Is corn a vegetable, fruit or cereal?

Is corn a vegetable, fruit or cereal?

We all know what corn is - an oblong ear with yellow, juicy kernels. However, if you ask what type of corn can be attributed to, most people will not be able to answer. Grain? Vegetable? Or maybe even a fruit? For some reason, some people think that these are legumes. In this article, you will learn how to properly classify corn, how this crop is beneficial, and how to choose the right ears for your food.

What is corn

Corn comes from a genus of plants in the family of cereals. The plant is tall, often the height of the stem exceeds 3-4 m, and in view of this growth it has a well-developed root system, located both underground and above it. Unlike other cereals, the stem is not hollow inside, it reaches 7 cm in diameter. The inflorescences consist of spikelets with staminate or pistillate flowers. Stamens gather in spikelets in pairs, pistillate ones are arranged in rows of 6-16 flowers on the cob. The fruit is a weevil.

The culture is divided into 9 large groups: siliceous, dentate, semi-dentate, bursting, sugar, starchy, starchy-sugar, waxy and filmy. They differ among themselves in the type of grain structure, taste and cultivation characteristics.

So, according to the botanical definition, corn is still a cereal and a fruit. After all, the cobs store the seeds with which the corn multiplies. In this case, the fruit is eventually separated from the plant in order to germinate.

However, if you look at the culinary definition, this culture is a vegetable. A fairly common misconception is that a vegetable is an unsweetened fruit that is used to prepare main dishes, while anything sweet is a fruit and should be served for dessert. It turns out that a complex grain crop of corn is both a vegetable, and a cereal, and a fruit.

It should be noted that cereals are in many ways similar to pulses and legumes. What they have in common is that they eat the juicy part of the plant. They can be processed into cereals or canned as a vegetable or fruit. Often, this similarity confuses people, and they urgently begin to recall school biology lessons in order to identify this cereal anywhere.

Influence on the body

If we consider the effect that corn has on the human body, then the first step is to characterize what vitamins and minerals are contained in its cobs.

Probably no vegetable or fruit can compare with corn in terms of the range of nutrients and nutrients. A large amount of fiber, fats and essential oils has a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal tract, helps to quickly remove toxins. The complex of vitamins A, C, PP, E and group B increases immunity and normalizes metabolism. The mineral composition in the form of magnesium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, manganese has a beneficial effect on the condition of the skin and hair, the work of the heart and blood vessels.

Corn grain (100 g) contains:

  • carbohydrates - 67.5 g;
  • protein - 10.3 g;
  • fat - 4.9 g.

The calorie content of the product is from 88 to 325 kcal.

This cereal, with regular use, increases immunity, removes toxins and toxins from the body, and lowers cholesterol. Often it is used as a dietary food for hypertension and edema, ulcers of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite the high sugar content of some varieties, corn is safe for diabetics.

Of course, corn alone will not help to cope with diseases, but if you include it in your diet, you can avoid many unpleasant diseases. This vegetable (or fruit) is recommended for both those who are trying to lose weight and those who, on the contrary, are gaining weight. The high amount of selenium in grains helps to cope with premature aging of the skin. And in folk medicine, it is often used and legumes are used as a remedy for diarrhea and dysentery.

There is probably nothing that corn cannot help. Not as a panacea, of course, but as one of the auxiliary elements.

How to choose

So, we figured out what corn is - a cereal, vegetable or fruit. Now is the time to learn how to choose the right corn cobs, so as not to make mistakes.

Most cereals show their ripeness by the color of their grains. The ears at the stage of milky ripeness are light yellow in color, they contain the most vitamins and minerals. The richer the color of the cob, the older the vegetable.

The ears should be approximately the same size between each other, covered with leaves. If there are no leaves, this means that the cereal was treated with chemicals, which caused the leaves to curl and no longer look attractive. It is not worth buying such cobs, since it is not known what chemicals were used for processing.

Of course, you should not buy cobs on which there are grains with damage, various brown or black spots.

Corn in medicine

In medicine, different parts of corn are used. For example, columns with stigmas, which are harvested when the ear is at the stage of milky ripeness, are used in the treatment of liver diseases or as a choleretic and diuretic. They contain large amounts of ascorbic acid, vitamin K, fatty oil, essential oils, saponins. Corn extract is used for cholangitis, cholecystitis. In case of emergency to stop bleeding.

Due to the high content of fatty oil, cereals and legumes are valued as an additional element of dietary nutrition for atherosclerosis, obesity and diabetes mellitus.

