The herbaceous perennial plant Fittonia is native to South America (most species from Peru). This genus is considered a representative of the Acanthus family and includes about 10 species.
The bushes of such a flower are not very high. There is pubescence on the surface of the creeping stems. Single flowers have a yellow color (closer to a sulfur shade). In the axils of the bracts, the flowers are collected in spike-shaped inflorescences. The shape of the bracts is rounded-ovate, and their length and width are approximately 10 mm. The length of elliptical leaf plates, depending on the type, can vary from 2 to 16 centimeters, they have a green color with a purple tint and clearly distinguished veins. If the plant is properly cared for, it will grow and develop normally. It should be borne in mind that he needs a stable temperature, as well as high air humidity. In a room with excessively dry air and with sudden changes in temperature, the flower may die.
Brief description of cultivation
- Bloom... Fittonia is cultivated as an ornamental deciduous plant.
- Illumination... Needs a lot of bright light, but it must be diffused.
- Temperature regime... In summer it is about 24 degrees, and in winter it is about 20 degrees.
- Watering... Such a flower is watered systematically and in moderation. In spring and summer, this is done immediately after the top layer of the substrate in the pot dries out. In the cold season, it is recommended to do this after the soil mixture dries out to ¼ of the depth.
- Air humidity... Should be elevated. The bush must be systematically moistened with a sprayer in the morning and evening. In order to keep the air humidity high, wet pebbles can be poured into the tray, and an open vessel filled with water can also be placed next to the flower.
- Fertilizer... In the spring-autumn period, feeding is carried out 1 time in 15 days, for this, mineral fertilizers are used for decorative deciduous plants, while the dosage should be reduced by half of the recommended by the manufacturer. In winter, the number of dressings is reduced to one in 30 days.
- Pruning... During the growing season, pinching of the tops of the stems is carried out. And in the last days of March, bare stems are pruned, and this is done in several stages.
- Dormant period... It is not pronounced.
- Transfer... The bushes are transplanted regularly once a year in the spring (March – April) immediately after they are pruned.
- Soil mixture... Sand, peat, coniferous and soddy soil (1: 1: 2: 2).
- Reproduction... Dividing the bush, layering and cuttings.
- Harmful insects... Thrips, scale insects, mealybugs and spider mites.
- Diseases... The culture loses its decorative appearance due to improper care or because the plant is already old.
Fittonia - care and tips.
Fittonia care at home
When grown indoors, fittonia must be provided with a large amount of bright light. However, a south-facing window sill is not suitable for her. If you are forced to place a flower on a southern windowsill, then place it a little deeper into the room to protect the foliage from direct sunlight. The culture grows well on an east or west orientation window. The bush can also be placed on the north window, but with too little lighting, the foliage loses its decorative effect. In the cold season, when the daylight hours are very short, it is recommended to supplement the flower, for this they use fluorescent lamps.
In the summer, the bush needs to provide an air temperature of about 24 degrees, and in the winter months - about 20 degrees. Remember that if the room is cooler in the winter, then disease can strike Fittonia. Protect it from drafts and sudden changes in air temperatures, as this can cause all the foliage to fly around. In the warm season, it should never be carried to the balcony or garden.
When growing fittonia, it should be remembered that the clod of earth in the container should not dry out in any case, since because of this it sheds the foliage. And also make sure that the liquid does not stagnate in the substrate, as this leads to the appearance of rot on the root system. As a rule, watering is carried out immediately after the top layer of the substrate dries. And in winter, the soil mixture must be moistened a couple of days after its top layer dries. You can water the bush only with well-settled slightly warm water.
Indoor fittonia must be systematically moistened from a sprayer, because due to excessively low air humidity, it can get sick or pests will settle on it. It is necessary to moisten the bush at least 1 time a day, and it is better to do it twice: in the evening and in the morning. In order to increase the humidity of the air, you can put an open vessel with water next to the flower, or pour moistened pebbles into the pan, and put a flower pot on it. However, make sure that the bottom of the container does not come into contact with the liquid. It should also be borne in mind that polishing the foliage can cause significant harm to the plant.
Home-grown crops need to be fed all year round. However, remember that if the substrate contains too many nutrients, this will negatively affect the condition of the bush. In this regard, for feeding, you should take ½ part of the dosage recommended on the manufacturer's packaging. For this, complex mineral fertilizers are used. In winter, feeding is carried out 1 time in 30 days, and in the spring-autumn period - 1 time in 15 days.
In order to improve the branching of the plant, it is necessary to regularly pinch the tops of the stems. As the plant grows, its lower part is exposed, which is why its decorative effect suffers. To rejuvenate the bush, it is pruned in the last days of March. However, it is impossible to cut off all the foliage at one time, since in this case the development of young shoots may become slower. In this regard, the bush is cut in several stages.
The transplant is carried out systematically once a year in March or April. The transplanted bush can be rejuvenated at the same time, since over the years it can lose its decorative effect. For planting, choose a wide and low container. At its bottom, a good drainage layer is made from small pieces of brick or expanded clay. From above it is covered with soil mixture, for the preparation of which it is necessary to combine peat, sand, turf and coniferous soil in a ratio of 1: 1: 2: 2.
Fittonia transplant. [Hope and Peace]
If desired, fittonia can be propagated every year during transplantation, while this process is combined with rejuvenation. To do this, cuttings with 3-5 leaf plates are harvested, they are cut from the top of the bush. In order for rooting to take place as quickly as possible, the length of the cutting should be no more than 80 mm. Further, the segments are planted for rooting in the sand, while the cut end must be inserted into it. They are covered with a jar on top, their roots will grow back after about 30 days. Moisten, water, and ventilate the cuttings systematically.
