Strawberry harvest ... before frost
The most romantic, the most delicious, the brightest, the largest, with cream, with condensed milk, in the form of jam or just fresh, just from the garden - it's all about strawberry garden... In one of the recent issues of the magazine, our readers could read an article about growing garden strawberries, but she has a sister - remontant strawberry... Today there will be a conversation about her.
The difference between remontant strawberries and garden strawberries
It seems that remontant strawberry appeared only because a person wanted to extend the season of consumption of these magical delicious berries. For ordinary garden strawberries, the main harvest wave occurs in June, sometimes a couple of more berries will ripen in July - and that's it, the bushes will go on a well-deserved rest, until next year, leaving us some kind of sadness. That is why the breeders decided to please gardeners, who happily began to acquire the fruits of their creations and plant remontant strawberry bushes in their plots, which continuously forms berries until almost mid-autumn, before frost.
The remontant strawberry is characterized by a long period of both flowering and fruiting. It usually lasts about 120 days and is due to a peculiar feature of the growth of shoots and inflorescences. In order for fully developed flower buds to form, remontant strawberry varieties need a high daily temperature - at a level of + 15 ... + 17 ° С and daylight hours equal to 15-17 hours, while ordinary strawberry garden flower buds lays in the fall, when it is enough cold, and daylight hours are only 10-12 hours.
Terminal, apical and low-lying inflorescences are formed on the horn of remontant strawberries, while in conditions of a long day and high temperatures, they develop extremely quickly, in just a couple of weeks, which is why remontant cultivars are so fast-growing.
Remaining strawberry varieties
The most common today varieties of remontant strawberries are - Ada, Mount Everest, Sakhalin, Selva, Moscow delicacy, Red Rich, Star and Geneva.
The so-called photoneutral varieties, they differ from conventional and remontant cultivars in that they can be programmed to receive production approximately 90 days after planting, within a year, but in this case it is necessary to acquire heated greenhouses.
In the open field, such varieties give ripe berries from late June to late autumn, in fact, until the first real frost. These types of varieties include - Tribute, Tristar, Brighton, Ulster and Hummy Ghent, however, it will be difficult to propagate them at home, since they form a mustache at a minimum, but this simplifies and reduces the cost of caring for the plantation.
By the way, about leaving: in order for strawberries to be able to give both the first and second harvest, it is necessary to increase the degree of re-flowering, and for this, mowing or the usual cutting of leaves should be carried out immediately after the first harvest at the beginning of summer, but without damaging the apical buds.
Repairing strawberry varieties are also good in that, unlike ordinary strawberries, they bear fruit even on the rosettes of the mustache, there are examples of such varieties - these are Geneva, Cardinal. Leaves of these cultivars should not be cut off. This, by the way, is a very useful sign, because the plants are actually capable of producing good yields on the rosettes that are newly formed on the mustache, and it often happens that these mustaches do not even have time to acquire their roots. This allows you to create gorgeous, often very dense vertical walls in the garden, simply by tying the mustache on a netting or other upward support.
Strawberry disease prevention
Remontant strawberries are an excellent culture, but, alas, even its diseases were not spared, and quite often the fruits are affected gray mold... To do this, at home, they can be treated with a 2% solution of potassium chloride or a simple infusion of ash, for which they take 400-500 g of ash and dissolve in a standard bucket of water.
After such treatment, it is desirable to feed the plants with mineral fertilizers, ammonium sulfate, superphosphate, potassium sulfate (20-25 g) are suitable here. Top dressing is strongly recommended to be combined with watering, preferably under the root and water at room temperature, then you should loosen the soil and slightly spud the bushes.
If your plans include getting large yields, then the plants should be planted in a sufficiently lit and well-fertilized area. Since remontant strawberries form a large number of generative organs and inflorescences, they also require a lot of nutrition. Plants respond well to slurry feeding, which should be done every two weeks. The slurry to water ratio is 1: 9. It is very useful to add 150-200 g of ash to the solution in terms of 10 liters of solution. The consumption rate of such a top dressing is a bucket for 5 square meters of land.