Corn grains and legumes in the form of a soup-puree are part of the diet for gastritis, having a positive effect on the gastric mucosa. However, legumes and corn grains are used not only in dietetics, but also in cosmetology as masks for the skin.

Video "Useful properties of corn"

This is an excerpt from the program of the first TV channel "It's great to live!" will tell you about corn: its benefits for the body, how to choose, how to store and how to cook.


Some refer to corn as a vegetable or legume. The misconception has arisen from the use of crop seeds in main dishes along with vegetables. Starch is extracted from corn, which in human understanding puts it on the same level as potatoes.

After long botanical research, it was determined that corn belongs to cereals in all characteristics and structure. Together with wheat and rice, it occupies one of the first places among the grain crops grown by people.

Photo of a corn plant during ripening:


Biological description

Corn is a vegetable or cereal; students of agricultural universities are interested in them at the beginning of their studies. Amber grain is of great nutritional and feed value. A cereal crop is grown to produce grain.

The plant is also cultivated to obtain silage for livestock feed.

Corn belongs to the family of cereals. It is an annual crop that has a number of differences from cereals. It has a fibrous root located in the ground at a depth of 3 m. Thin roots are located at a distance of 50 cm - 1 m from the base of the stem.

The plant has rudimentary and adventitious roots. There are 5 varieties:

  • main
  • embryonic
  • lateral
  • epicotyl
  • knotty
  • air nodal.

For an adult cereal, stem-knotted roots are important. Each new layer is formed after the appearance of the next pair of wide leaves. The lowest level gives a rapid growth of roots, their deepening into the ground begins 30 days after formation.

The nodes are equipped with downward-growing processes. Their development depends on the temperature of the soil at different periods of the growing season of the cereal crop.

The stem of the plant is straight, cylindrical, without visible defects. Internodes are clearly visible on it, their length ranges from 5 to 30 cm. The height of the stem is used to judge the ripening time of the amber grains.

It is necessary to take into account the composition of the soil, the ambient temperature. Precipitation plays an important role during the formation of male forms of inflorescences. Plant height ranges from 1 to 3.5 mm, but varieties that ripen quickly are undersized.

Side shoots are formed from many nodes of the plant. The new formations take away nutrients from the main stem, so growing corn for grain can have dire results. If a cereal crop is cultivated for livestock feed, the yield increases during normal vegetation.

The following varieties are grown:

  • multi-cob
  • weakly bushy
  • medium-sized.

The leaves of the cereal are long, lanceolate. The leaf plate has an uneven surface, a powerful central part pierced with fibrous veins. Below, the plate is covered with fine hairs.

The cereal crop has inflorescences - male and female. On the male ear, flowers with stamens are formed, it is paired, located on a leg or tightly attached to the stem.

The ear is a bunch-shaped ear with a thickened stem. The middle of the head has a cylindrical or conical shape. The weight of the stem of the cereal culture is from 10 to 40% of the total weight of the ear.

The formation of flowers begins 5 days later than in panicles. With good weather conditions, good nutrition, timely watering, this period is reduced by 1-2 days. In dry weather and insufficient soil moisture, the gap is 20 days. In this case, many barren grains with thick stems and large yellow grains appear.


Corn

What family and species does corn belong to: vegetable, fruit or cereal TOP 50 best varieties of corn with descriptions and characteristics Areas where corn grows and is best grown in Russia and the world The best predecessors of corn in a crop rotation that can be planted after

Corn belongs to herbaceous cultivated plants of the family of cereals, which reaches a height of 4 m. Grain contains many useful components. To get a good harvest, you need to take into account the recommendations when planting, growing, harvesting and storing the crop.

There are about 10 subgroups of sweet corn, which differ in shape, structure, color, taste and maturation of the ears. Descriptions of common varieties of cereals are collected on the pages of the heading.

Information is given on the signs and methods of combating diseases and pests of grain crops. A large list of folk recipes and a description of ready-made preparations that can be used in the prevention and treatment of diseases have been collected.


Elements of agricultural technology

Sowing of varietal corn begins in mid-May, approximately for middle latitudes. The seeding depth of grain is from 5 to 10 cm. The soil temperature must be at least 10 degrees. Standard planting patterns: 60X70 or 70X70. It is recommended to apply superphosphate at the same time as sowing, especially on poor soils.

