Plant Diseases Published: March 12, 2012 Reprinted: Last edits:
The causative agent of Jaundice is the Leptomotropus callistephi virus. This disease affects a huge number of plant species. Most often, families of Solanaceae, buttercup, cruciferous, umbelliferous, norichnikovy, gesneriaceae, haze, buckwheat and Compositae plants suffer from the virus.
The main signs of Jaundice are: a change in the color of leaves (sometimes shoots) to pale green; stems begin to curl excessively; the plant grows more buds than it should, but the flowers from these buds bloom small and irregular in shape; individual parts of the plant can change shape, becoming like a leaf; flower petals turn greenish. Plants with jaundice often do not form seeds.
If you allow the disease to spread and do not take any measures, then soon the entire above-ground part will be infected. Young leaves will fade to almost white, and the growth rate of the plant's trunk will slow down significantly. If the infected parts of the plant are not removed in time, necrotic spots may appear in the stem, which leads to the death of these areas. With jaundice, the leaves often grow vertically upward.
The more the plant is infected, the more pronounced are the changes in the shape and color of the plant, as well as in its development. The disease enters healthy plants through pests, most often from dandelions, thistles, plantains and other weeds.
The main methods of prevention are the control of the absence of pests and their immediate destruction in case of detection, because they are carriers of jaundice. It is necessary to keep the plants clean and follow the conditions of care.
There is no point in fighting viral diseases with chemical drugs - there will be no result. If the plant is already affected, all affected parts must be removed, and the plant must be set aside from other specimens. After working with the plant, you need to wash your hands with soap (preferably with household soap and a couple of times). The inventory should be wiped with a cotton swab or cloth soaked in alcohol. Do not use an infected plant for propagation by cuttings.
- Plant Disease Information
Sections: Diseases Diseases of indoor plants
Powdery mildew on phlox - how to get rid
It is so arranged by nature that the more beautiful the plant, the more enemies it has, and C "P" PsRєCЃC ‹is no exception. The most common misfortunes are powdery mildew and variegation. Various types of microscopic fungi contribute to the appearance of powdery mildew.
Author: Marina Chaika February 22, 2019 Houseplants
Flower cymbidium (Latin Cymbidium) belongs to the genus of evergreen epiphytes of the Orchidaceae family, which is common in the subtropics of Asia and Northern Australia, its representatives are found even at an altitude of up to 2000 meters above sea level. Cymbidium flowers were introduced into the culture more than two thousand years ago in China. Confucius considered them to be the kings of fragrances. In modern China, as well as in Japan, natural forms of all kinds of colors of petals and leaves are cultivated, especially in the trend today are small species, the most fragrant of the cymbidiums. And in Europe and Australia, large-flowered hybrids are valued as cut crops.
There are more than a hundred types of cymbidiums in modern indoor floriculture. Cymbidiums were first described by the Swedish botanist Peter Olof Swartz in 1799.
Astral jaundice is also a very insidious disease for the delphinium, upon detection of which the plant must be completely removed.
This disease causes the dwarfism of the delphinium, and also affects the inflorescences, which begin to form a bunch. The color of the flowers often changes, they acquire a green tint. The development of the disease begins with yellowing of the lowest leaves, and then moves on to inflorescences, gradually deforming the bush.
If you had to deal with aster jaundice, then the affected specimen will need to be dug up and burned. Since some insects, which are carriers of the infection, lay eggs in the soil, so cutting off the ground part of the delphinium will not stop the infection. The larvae will eventually climb to the surface, spreading the pathogen to other plants.
If we talk about raspberry diseases, then all of them can be divided into the following large categories:
- Fungal (including wilting and spotting diseases)
- Viruses and mycoplasmas.
Raspberries can get sick for many reasons. These are both unfavorable environmental conditions and the impact of pests that carry the disease. But most often raspberries get sick due to insufficient care.
Consider what diseases the culture suffers from, mention the pathogens and the main symptoms, and also discuss ways to treat and prevent diseases.
Infectious and bacterial diseases of raspberries
First of all, let's talk about the largest group of diseases, infectious and bacterial.
The cause of this group of diseases is an introduced infection. The causative agents are fungi, viruses, bacteria and mycoplasmas.
REFERENCE. Mycoplasmas are pathogenic unicellular bacteria.
Anthracnose (black spot)
The causative agent of the disease is the fungus Gloeosporium venetum Speg. The development environment is the shoots, stems and leaves of the plant.
