Insects, diseases attack the orchid no less often than other house flowers. It is susceptible to most of the known pests. If there are suspicions of the presence of pests, the tropical plant is isolated from others, and control measures are taken.
Various sores occur with a sharp change in temperature, problems with the amount of light, improper watering. Sometimes, with a lot of crowding, the orchid catches them from other specimens. Bacteria, viruses, fungi create dark or yellow spots and bumps on the leaves and stems. Asian varieties are damaged mainly by an infection that attacks them during long transportation, hypothermia, and severe stress. Then dark stripes, rings appear on the leaves.
Dangerous pests of orchids:
- aphids - affects the lower tender part of the leaf, which becomes very sticky
- wood lice - dangerous for orchids that grow outdoors
- spider mites - build the thinnest cobweb under the leaves, between the shoots
- scutellum - manifests itself in the form of outgrowths over the entire area of the stems, very numerous
- nematode worms - strongly deform the crown, the flower practically stops growing
- thrips - translucent winged insects appear when the air humidity is low, leaving silvery traces on the stem and soil.
When the plant began to turn yellow too quickly, an urgent need to establish the cause, take appropriate measures. The orchid is carefully examined from all sides, lifting each leaf. If an infection is found, opening the tubercles is categorically not recommended - they contain the mycelium, its spores. Such sores are sprayed with a fungicide. In cases of extensive damage, it is necessary to remove the damaged parts, the sections are smeared with iodine.
When a virus is diagnosed, the orchid is treated with an antibiotic fungicide. Aphids are destroyed with a soapy solution at room temperature, after which they are sprinkled with infusion of orange, lemon peel - 100-150 grams of peels per 1 liter of water. It is advisable to repeat the procedure up to 5 times a day for 6-7 days. You can use the drug Fitoverm.
Spider mites are washed off with running water, treated with Neoron, Tiofos, covered with a bag for 3-4 days. To combat the scabbard, a tablespoon of olive, rapeseed or linseed oil is diluted in 0.5 liters of water, applied to the affected areas three times every 7 days, and then sprinkled with Actellik, Fitoverm. Thrips are removed with clean moisture and soap, lesions are removed 3 times with Actellic every 10 days.
If a flowerpot with a flower in it is dipped into a large container of water, the woodlouse floats up after a while, after which the roots are thoroughly washed without damaging, the orchid is transplanted into fresh soil. Nematode microworms will die if the ambient temperature is above +40 degrees, for this culture it is fatal. Therefore, at home, it is recommended to dilute Dekaris, Levamisal tablets in water, pour the substrate with roots with the solution.
How to keep a mother plant
After rooting summer cuttings, the matured seedlings are transplanted into not too large pots. On an ongoing basis, young shoots should be fertilized with potash and phosphorus fertilizers. These fertilizers enable the flower to accumulate nutrients for the upcoming dormant period.
You can leave the summer plant for wintering. The bush is dug up, or transferred from the planter into a smaller pot.
The optimum temperature for wintering petunias is 16 degrees. The lower the temperature, the less light the flower requires. Watering is reduced, but without overdrying the earthen lump of the plant. Until the end of November during the dormant period, the flower does not need to be disturbed by spraying, fertilization and other procedures. Cool air, moderate lighting, and occasional watering are all he needs.
Important! It is necessary to cut off all old shoots so that the bush does not waste energy on them.
From the end of November, the plant's awakening period begins. Only additional lighting with fluorescent lamps is added to the conditions of detention. The temperature remains the same. If you put the petunias in a warm place now, it will actively grow. Only the stems will be stretched out like strings and pale. Harvested cuttings from such a plant will be painful and die quickly.
The beginning of January is the awakening of the petunia. Daylight hours should be at least 16 hours. Nitrogen-containing fertilizers should be applied once every two weeks for active growth of the root system and greenery.
Useful tips for beginner florists
In order for the orchid to always remain healthy, please with an excellent appearance, and at the same time cause less trouble, you should heed the advice of experienced specialists. You can put a clove of fresh garlic in each flowerpot - this scares away midges and some other insects.
It is recommended to periodically moisten the leaves, trunk, ambient air from a spray bottle, and put a saucer of water under the bottom of the vase. This is especially important in winter, when the air in the room is very dry due to heating devices, and this deficiency negatively affects the culture. It is better to plant a plant in a transparent pot, since the roots are able to participate in photosynthesis.
If individual roots are already peeking out of the container, then it is time to transplant into a more spacious container - 2-3 cm wider than the previous one. When irrigating, you need to ensure that the earthen lump is completely moistened - along the top of the soil. Several times a week, it is required to inspect each specimen for pests, diseases, and damage. Drafts, close proximity to apples, plums, pears should not be allowed - they emit ethylene, which adversely affects the orchid. When the leaves dry, this is mainly due to the inappropriate temperature.
Very high weather changes should not be allowed, especially for plants that love coolness. The difference between day and night should be 7-9 degrees - this is important for good flowering. If the orchid does not develop for a long time, it may be necessary to adjust not only the climate, but also the humidity of the air, the light regime. Rare, excessively abundant watering, a narrow, cramped pot disrupt the normal development of the root system, which also leads to yellowing, wilting of foliage.
When transplanting, you should use only special substrates intended for orchids, remove rotten roots in a timely manner. When it is not possible to independently establish the cause of cultural diseases, you need to seek help from a professional florist with experience.