During the formation of four leaves, the seedlings are subjected to thinning. No more than 2 stems should remain in the nest. Hilling is carried out immediately before throwing flower panicles.

Twice a season, it is advisable to feed the plants with superphosphate, potassium chloride and nitrate. This will have a positive effect on the size of the fruits and their timely ripening. Early and mid-season varieties already at 70-80 days, counting from the emergence of shoots, give ready-to-eat ears.


Cultures [edit | edit code]

Vegetables are divided into the following groups [12]:

Tuber crops [edit | edit code]

  • Sweet potato (lat. Ipomoea batatas) - a type of tuberous plants of the genus morning glory of the bindweed family - a herbaceous vine with long (1-5 m) creeping stems-lashes, rooting in the nodes. The height of the bush is 15-18 cm. It is a valuable food and forage crop. The name "batat" is borrowed from the Arawak language.
  • Potatoes, or Tuberous nightshade (Latin Solánum tuberósum) - a species of perennial tuberous herbaceous plants from the genus Solanum ( Solanum ) families Solanaceae ). Potato tubers are an important food product, in contrast to poisonous fruits containing solanine. Potato tubers tend to turn green when stored in the light, which is an indicator of an increased solanine content in them. Eating one green tuber with the peel can lead to serious poisoning. Bitter taste is another indicator of increased toxicity in potatoes.
  • Jerusalem artichoke[13], or Jerusalem artichoke [14], or Tuberous sunflower (lat.Heliánthus tuberósus) is a species of tuber-bearing plants of the genus Sunflower of the Aster family. The plant is also known as "earthen pear" and "Jerusalem artichoke" [15]. The tubers are edible. It is cultivated as a valuable fodder, industrial and food plant. The plant is found in the wild in North America.

Root vegetables [edit | edit code]

  • Swede (lat. Brassica napobrassica) is a biennial plant, a species of the genus Cabbage ( Brassica ) of the Cabbage family, which gives high yields on fertile sandy loam and loamy soils with good moisture. The most common varieties Krasnoselskaya and Swedish[sixteen] . The growing season is 110-120 days. In the regions of Russia, it is sometimes called kalega, booze or swedish turnip... In everyday speech in Russia "rutabaga" is often called fodder beets - a plant of a completely different family.
  • Carrot (lat. Daucus) is a genus of plants of the Umbrella family - a biennial plant (rarely one- or perennial), in the first year of life forms a rosette of leaves and a root crop [17], in the second year of life - a seed bush and seeds. Widely distributed, including in Mediterranean countries, Africa, Australia, New Zealand and America (up to 60 species). The best known is the sowing carrot (cultivated carrot, considered or as an independent species Daucus sativus, or as a subspecies of wild carrot - Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a biennial plant with a rough woody whitish or orange root. Cultivated carrots are subdivided into table and feed carrots. Inflorescence - 10-15-ray compound umbel, the rays are rough-pubescent, outstretched during flowering. Flowers with small calyx teeth and white, reddish or yellowish petals. In the center of the umbrella is a dark red flower. Fruits are small, elliptical two-seedlings 3-4 mm long.
  • Parsnip (lat. Pastináca) - biennial and perennial grasses of the Umbrella family, vegetable culture. They live in valley and mountain meadows, in thickets of bushes. Used as a spice. In cooking, parsnip root is mainly used - it is boiled, baked in the oven, used in salads and winter soups.
  • Parsley (lat. Petroselínum) - a small genus [according to the database "The Plant List" is considered monotypic] biennial plants of the family Umbrella ( Apiaceae ). Parsley is used in fresh, dried and less often salted form, leaves - as an integral part of salads, and leaves and root vegetables - as an addition to side dishes and soups, especially fish dishes. Freshly frozen greens fully retain their nutritional and healing properties for several months (if stored properly, up to a year). The root vegetables of leaf parsley (like the root one) are edible, but thin and coarse, therefore they are rarely used.
  • Radish - annual or biennial plants from the Radish genus of the Cabbage family. Its name comes from lat. radix is ​​the root. Radish from the point of view of classification is a group of varieties of the species Sowing radish ( Raphanus sativus ). Radish is an edible plant and is grown as a vegetable in many countries around the world. Root vegetables are usually eaten, which have a diameter of 2.5 cm and are covered with thin skin, often painted in red, pink or white-pink.
  • Redka (lat.Ráphanus) - small genus and perennial herbaceous plants of the family Cabbage ( Brassicaceae ). It grows wild in Europe and the temperate zone of Asia. Sowing radish ( Raphanus sativus ) does not occur in the wild [18].
    • Daikon, or Japanese radish, or Chinese radish - root plant, sowing subspecies ( Raphanus sativus ) from the cabbage family ( Brassicaceae ).It is believed that this type of radish was obtained in ancient times by the Japanese by selection from the loba - the Asian group of Radish varieties ( Raphanus ) growing in China. The root crop, unlike radish, does not contain mustard oils, unlike radish, it has a very mild aroma.
    • Loba, or Margelan radish - one- or biennial plant of the Cabbage family. Vegetable culture related to root crops. Loba is not an independent species, but is a group of common radish varieties.
  • Turnip (Latin Brassica rapa) is an annual or biennial herb, a species of the genus Cabbage ( Brassica ) of the Cabbage family ( Brassicaceae ), or Cruciferous. The forage varieties of turnips are called turnips.
  • Beet (lat. Béta) - genus, biennial and perennial herbaceous plants of the Amaranth family (previously the genus belonged to the Marevye family). The most famous representatives are: common beets, sugar beets, fodder beets. In everyday life, they all have a common name - beets. In the southwestern regions of Russia and in most of Ukraine, the plant is called beet or beetroot (also in Belarus - Belorussian beetle). Found on all continents except Antarctica.
  • Celery (lat.Apium) is a genus of plants of the family Umbrella ( Apiaceae ), vegetable culture. There are about 20 species in total, distributed on almost all continents, except for Antarctica. All parts of the plant are added to the first and second courses, salads, drinks, sauces, seasonings. The rhizome is also used in a dried form. The stems are recommended to be used instead of salt for diseases of the gallbladder, osteoporosis, kidney disease.
  • Horseradish (lat.Armorácia) - a small genus of perennial herbaceous plants of the family Cabbage ( Brassicaceae ). Glycosidesinigrin gives horseradish its well-known burning taste, which is why it is the basis of a traditional seasoning - table horseradish.