Dangerous period - days with high humidity. The disease spreads rapidly in thickened plantings.
It manifests itself as purple-brown (or purple-gray) spots on the leaves. Further, shoots and even fruits become infected.
If the disease is not treated, then the bark cracks, leaves and berries dry out.
The affected parts of the plant are removed and destroyed. Use systemic fungicides at the first sign of infection. For prevention, treat raspberries with copper sulfate, Bordeaux mixture or other copper-containing preparations every spring.
Gray rot (botrytis)
The disease is caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea.
The most dangerous period is flowering and fruiting.
The disease is especially dangerous in rainy cool weather.
The fungus infects the berries, which are covered with a dirty gray bloom.
If you don't fight, you can lose the entire crop.
IMPORTANT! Sick berries should not be eaten.
Bordeaux liquid treatment. Sanitary pruning. Prevention - tillage and shrubbery with Topaz.
With a full-scale botrytis infestation, all infected bushes must be dug up and burned.
The causative agent is the fungus Phragmidium rubi-idaei (Pers).
It affects raspberry leaves. The most dangerous period is the first warm days in April-May.
The disease manifests itself as numerous orange spots on the underside of the leaf plate.
Most dangerous in a rainy summer.
The second type of rust (Framgidium, black rust) is caused by the fungus Gymnoconia peckiana. This pathogen affects all parts of the raspberry, including the roots.
It appears as black spots on the bottom of the leaf and yellowish on the top. Ulcers gradually grow together and get long deep cracks.
Under the influence of this fungus, the aerial parts of the raspberry die off much earlier.
IMPORTANT! Rust causes significant damage to gardening. From its impact, up to a third of the total berry harvest is lost.
Treatment of diseased plants with translaminar and contact fungicides. For example, Cuproxat, Abiga Peak.
As a preventive measure, you can use folk remedies (for example, iodine solution).
Black root rot
There are several causative agents of this disease. These are Ph. citrophthora (R.E. & Eh.) Sm., Ph. Titricola, Fusarium avenaceum (Fr.) Sacc., F. lateritium Nees ex Fr., F. gibbosum App. & Wr.
Pathogens are most dangerous during periods of high humidity.
The disease manifests itself as black spots that gradually grow together and cover the shoot in a ring.
As a result, the lower part of the bush rots.
And the upper one does not receive the required amount of nutrients, it turns yellow and dies off.
ON A NOTE. Often, infection occurs through damage to raspberries caused by inaccurate care.
Unlike most other diseases, the most effective method of combating black root rot is the correct agricultural technology: harvesting fallen leaves and fruits, sanitary pruning, proper watering and loosening of the soil.
The cause of this disease is the fungus Sphaerotheca macularis.
The main reasons for the development of the disease are improper agricultural technology: thickened plantings, excessive watering, lack of sun.
The most dangerous fungus is in early summer.
The disease covers all aerial parts of the plant: berries, stems, leaves. It manifests itself as a whitish bloom, similar to dew.
It is dangerous not only for the harvest, but also for the functioning of raspberries in general.
The complex of therapeutic measures includes the removal of infected shoots, treatment with colloidal sulfur, Topaz, as well as treatment of the top layer of the soil with Phytosporin or another fungicide.
Viral disease. The causative agent is Raspberry leaf curl virus.
The carriers of the infection are aphids and ticks.
Symptoms are crumbling and curling of leaves. The shoots thicken at the same time.
Leaves become brittle with yellow edges. The shrub slows down its development.
In the first seasons after infection, raspberries lose their flavor and become hard.
The death of infected plants occurs 3-4 years after infection.
Dying off of the tops and deformation of fruit branches is also observed.
Destruction of infected plants. Pesticide treatment. As a preventive measure, it is necessary to treat raspberries with acaricides and insecticides.
There may also be a name - mosaic.
As with other mosaic diseases, the causative agent is Raspberry mosaic virus.
The disease manifests itself on the leaves.
It is especially dangerous in wet and rainy summers.
It manifests itself as spots in the form of a mosaic.
Mottling is dangerous by wilting of foliage, which disrupts the process of photosynthesis and affects not only the growth, but also the fruiting of the bush.
Fungicide treatment. Preventive and systemic treatment with insecticides from aphids.
The ailment is also known as the "witch's broom".
The causative agents of the disease can be Taphrina fungi or Phytoplasma bacteria.
It manifests itself as the growth of shortened and thin shoots.
And there are a lot of shoots. Because of what, in fact, such a popular name appeared.