As soon as the plants bloom, one more feeding is needed. In order for strawberry bushes to tie more large fruits, they can be treated with mineral fertilizers containing manganese, zinc and boron, the usual consumption rate is 2 g per bucket of water. These sprays should be carried out in the evening, when the heat subsides, or in cloudy weather, when it is cool, but not in the rain.
They also harm berries slugs, in years when there are especially many of them, they can destroy almost half of the crop, so measures should also be taken to combat them. First of all, it is dusting the soil along the rows with a mixture of tobacco dust, ash and lime in equal proportions. In dry weather, dusting the soil with superphosphate helps to fight slugs.
Strawberry planting care
In addition to combating pests and diseases, you need to monitor the condition of the soil, periodically loosen the surface, providing air access to the roots, weed weeds, water and mulch the soil with humus or non-acidic peat. Loosening the soil is very useful after watering or heavy rain, closing moisture from evaporation.
How to prolong the fruiting of strawberries
In order to stretch the autumn fruiting, remontant strawberries can be placed under a film. The plants under it will tolerate temperature drops at night and even in small frosts without loss. At the same time, fruiting will be abundant, and the film will help reduce the risk of gray rot, and it will be difficult for slugs to get into such a greenhouse.
Strawberries usually begin to shelter in mid-August, the film is pulled over pre-installed metal arcs, which look like a tunnel, designed according to the size of the garden bed. Having covered the plants, you will need to monitor the air temperature. If it rises above + 25 ° С, then, in order to avoid burns, the plants will need to raise the film, thereby leveling the temperature.
Otherwise, there is nothing new in caring for remontant strawberries under the film, these are the same loosening of the soil, weed control, watering.
Shelters are usually removed after the onset of cold weather. During this period, however, there is a risk of damage to plants by the first severe frosts, while sufficient snow cover has not yet formed. Therefore, to strengthen the plants and prepare them for frost, you should feed the strawberries with wood ash at the rate of - a tablespoon per bush, loosen the soil, sprinkle the bushes with soil or humus or non-acidic peat to a height of 7-9 cm, manually lifting the leaf mass. Dry sawdust is also suitable as mulch, a layer of 4-5 cm is enough here.
Already on top of the mulch layer, you can throw snow after it falls out. Under such a shelter, the plants overwinter without problems.
candidate of agricultural sciences,
Researcher, Berry Crops Department
GNU VNIIS them. I.V. Michurin,
member of the R&D Academy
Photo by Olga Rubtsova
What is a remontant strawberry and how to grow it?
Every year, strawberries are becoming more and more popular among gardeners and gardeners, which can bear fruit many times per season. However, bribed by such an interesting characteristic, farmers in pursuit of crops do not know that the cultivation and care of remontant strawberries have a number of their own characteristics.
The best varieties of remontant strawberries and description
A large number of strawberry varieties with a long fruiting cycle have been bred, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. The most popular among experienced gardeners are the following:
- "Queen Elizabeth" is a frost-resistant variety, represented by abundant flowering bushes. Fruits in the fruiting phase are colored bright red and have a dense structure.
- "Russian size" is a high-yielding large-fruited hybrid variety, which is characterized by excellent frost resistance and good immunity to diseases.
- "Aromas" is a high-yielding variety that demonstrates excellent immunity to powdery mildew and strawberry mite infections.
- "Diamant" is a productive variety bred by American breeders with juicy pulp and fruits weighing up to 50 g, characterized by the ability to form a mustache.
- "Crimean remontantnaya" is a highly productive variety, which is the result of the work of Ukrainian breeders, with a continuous period of fruiting, observed from late spring to mid-autumn. Intense red berries with juicy pulp are formed not only on bushes, but also on rosettes.
What does "remontant culture" mean? A plant that can bloom or bear fruit repeatedly throughout the season.
Growing seedlings from seeds
While it is easier to buy strawberry seedlings from specialized points of sale, experienced and motivated gardeners can grow seedlings from seeds.