Cabbage [edit | edit code]

  • Sweet cabbage[19] (lat. Brássica olerácea) (or White cabbage) - biennial plant, agricultural crop speciesCabbage (lat. Brassica). It is one of the most important vegetable plants. Archaeological excavations indicate that people began to use cabbage since the Stone and Bronze Ages. Decandol in 1822 distinguished up to thirty, and now there are hundreds of varieties [19]. Cabbage is cultivated as an annual plant in vegetable gardens around the world, with the exception of the extreme northern regions and deserts. As a cultivated food plant, it is distributed in all countries with a temperate climate. The cultivation of cabbage in the cold season or in the mountains is also possible in the subtropics [19].
  • Red cabbage - also applies to lat. Brássica olerácea. It is mainly used for preparing salads.
  • Savoy cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. convar. capitata var. sabauda) - vegetable crop, one of the varieties of the type of Cabbage. Like white cabbage, it forms large heads of cabbage, but its leaves are thin, corrugated.
  • Brussels sprouts (Brássica oleracea L. var. Gemmifera DC.Thell.) - a plant of the cabbage family (cruciferous) - Brassicaceae (Cruciferae), vegetable culture. Refers to the type of kale. Small heads of cabbage, formed from the late modified buds in the leaf axils, are eaten. They are of high nutritional quality. Cabbage heads of Brussels sprouts are boiled, used for making salads, soups and frozen vegetable mixtures, stewed, fried. Whole heads of cabbage are used to prepare cabbage soup, main courses and side dishes for meat, they can also be boiled and then stewed with butter, fried with breadcrumbs until golden brown and served with cream or sour cream. The original shape and size of the heads of cabbage, in combination with an attractive green or purple color, make it possible to use the heads of Brussels sprouts for decorating festive dishes, and their high taste values ​​- for gourmet gourmet dishes. It can also be dried.
  • Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. Botrytis L.) is a common vegetable crop, one of the cultivars of the Cabbage species. Belongs to the varietal group botrytislike Romanesco. Cauliflower is prized for its high taste and dietary qualities. In cauliflower, boiled heads (modified inflorescences), with butter or egg-butter sauce, are eaten. Pre-boiled heads can be stewed or fried with meat, vegetables, potatoes, salted, pickled neat or mixed with other vegetables, used in homemade canned food. Young inflorescences and thickened flowering shoots of cauliflower are used to prepare clear dietary broths and soups that are not inferior in nutritional value and taste to chicken broths and soups. Cauliflower is found in frozen vegetable mixes. Fresh young heads are consumed raw, and also added to a variety of salads, they are used to decorate meat and vegetable dishes.
  • Broccoli (Lat. Brassica oleracea or Lat. Brassica silvestris) is an annual vegetable plant of the cabbage family, a subspecies of cauliflower. The same parts are edible in her. Its stem in the first year reaches a height of 60-90 cm and at the top forms many succulent branches (peduncles), ending in dense groups of small green buds. Together they are assembled into a small, loose head, which is cut for use without waiting for the buds to develop into yellow flowers. This vegetable is rich in vitamins, especially vitamin C. Broccoli is native to Asia Minor and the Eastern Mediterranean.
  • Kohlrabi, or cabbage turnip - a biennial herbaceous food plant, a botanical variety of white cabbage, belongs to the genus Brassica of the cabbage family. The edible part of kohlrabi is the stem, which in the aerial part takes on a spherical or turnip shape. It tastes like a cabbage stump, but more juicy, sweetish, without the pungency characteristic of white cabbage. It is a valuable dietary product, the pulp is rich in glucose, fructose, sulfur compounds, potassium salts, vitamins B1, B2, PP, ascorbic acid. Kohlrabi surpasses lemon and orange in vitamin C content.