Such shoots grow, but rarely bear fruit.
The disease can last for years with rare periods of remission.
But in the end, everything leads to the death of the plant.
REFERENCE. This is a mycoplasma disease that aphids carry.
The witch's broom is not treatable. Infected bushes must be dug up and burned to prevent the spread of the infection.
She is a vein mosaic. The causative agent is Raspberry mosaic virus.
The characteristic features of this disease are changes in the color of the veins and interveinal space. The appearance of light spots.
The disease is especially dangerous in damp and cool weather, therefore, the disease manifests itself mainly in autumn and spring.
In a hot summer, the disease may even recede.
With the development of the disease, symptoms such as wrinkling of leaf plates, thickening and shortening of shoots appear.
On infected bushes, a drop in yield is noted by half.
The carrier of the disease is aphids.
Treatment with systemic fungicides. Scare away and destroy aphids with insecticides and ammonia solution.
Resistant varieties can also be grown. For example, Kostinobrodskaya and Rubin.
Bacterial root cancer
The causative agent is Pseudomonas tumefaciens.
Affects the root system.
The disease manifests itself as orange-brown growths on the roots. Because of this, the plant receives less nutrients.
The aboveground part dries up and dies. Reduces yield significantly.
Even with a weak infection, a decrease in plant immunity is noted.
There is no cure. Diseased bushes need to be destroyed. Although if the plant survives the disease within 2-3 years, then during this time the pathogens of the disease will be destroyed by microorganisms living in the soil.
Infectious chlorosis is caused by Raspberry vein chlorosis virus.
Infection occurs through parasitic insects, as well as the use of infected garden tools.
The disease is dangerous at any stage of the plant's growing season.
The main signs are yellowing of the interveinal space and general lightening of leaves, drying out of berries, thin and unhealthy root growth.
Removal of diseased bushes. Sanitary treatment of the soil with potassium permanganate. Raspberry processing with iron vitriol.
The causative agent is Raspberry mosaic virus. Transmitted by sucking insects.
The disease manifests itself on the leaves. The leaf plates are covered with a mosaic of pale green spots.
Other symptoms of the disease: crushing berries and their loss of taste, growth retardation.
The disease is dangerous because the volume of the harvest is significantly reduced, raspberries lose their taste, and become vulnerable to other diseases and pests.
Preventive treatment of plants with insecticides and control of aphids. Raspberry rejuvenation is also carried out.
Stem bacterial cancer
Another name is systemic bacteriosis.
The causative agent is the bacterium Pseudomonas rubi.
The disease manifests itself in the lower part of the shoots as whitish growths on the stems.
Over time, the growths change their color to dark brown.
Corking of tissues occurs.
Infected bushes do not bear fruit well. The plant lacks the strength to form tasty berries.
The fruits become smaller and lose their taste.
There is no cure. Infected plants need to be pulled out and burned to prevent mass infection.
Diseases of wilting raspberries
Now let's talk about such a category of raspberry diseases as wilting.
In fact, these are several different sores, which are combined together according to the characteristic signs of the disease, namely, the wilting of the plant.
The causative agents are most often fungi.
There is a name - Wilt.
The causative agent is the pathogenic fungus Verticillium albo-atrum.
Most dangerous in hot dry weather. The most vulnerable are specimens weakened by the effects of other microorganisms and pests.
Typical symptoms are as follows: leaves and shoots gradually begin to wither, leaf plates turn yellow and dry, bluish stripes and cracking of the shoot skin are observed on the stems.
There is no effective remedy for wilt. Infected stems must be burned. Treat healthy plants and soil with Fitosporin.
Late blight wilting
The causative agent is Phytophtora frafariae var. Rubi.
The disease can be chronic or it can be fleeting. In a chronic course, the disease manifests itself as a lag in the development of infected bushes from healthy ones. The leaves are paler, the berries are smaller and they are tasteless.
The fast-flowing form of the disease is most often found in weakened and sick bushes, as well as in violation of agricultural technology. It manifests itself as a fall of peduncles and a sudden wilting of the entire bush.
Darkening of the lower parts of the plant, curl and drying of the leaves are also noted.
The roots of the plant are severely affected. They turn black and gradually die off. In this case, the core of the spine turns red.
Late blight wilting is most dangerous in cold rainy summers.
Effective fungicides - Ridomil Gold, Quadris.But they should be used only for prevention purposes and for the treatment of non-infected plants.
Diseased bushes need to be dug up and burned.
The causative agents are Fusarium fungi.