For rooting, they can be placed in a container with water, while the liquid should be poured no more than 10 mm, and the jar itself should be wrapped with foil. Twice or three times in 7 days, the package must be removed for a while and the foliage must be moistened from the sprayer. For good rooting, keep the temperature high (at least 26 degrees). After powerful roots are formed, the plant is planted in a substrate, the composition of which is described above.
Dividing the bush
If desired, when transplanting, the bush can be divided into several parts, which are planted in individual pots. But remember that it is necessary to divide the bush very carefully, trying not to injure the root system. If you want your bush to be very lush, then plant several Fittonias in one container.
Reproduction by layering
When grown at home, the culture is capable of self-propagation by layering. But if you don't want to wait for this to happen, then help the plant. To do this, a part of the shoot, on which there are no leaves, is bent to the surface of the substrate and dug in. After a while, roots will form in this place, then the cuttings are cut off from the parent plant and transplanted into a separate container.
FITTONIA CARE / Fittonia at home / Fittonia BLOSSOMS !!! I wanted to cut it off, but it bloomed)
Fittonia died suddenly... This can happen when Fittonia is over-watered, especially in winter. Be sure to water it properly. It can also happen due to sudden temperature fluctuations or due to exposure to excessively cold air.
The bottom leaves of fittonia fall... This is a completely natural process, since in the culture, as it grows, the stem is exposed. Rejuvenate the bush by removing the shoots that have begun to bare.
Yellow foliage... The leaf plates begin to turn yellow due to the fact that there is a regular stagnation of liquid in the substrate. In this case, the abundance of watering should be reduced and carried out only when the top layer of the substrate dries out.
The tips of the foliage turned brown... On leaf blades, the tips sometimes turn brown or yellowish brown. This can be due to both an excessive amount of nutrients in the substrate, and their lack.
Fittonia leaves shriveled.Culture needs high humidity. If the foliage becomes shriveled, then the air is very dry. Leaves can also wrinkle due to excessive bright light or as a result of direct sunlight hitting them.
Why do Fittonia leaves dry? or how i made friends with fittonia
Most often, scale insects, mealybugs, thrips and spider mites settle on the bush.
Large Fittonia (Fittonia gigantea)
This flower is native to Peru, where it grows in rainforests. In height, the bush can reach a little more than 50 centimeters. There is pubescence on the surface of the violet-red stems. The length of elliptical leaf plates, depending on age, is 10–16 centimeters, and the width is 4–10 centimeters. Shiny green leaf plates have red streaks.
Such a not very tall plant in nature can be found exclusively in the tropical forests of Peru and Colombia. The pubescent stems practically spread over the soil surface, in this regard, they reproduce quite easily by layering. Dark green elliptical or ovoid leaf plates have red veins. They are 5–10 centimeters long and 4–6 centimeters wide.
FITTONIA on the windowsill. An example of use in COMPOSITION.
Description of the plant
Fittonia mix is a decorative flowering plant of the acanthus family, which has only 10 species. The homeland of Fittonia mix is South America. This is not a separately bred Fittonia variety, but a mixture of several varieties planted in one flower pot. In the photo you can see mixes of 4-5 different types of Fittonia. This is done to give the plant a more exotic look and decorative effect. As a result of this mixing, a very bright and unusual mini-flower bed is obtained. The main decoration of Fittonia mix is its unusual leaves, which reach a length of about 6-10 cm. They are oval in shape, matte and can be green, white, lilac and red. The veins on the leaves are usually of a contrasting color and can be silvery, bright pink, dark green and white.
Fittonia mix blooms in June-July with small cream-colored flowers. Flowers are collected in small spike-shaped inflorescences. The plant has shallow roots and delicate creeping shoots that can be easily rooted in nodes. Thin stems are low (about 10 cm), branched and densely pubescent. An adult plant reaches a height of 30-40 cm.
How the pike tail flower reproduces
In terms of breeding, the pike tail is suitable even for an inexperienced grower. This process is quick and easy. The plant has such a property as excellent rooting in various ways. The favorable period is spring. At this time, the plant quickly grows green mass, the lost parts do not do any harm. The simplest way, which does not cause problems for the flower itself, is to divide the rhizome.
Reproduction by dividing the rhizomes is carried out during the transplantation of the entire plant into a new container. After it has been removed from the pot, the pike tail is easily divided into cuttings by carefully cutting the roots with a sharp knife.
Important! It is recommended to dry the cut and sprinkle with cinnamon. After that, they are planted in prepared soil.
Another breeding method is by side shoots. In this case, with the help of a disinfected sharp knife, the shoots formed on the mother plant are cut off. The incision must be made so that some part of the rhizome from the mother flower and a full-fledged rosette of leaf plates remain on the baby. Further, the shoot is planted in a separate container with soil, which is identical in composition to that of an adult bush. Do not water for several days. Then provide the usual care of the plant.
The plant reproduces easily by means of leaf plates. This requires:
- Separate the sheet or part of it with a sterile knife.
- Cut the long sheet into pieces, approximately 5 cm.
- Leave to dry for 1 hour.
- Plant in pots with river sand and provide a greenhouse effect by covering with a jar or plastic.
Propagation of sansevieria with a sheet plate
After two months, the plates will take root and begin to give young shoots. Then they are planted in ordinary soil.
Important! Cannot be propagated with a pike-tail variety leaf plate with a variegated pattern. The plant will not retain its features. The babies will have a normal green color.