Salad [edit | edit code]

Salad, lettuce (lat. Lactuca sativa L.) is an annual or biennial plant from the Asteraceae family, or Compositae, garden culture. The origin of the plant is unknown, but at present it is widely cultivated in vegetable gardens. There are several varieties and breeds of lettuce, which are divided into two rows:

  • lettuce - leaves do not form a head of cabbage,
  • cabbage, as well as Roman salad or Romaine lettuce, in these varieties, the leaves form a more or less dense head of cabbage, and in Roman lettuce they are very loose.

Lettuce leaves are very low in calories. Contains high amounts of vitamin A and folic acid.

Spicy [edit | edit code]

  • Dill (lat. Anethum) is a monotypic genus of short-lived annual herbaceous plants of the Umbrella family. The only kind is Dill fragrant, or Dill (Anethum graveolens). In the wild, the plants are found in southwestern and central Asia as a garden plant and are ubiquitous. Dill has a strong spicy refreshing taste and aroma. Used fresh, dried or salted. For canning vegetables, making aromatic vinegar, dill is used in the flowering or fruiting phase. Dried dill is used in various spice mixtures and for cooking. Young dill leaves are used as a flavoring aromatic seasoning for hot and cold dishes, salted and dried for future use, and mature greens and fruits - for flavoring confectionery, tea, pickles, pickles, sauerkraut. The plant contains phytoncides and, when salting vegetables, not only gives them a specific taste, but also protects them from mold and spoilage. Dill essential oil is widely used in the food, canning, alcoholic beverage and soap industries.
  • Tarragon, or tarragon wormwood, or Tarragon (lat.Artemisia dracunculus) - a perennial herb, a species of Wormwood of the Asteraceae family. A common spice used in pickles, for preservation, seasoning for meat dishes. Tarragon wormwood has a low-spicy aroma and a pungent, spicy and piquant taste. There are known varieties of salad direction, common in the Transcaucasus and Central Asia, and spicy-aromatic forms (Ukraine, Moldova). The green mass of the plant is widely used in fresh cooking as a spicy-aromatic seasoning for pickling cucumbers, tomatoes, making pickles, for pickling cabbage, soaking apples and pears. It is used as a spice in the preparation of rice dishes, boiled fish, mayonnaise, fried game, lamb. Finely chopped fresh leaves are added as a spice to poultry, eggs, light sauces, meat dishes, and all types of salads.
  • Savory (lat. Satureja) - annual plants, semi-shrubs or shrubs genus of plants of the family Lamiaceae ). In Bulgaria this plant (bulgarian chubritsa) is a popular seasoning for dishes made from vegetables, meat and fish, it is included in the recipe for "Bulgarian ketchup". Since ancient times, it has been used as a seasoning in Moldovan cuisine, where it bears the name chimbru... It is actively used in Armenian and Uzbek cuisine, where it is named accordingly citron and dzhambul... In many national cuisines, it is widely used for salting and pickling vegetables.
  • Soul Basil, or Common basil, or The hearty basil, or Basilica of camphor (lat.Ocimum basilicum) - species of annual herbaceous plant of the genus Basil ( Ocimum ) subfamily Cattle ( Nepetoideae ) of the Lamiaceae family ( Lamiaceae ). Basil greens have a very pleasant spicy aroma of allspice with a slightly cooling salty taste. This culture is one of the oldest spices of the national cuisines of Transcaucasia and Central Asia, where it is called reikhan, regan, rean, rayhonwhich means "fragrant". In Uzbekistan, along with the vegetable garden, green-leaved basil is grown (zhambil). Fragrant basil leaves are used as an independent snack and as a seasoning (fresh and dried). In Azerbaijan, seeds are also used - they are used to flavor drinks, salads, pates, soups (chicken, sour milk, cereals, vegetables). Basil is added to lamb, beef, offal, poultry and minced meat dishes. Fragrant basil is used in the canning industry for flavoring marinades and tomato sauces, as well as in the meat industry. It is included in spice mixtures that replace black pepper, as well as in special aromatic compositions. Basil is used everywhere in marinades and pickles.
  • Marjoram (lat.Origanum majorana) is a species of perennial herbaceous plants from the genus Oregano ( Origanum ) of the Yasnotkovye family. In the Middle East, it is better known as "bardakush, mardakush" (Arabic: بردقوش ، مردقوش), where it is used as a seasoning, while being mixed with salt and sesame seeds. In the 21st century, marjoram is used mainly as a spice; it is added to salads, soups, fish and vegetable dishes, fresh or dried, and for canning. The plant is also used for the preparation of liqueurs, liqueurs, puddings, sausages, vinegar and tea flavoring. An essential oil is extracted from the aerial part of a flowering plant. Dry leaf powder is found in pepper mixtures. Marjoram improves digestion, is indicated for flatulence, has a diuretic and sedative effect.