Fusarium wilting manifests itself on both shoots and leaves.
The shoots take on a brown tint.
The disease develops very quickly.
Infected branches are oppressed, wither.
The disease is especially dangerous at high humidity and low temperatures.
Infected bushes are burned. Healthy - treated with systemic fungicides.
The next group of diseases is Spot.
Again, these are not related diseases, but several different ailments, united on a common basis.
On the leaves of the affected raspberry, characteristic spots of various colors are formed. The spots grow, merge and cause tissue death.
White spot (septoria)
The cause of the disease is Septoria rubi.
The most vulnerable to this disease are raspberry bushes planted too densely.
The most dangerous pathogen is in cold rainy summers.
A sure sign of infection is whitish-gray spots with a black border on the leaves.
As the disease develops, the leaves dry and die off.
The pathogen easily tolerates winter in fallen leaves.
It is dangerous because it can destroy a whole raspberry tree.
Early spring preventive spraying with Nitrofen. In summer, use Tsineb. In the fall, remove litter and process raspberries and soil under Ftalan or Bordeaux raspberries.
Purple spot (didimella)
The cause of the onset of the disease is Didymella applanata.
The disease manifests itself as purple spots on the stems of raspberries.
Further, as the disease spreads, the following symptoms appear: the death of leaf plates, drying and death of whole shoots.
Due to the disease, the yield of raspberries is significantly reduced and the overall immunity of the crop falls.
The disease is most dangerous during periods of high humidity, in rainy and cold summers.
The disease can be carried by stem gall midge.
Infected plant parts must be removed.
Treat with a 2% solution of Bordeaux liquid. In the spring, prophylactic treatment with Topaz or Abiga-Peak is carried out.
In the fall, they are treated with a Bordeaux mixture.
Caused by the fungus Leptosphaeria coniothirium (Fuck.) Sacc.
Infection manifests itself in the form of black spots on the stems, which grow and turn gray.
The process of the course of the disease is most clearly visible during the fruiting period, when a seemingly healthy bush simply withers.
The fungus also affects the flowers and fruits of raspberries.
The pathogen is most dangerous in cold, rainy weather.
Easily transmitted through wounds left on shoots and leaves by pests.
Sanitary pruning, preventive treatment with Bordeaux mixture. Also effective are Nitrofen and Phtalan.
Raspberry ring spot
Carriers of the disease are Longidorus elongatus, Longidorus attenuatus Hooper and Longidorus macrosoma (Hooper).
The causes of the onset and development of the disease can also be errors in agricultural technology and high humidity.
The disease manifests itself as the appearance of spots on the leaves, thickening of the shoots and growth retardation.
Leaves begin to curl and die off over time.
No berry formation occurs.
ON A NOTE. Symptoms of raspberry ring spot can sometimes be confused with powdery mildew.
The disease cannot be cured. Infected bushes must be destroyed. Carry out spring and autumn soil treatment with nematicides and fungicides.
Orange-yellow insect from the family of Hymenoptera. The body length of an adult is 7-8 mm. Pests appear after wintering in the soil in early May. Females lay eggs on the leaves of cabbage and related crops, while damaging tissue. The presence of oviposition is indicated by swelling on the leaf plates. Soon the larvae appear, and begin to actively feed on the host plant.
The larvae (false caterpillars) of the sawfly are gray-green in color with a light stripe along the body. The most favorable conditions for the development of insects are high humidity (70-80%) and a temperature of 23-26 ° C.
To protect the crop from the rape sawfly, the following measures are necessary:
- compliance with crop rotation (planting cruciferous crops in the same place for several seasons in a row will increase the risk of pest damage)
- removal of weeds and plant residues after harvest
- deep plowing will contribute to the destruction of insect pupae
- when sawflies appear, insecticides are used (Kinfos, Fufanon, Fastak).
Cherry diseases - photo, description, treatment
Proper care of cherries includes more than watering, pruning and loosening the soil. It is also important to protect plants from diseases that can lead to crop failure. Let's figure out how to protect cherries from major ailments.
The list of all possible diseases of sweet cherry is quite large. But the most common are only five. We will tell you how to recognize and overcome them.
Clasterosporium disease, or perforated spot, sweet cherries
This fungal disease can affect the entire tree: its buds, flowers, branches, but most often leaves are affected. In spring, they become covered with light brown spots, which darken over time and increase in size (their diameter can range from 1 mm to 2 cm). After about a week, holes will form at the spots. With a strong defeat by clasterosporium, the leaves dry up and fall off.