- At the end of February, seedling boxes are prepared, which are filled with a substrate of peat and sand.
- The substrate is moistened and seeds are laid out on the surface, which are crushed with dry sand.
- The containers are covered with glass and installed in a warm, well-lit place.
- In the process of emergence, crops are moistened from a spray bottle and ventilated.
- When the senses develop 1 pair of true leaves, the bushes dive into individual containers, where they are hardened before planting in open ground.
Despite the countless number of publications, summer residents still buy seeds of garden strawberries (popularly called strawberries) in stalls. Bright bags and advertising make the gardener forget that growing strawberries with seeds is the lot of breeders, not summer residents.
Strawberries (garden strawberries) grown from seeds do not repeat the parental qualities and often such plants only litter the gardeners' plantations (if, of course, they can be grown).
We'll talk about breeding small-fruited remontant or alpine strawberries... Small (compared to strawberries, but fragrant) strawberries bloom and bear fruit throughout the season. This is what makes strawberries different from strawberries. Rows with these plants always delight the eye of the gardener - flowers and berries flaunt on the plant at the same time.
The variety of varieties of alpine strawberries is great, you can choose mustachioed and beardless strawberries, red and round strawberries or white-fruited elongated varieties.
It is important to know that among the varieties of small-fruited strawberries there are both mustachioed varieties and mustacheless ones. The latter will not let the strawberries creep over the entire plot.
Varieties of remontant beardless strawberries:
- Baron Solemacher
- Weiss Solemacher (white-fruited variety)
- Yellow miracle
- Alpine novelty,
- Ali Baba,
- White soul (white-fruited variety)
- Mirage S1
Varieties of remontant mustachioed strawberries:
Some gardeners sow their strawberry seeds from the finest shrubs.
Be careful not to collect strawberry seeds from hybrid plants (marked on the packaging with the letter F1), such seeds will not repeat the parental qualities.
How to grow strawberries on a windowsill?
In early February, it's time to plant garden strawberry seeds. It is not so easy to grow this berry, beloved by many Belarusians, from seeds, but it is quite possible - even on your own windowsill in an ordinary city apartment. We reveal a few secrets of how to tame this delicate and capricious berry.
Which strawberries to choose for planting?
Strawberries for home cultivation from seeds are most often chosen remontant - berries appear on it throughout the year and ripen quickly. There are different varieties of remontant garden strawberries: with pink, white or cream flowers, ampelous and bush, large-fruited and small-fruited, with yellow, cream or red berries.
However, the rules for growing ordinary strawberries are exactly the same as for remontant. The only thing: you may eat berries not in the first, but in the second year of its growth.
Garden strawberry seeds are now common in any specialty store. Before planting them, it is necessary to lay drainage on the bottom of the pot, and add the prepared soil mixture on top.
Strawberry seeds are very small, so it is customary to close them up to a depth of about 0.5 cm, and water them through cheesecloth.
After planting, the strawberries should be covered with glass or other material and left alone for 8-10 days. It is after such a time that the first shoots may appear.
Ideally, strawberry seeds should be stratified before sowing. To do this, they must be placed on a damp sponge or cotton pad, covered with another disc and placed in a cold place for several days - for example, in a refrigerator. When preparing seeds in this way for sowing, it is worth checking periodically to ensure that the base on which they are located remains moist. Typically, the seed stratification period is 2-3 weeks.
To some extent, cold stratification can be replaced by crops for snow. To do this, a layer of snow is laid on the soil in the planting container, on which strawberry seeds are sown. The snow will gradually melt, the seeds will fall to the ground.
After the strawberry seedlings "hatch", they should be placed in the brightest possible place - for example, on a windowsill on the sunny side.
Adaptation to the natural environment
In the process of growth, strawberries react very sharply to any changes in growing conditions. She can get sick and even waste away from stress. Therefore, even at the stage of its release from the film and moving to a bright place, it is worth doing everything very slowly and gradually.
The film should be opened for several days, or even weeks, gradually - for a few minutes, and later gradually increase the time spent in the new conditions.