Bulbous [edit | edit code]

  • Bulb onions (lat. Állium cépa) - perennial herbaceous plant species Allium ) of the Onion family ( Alliaceae ). At present, onion is one of the most important vegetable crops. Bulbs and leaves are used as a seasoning in the canning industry, for salads, vinaigrette, mushrooms, vegetable and meat dishes, as well as a spicy vitamin snack and flavoring additive to soups, sauces, gravies, minced meat. Most often, onions are eaten raw or fried in lard or vegetable oil until golden brown. Raw onions perfectly complement sausages and meat products, cottage cheese, cheeses, bread and lard.
  • Garlic - perennial [20] herbaceous plant of the species Onion of the Onion family ( Alliaceae ). A popular vegetable crop among many peoples around the world, as it has a pungent taste and characteristic odor associated with a group of organic compounds-sulfides. It is widely used in medicine due to its antiviral effect. Bulbs ("cloves") of garlic are used as seed, eaten (raw or cooked, as a seasoning). Leaves, arrows and peduncles are also edible and are mainly consumed in young plants. Thus, only the roots of the plant and the thin protective husk of the cloves are not eaten. Due to its pungent taste, garlic is widely used worldwide as a seasoning or ingredient. It is an important element of many dishes in various regions, for example, in East and South Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, garlic is an indispensable attribute of Mediterranean cuisine. Dried ground garlic is used as a seasoning. It comes in various fractions: flakes, crushed, ground into flour [21]. Fresh and canned garlic is used in cooking (sausages, pickles, and so on).

Tomato [edit | edit code]

Tomato (Latin Solánum lycopérsicum) is a plant of the Solanum genus (formerly Lycopersicon esculentum in the genus tomato (Latin Lycopersicon)) of the Solanaceae family, one- or perennial herb. It is cultivated as a vegetable crop. The fruits of the tomato are known as tomatoes... Fruit type - berry.

The difference between scientific and everyday (culinary) ideas about fruits, berries, fruits, vegetables in the case of tomato (as well as some other plants, such as cucumbers) leads to confusion. Tomatoes - tomato fruits - from the point of view of botany - multicellular syncarpous berries... In English, there is no difference between the terms the fruit and fetus... In 1893, the US Supreme Court, in its Nix versus Hedden verdict, unanimously ruled that tomatoes should be considered vegetables when levying customs duties, although the decision noted that from a botanical point of view, tomatoes are fruits [22]). In 2001, the European Union decided [23] that tomatoes are not vegetables, but fruits. In Russian agricultural literature, as in everyday language, tomatoes (tomato fruits) are considered vegetables.

Tomato fruits are eaten fresh, boiled, fried, canned, they are used to prepare tomato paste, all kinds of sauces, juices, lecho.