Prevention of clotterosporia
Remove and burn all dry and damaged branches and leaves in a timely manner. Dig up the soil regularly in the trunk circle.
The causative agent of the disease persists in the cracks in the bark and tissue of the shoots, so heal any wounds in the trees. First, clean them well, then disinfect them with a 1% solution of copper sulphate and cover with garden varnish.
In early spring (before bud break), spray the crown of trees and the soil in the near-stem circles with nitrafen or 1% copper sulfate.
In the green cone phase (at the beginning of bud break) spray the plants with Bordeaux liquid (100 g per 10 L of water). After flowering, repeat the procedure. After 15-20 days after the end of flowering, carry out the third treatment, and no later than 20 days before harvesting - the fourth.
Coccomycosis, or reddish brown spot, sweet cherries
This disease most often manifests itself during the cherry blossom period and primarily attacks the leaves. They are covered with numerous small reddish dots. At the same time, a pinkish bloom is noticeable on the back of the sheet.
Affected cherry leaves gradually turn yellow, then turn brown, dry up and fall off.
Cherry coccomycosis is especially common in regions with a humid climate.
Prevention of coccomycosis
Any dry parts of the plant can be a source of fungal spores. Therefore, regularly destroy affected fruits, branches and leaves.
In the spring (even before flowering), spray the trees with iron sulfate (300 g per 10 liters of water). Immediately after flowering, treat diseased plants with Horus (2 g per 10 L of water). After 20 days after the end of flowering, repeat the spraying with the same preparation. If the disease persists, apply another treatment 20 days after harvest.
Moniliosis, or gray rot, cherries
Moniliosis (monilial burn) makes itself felt throughout the summer. The branches of the cherry become brown (as if burnt) and soon dry out.
Small, chaotically located gray growths appear on the skin of the berries. Affected fruits rot and fall off.
Prevention of moniliosis
Collect and destroy infected berries and tree branches. Carry out preventive treatments against insect pests (caterpillars, moths, weevils).
When harvesting, be careful not to damage the berries. Store only whole fruits.
Whitewash stone fruit trees in late autumn.
Before flowering, spray the trees and soil in the near-stem circles with 1% Bordeaux liquid. Repeat the treatment immediately after flowering.
On the leaves, swellings appear in the form of cushions of brown-red or red-orange color. The disease is caused by a rust fungus, the spores of which quickly spread throughout the tree, as a result of which the cherry sheds its leaves ahead of time and does not bear fruit well.
Collect and burn fallen leaves regularly during the growing season. If the disease still develops, start treating the trees.
Before flowering and immediately after it, spray the cherries with copper oxychloride (80 g of powder per 10 liters of water). And after picking the berries, treat the crown of the trees with 1% Bordeaux liquid.
Also, cherries can be affected by the so-called white rust (cylindrosporosis)
... The causative agent of the disease is a fungus that causes the leaves to dry out, and by the middle of summer they completely fall off. As a result, the tree weakens and freezes in cold winters. The treatment is the same as for ordinary rust.
Phylostictosis, or brown spot, sweet cherries
Round brown spots appear on the leaves. Often they are surrounded by a darker rim, and black dots (these are pycnidia) may form on the spots themselves. The affected tissue gradually dies off, and through holes are formed in its place.
Prevention of brown spot
Regularly remove the affected parts of the plant and heal wounds in the same way as in the prevention of clotterosporia.
Protect cherries from brown spots with Bordeaux liquid. Spraying is carried out in the same way as for the treatment of perforated spot. In case of severe infection of the garden after leaf fall, carry out additional processing of trees with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid.
To reduce the likelihood of cherry diseases, choose the most resistant varieties and hybrids and properly care for stone fruit trees. Then the harvest will be enough to not only have enough delicious berries themselves, but also to treat the neighbors.
If yellow spots are visible on green foliage in bright light, the culture suffers from poor nutrition (lack of magnesium and iron)
It is important to take care of the regular feeding of the plant with fertilizers for decorative flowers.
Yellow-green bumps and ring-shaped yellowing are the result of low temperatures combined with high humidity. If you forget about the regular feeding of anthurium, the plant will not have the strength to resist smallpox, it will take a long time to revive the culture.
When a flower is ill with enatsia, an uneven curvature of the leaves, an ugly and humpbacked appearance are visible, the anthurium can turn black. The disease progresses in cold rooms with drafts, sudden changes in dry, humid air.