Special lamps with which you can "highlight" the seedlings will help to help the strawberry seedlings grow on the windowsill. Strawberries are very fond of long daylight hours and sunlight, and will gratefully respond to additional artificial lighting.
There is an opinion that garden strawberries should not be picked because they do not tolerate them well. In fact, this is not very true. Strawberries are a very delicate berry, and if handled carelessly, it is very easy to "ruin" the seedlings. However, leaving it to grow in its original "pot" as a thickened planting is an even more dubious step.
To make the strawberry seedlings feel comfortable, it should be dived twice - 2 weeks after the first leaves appear, and later, 1.5 months later, again - by transplanting the grown seedlings into separate containers. Best of all - in peat pots, in which later, in May, and you can transplant them to the dacha, to a permanent place.
What and how to feed?
Strawberries can be fed, but it is best to dissolve the fertilizing in water for irrigation and thus stimulate plant growth. It is best to use a complex fertilizer for garden strawberries, when the buds are tied on the seedlings. By the way, it is worth actively feeding the plants immediately after you take off the first crop. Don't forget about it - it doesn't matter if you grow berries on the balcony or outdoors in the garden.
During the growth of strawberry seedlings, iron is very necessary for it. True, in order for the plants to receive it, it is not at all necessary to buy a special iron-containing fertilizer and drip it into the soil with a pipette. There is a much easier way: you can stick a rusty nail in a pot of strawberries. It will fully fulfill the role of iron nutrition.
Very careful. One of the main mistakes novice gardeners makes is over-watering strawberry seedlings, after which they die. It is best to water strawberry seedlings infrequently, in small portions - through cheesecloth, from a pallet or using a spray bottle.
If you grow strawberries to transplant them into open ground outside the city, then bees and other insects will perform the pollination function. If you decide to grow strawberries in a city apartment, then you will have to do the work of bees. When the plants have flowers, it is worth "stroking" them in turn with watercolor brushes, which will allow them to pollinate. If such pollination is not carried out, the berries can be disappointing - they may turn out to be deformed or not form at all.
When will the first berries appear?
It is believed that if you sow seeds for seedlings in the first half of February, then fresh berries can be enjoyed in the second half of the summer of the same year. Moreover, it doesn't matter whether you decide to transplant the grown strawberry seedlings into open ground or grow them on the balcony. Usually 6-8 months pass between the time of sowing the seeds and the appearance of the first berries.
What is indoor strawberry sick with and how to treat it?
If we adhered to all the recommended planting rules, and the houseplants in the house are not affected by pests, then the strawberries are not in danger of suffering from them. But besides pests, there are no less dangerous fungal diseases - such as powdery mildew, for example.
Why might problems arise? The air in the room during the heating period is dry and warm, and we, knowing that it is unhealthy, begin to increase the humidity. For us, this is correct, but for garden strawberries, which are not blown by the wind at home, but is under the influence of cold from window glass, high humidity can cause powdery mildew. This is a white fungal bloom on the leaves, stems, and then the berry.
For the prevention of the disease, you can use the drug Fitosporin, which is safe for humans. We spray the plants with it once a week. Of course, white traces form on the leaves, but the plant will be reliably protected.
Garden strawberries It is not difficult to grow garden strawberries on the window, the main thing is to want very much! Good luck and excellent harvests!
Waiting for the shoots of "strawberry" seeds
I moisten the substrate a little and gently scatter the prepared seeds over the surface. An important point: in no case should they be covered with earth, otherwise the sprouts will not be able to break through to the surface!
You can put a layer of snow on the prepared soil, and on it - strawberry seeds (for a more even sowing). Then I cover the containers with crops with glass or film. And I'm waiting for the shoots.
But I don't just wait, but I regularly check my mini-greenhouses: I air every day of planting, wipe off excess condensate on the glass, spray the soil from a spray bottle as needed, and prevent the earth from drying out.
For germination, seeds need a temperature of + 20 ... + 25 degrees.