Pumpkin (melon) [edit | edit code]

  • Pumpkin (Latin Cucurbita) is a genus of herbaceous plants of the Pumpkin family ( Cucurbitaceae ). The term "pumpkin" in Russia usually means the species Common pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ). Edible pumpkin varieties (as opposed to decorative ones) are eaten after processing: boiled, baked pumpkin, etc. Such pumpkin is very well absorbed by the body and is widely used even for baby and diet food. Also good for salads and side dishes. Uncut pumpkins are stored for a long time, therefore, they have been used on farms since ancient times. Many old Russian dishes are known, including pumpkin. Charles Perrault in the 17th century, in his fairy tale "Cinderella", came up with the idea of ​​making a pumpkin carriage as a product that even the poorest have always in the kitchen.
  • Zucchini - a herbaceous plant of the genus Pumpkin of the Pumpkin family, a kind of common pumpkin. The fruits are oblong, white, green or yellow in color. It largely satisfies the body's need for vitamins, especially vitamin C and B vitamins. Young zucchini have the best taste and are extremely easy to digest. Zucchini can be added to the children's menu, to the diet of patients on the mend, as well as people suffering from digestive problems. Thanks to its easy digestibility and low calorie content, squash is one of the most popular vegetables in weight loss diets.
  • Squash, or Dish pumpkin - an annual herbaceous plant of the Pumpkin family, a variety of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ). In Russian literature, the scientific name of the taxon is usually considered Cucurbita pepo var. patisson [24]. According to other sources, the scientific name of the taxon is Cucurbita pepo var. patisoniana [25]. Squash is also called vegetables - the edible fruits of this plant, which are used in the same way as zucchini, boiled and fried, and also in the form of canned food (pickles and pickles). Cultivated all over the world, the plant is unknown in the wild.
  • Common cucumber, or Sowing cucumber (Latin Cucumis sativus) is an annual herb of the Pumpkin family ( Cucurbitaceae ), a species of the genus Cucumber ( Cucumis ). Cucumbers are rich in complex organic substances that play an important role in metabolism. These substances help the absorption of other foods and improve digestion. They whet the appetite. Fresh cucumber effectively increases the acidity of gastric juice, therefore it is contraindicated for those suffering from gastritis with high acidity and peptic ulcer disease. Potassium in cucumbers improves heart and kidney function.

Legumes [edit | edit code]

  • Peas (lat. Pí́sum) is a genus of herbaceous plants of the legume family. Annual grasses with weak climbing stems. Sowing peas ( Pisum sativum ) Is the most famous and widespread. Its seeds (pea) are spherical or slightly compressed, but not angular, the flowers are almost always white, although they are pink.
  • Bob the sadovy, or Common bean, or Bob russian, or Bob konsky (lat.Vícia fába) - leguminous crop, species of annual plants of the genus Vika ( Vicia ) of the legume family. It is grown as a food and forage crop. Beans are popular in cuisines from around the world. This culture is especially widely used among Bulgarians, Danes, Belgians, British and Dutch. Garden beans are common in the cooking of some Asian countries and in Arab cuisine (including Lebanese, Egyptian - for example, in the full medames dish). In China, Mexico (dish habas con chile) and Thailand, a popular snack made from fried beans (so that their hard shell "breaks open"), then salted and seasoned to taste. In the cooking of these and other countries, beans Vicia faba often called "fava" (fava), horse or bread (English bread bean) beans.

Cereals [edit | edit code]

  • Sweet corn, also maize (lat.Zea mays L. ssp. mays or Zea saccharata Sturtev [26]) is the only cultural representative of the genus corn (Zea L.) of the family Cereals (Poaceae). In addition to cultivated corn, the genus Zea includes four types - Z. diploperennis, Z. perennis, Z. luxurians, Z. nicaraguensis - and three wild-growing subspecies Z. mays: ssp. parviglumis, ssp. mexicana and ssp. huehuetenangensis... Many of these taxa are believed to have played a role in crop corn breeding in ancient Mexico. The culinary possibilities of corn are great. Freshly harvested ears are eaten in boiled form. For long-term storage, they can be frozen. Canned corn kernels are used for making salads, first and second courses. Coarse cornmeal is used for cooking cereals, and fine cornmeal - for puddings, dumplings, pancakes and other baked goods. When corn flour is added to cakes and cookies, these products become tastier and more crumbly. From pre-flavored and crushed corn grains, corn flakes are made - a ready-made food product that does not require additional culinary processing. They are used as a side dish, as well as as an independent dish along with juices, compotes, tea, coffee, milk and yogurt.

Dessert [edit | edit code]

  • Artichoke (lat.Cynara) is a genus of plants of the family Asteraceae ( Asteraceae ). The origin of the name is explained from Arabic words al-khurshūf (الخرشوف), via Italian articiocco[27]. Cynareae - from the Greek. κύον - dog, by the similarity of the wrapper leaves with dog teeth, or from the Greek verb. κνάω - I scratch scolymus from the Greek. σκώλος - stake, tip. The "vegetable" that is eaten is actually an unopened basket of a future flower, which in its mature state resembles a thistle that blooms in a beautiful purple or blue color. In the spiny artichoke, they eat fleshy receptacles (the bases of the baskets, or bottoms), and in the Spanish, the fleshy petioles of the basal leaves. In general, more than 140 species of this plant are known, but only about 40 are of nutritional value. Mostly fresh artichokes are prepared, they can be stored for a week, but they begin to lose their aroma immediately after cutting. The use of artichokes is varied - they are served both as an independent dish and as a side dish, salads and pizzas are made with it, it is also added to pastas, stews and pies. Even desserts and bread are prepared with artichokes. Artichokes are served both hot and cold.
  • Asparagus (lat. Aspáragus) - a genus of plants of the Asparagus family, up to 100 species are known, scattered all over the world, mainly in dry climates. The most common type of Common Asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis ). Some types of asparagus are herbs, others are shrubs that develop underground rhizomes and aboveground more or less branched stems, creeping in many species. The tops of the asparagus sprouts (about 20 cm) are used in cooking as a delicacy.
  • Rhubarb (lat. Rhéum) - genus plants of the family Buckwheat. From the cut leaves, the plates go to feed pigs or to compost, while the petioles, tied in bunches, are sold. To get delicate petioles, the plant is somewhat huddled and surrounded by a bottomless barrel or pot (English method): the shaded petioles stretch towards the light, stretch out and acquire a certain tenderness. Fresh petioles, after removing the dense skin, are cut into pieces and used:
  1. cooked in sugar syrup, they give a sour, very tasty jam
  2. slightly boiled in thick sugar syrup, dried and the next day again dipped in syrup give candied rhubarb
  3. boiled with boiling water, grated through a sieve and boiled with sugar go as a filling in sweet pies, reminding the taste of applesauce
  4. wine like Chablis is made from the juice of the petioles, and the juice mixed with water and sugar is first fermented, when the latter is over and the liquid clears up, filtered, defended and bottled, in which they are kept for at least a year in the basement.

Influence on the body

Due to the high content of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, corn has a beneficial effect on all human organs.

Consumption of corn:

  • improves the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract
  • cleanses the body of toxins and toxins
  • lowers cholesterol
  • favorably affects the functioning of the brain
  • promotes weight loss
  • safe for diabetics and allergy sufferers.

People with increased blood clotting, prone to thrombosis and thrombophlebitis, should be wary of maize. You should not eat corn during an exacerbation of gastrointestinal ulcer disease.


Cultivation

Corn is a rather unpretentious plant, though not as much as Khrushchev would have liked in his time. Therefore, it should be borne in mind that the ideal growing area is the subtropics. There, maize can be sown directly into the ground in mid-May.

But even in warm conditions, the photophilousness of the plant does not allow a dense planting. Therefore, a large amount of corn growing in one place will not give a gain in the harvest. On the contrary, from such a number of neighbors there will be strong competition for the main resource - sunlight. Based on this, the optimal area for plant development is 70x70 cm.The grain itself is planted in warm, moist soil to a depth of 5-7 cm.

The subtropics provide ideal conditions, but the southern area is not the only place where maize is able to feel comfortable. The growing area can expand significantly if you pay attention to some of the features. For example, in regions with short summers, planting seeds directly into the ground is not a good idea. If there is a harvest, it will be rather meager. The solution in this situation is quite simple - preliminary cultivation of seedlings in greenhouses. Thus, the plant has much more time to form ripe fruits.

And in whatever climate a grower wants to grow corn, all efforts will be in vain without proper soil preparation. Lucky only those who already have fertile black soil at their disposal. The rest will have to spend some time so that the land on the site is enriched with minerals. In the fall, you need to fertilize the soil with rotted manure or harvested humus. And during flowering, apply ash as fertilizer, diluting it with water.

This way, the maize will have enough nutrients to form large ears.


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