Types of decorative and floral design
It is better to arrange narrow ridges with one type of plant. Floral stripes of roses, peonies, asters, host, bells, salvia, dahlia are also good. There are many combinations of different plants. The surface of the double-sided ridges is made slightly raised towards the center. The one-sided ones have an elevation on the back side.
The contours of the ridges located along the lawn are sometimes made arched or angular towards the lawn. To maintain shape, the edges of the ridges are reinforced with various fences - wood, metal, plastic or others.
All the requirements and basic provisions discussed above for flower beds also apply to flower beds.
Borders are narrow bordering plantings of low or miniature ornamental plants.
They can be single-row, double-row, or multi-row. The purpose of the border is to create an elegant edging, to emphasize the individuality of a flower garden - a lawn, a flower bed or a group of plants. It usually differs from the main tone of the flower garden in color, plant shape, strict lines, creates clear neat edges that are trimmed after one to two years. Ground cover herbaceous plants - ayugas, low-growing marigolds, subulate phloxes, primroses, dwarf hosts, etc. are an excellent material for creating a border. For these purposes, low bushes are also used, capable of creating dense, solid, stable lines. Flowers in the border should have an extended flowering or leaf retention period. Borders are widely used in all types of flower decoration. Contrasting combinations are especially good. The selection of plants depends both on the experience of the gardener and on practical possibilities.
The curb is the final touch that gives a finished look to your lawn or flower garden. It should not rise above the surface of the lawn or flower beds by more than 5 cm. On lawns, it is made of soil, stone, brick, slate, boards. Red brick curb, buried in the ground on the "corner", is quite simple and economical.
The wooden border must be carefully treated with anti-rotting agents. Near the outside of the curb on the lawn, you can plant creeping perennials. Short annuals are also suitable, as well as undersized garden crops. The decorative effect of the border largely depends on how well the place is chosen for this or that plant, whether the background suits it and what kind of neighbors it has. The grower should have at his disposal plants with the same requirements for soil conditions. Decorative leaves will make it easier to compose compositions. If the border is based on any shades and combinations, this will give it individuality and unique flavor.
Each plant should be in its place. In the background - the highest, in front of them - the lowest. Very low plants create a smooth transition to the horizontal plane of the lawn. The variety of colors makes it possible to choose them so that they bloom and decorate the border and the lawn bordering it from early spring to late autumn. Foreground plants are gently and calmly lowered onto the masonry or lawn. Perennial bells, forget-me-nots, stachis, wormwood mounds, ornamental grasses and many more create a charming mixed curb, open to view and designed to decorate the lawn. It is usually not oversaturated with plants. It is good to plant low-growing plants in the foreground of the flower border, whose leaf texture and their color (yellow, green, blue, variegated, striped) contrast brightly with the green lawn grass. Extreme plants can be planted in a continuous ribbon, but combinations of various low-growing plants are also pleasant.
Mixborder (mixed border)
This is a peculiar and very effective type of flower decoration, the creation of which requires a certain knowledge and taste. Mixborders are very popular when decorating plots. This is a flower garden mainly of perennials, supplemented, if necessary, by annuals, biennials and deciduous plants. Evergreens are especially effective in it. It is decorative from early spring to late autumn. Such plantings are also interesting in winter, when we have only dried flowers at our disposal. The mixborder is very smart and needs a uniform background. It fits well into the side of the plot in the shade of a fence, a hedge of shrubs and trees, next to a resting corner, in the center of the lawn. When choosing flowering plants for a mixborder, you should follow the same rules and tips that are given above.
In the background of the composition, tall plants are placed in arbitrary groups, which serve as the background of the general composition: delphiniums, perennial asters, solidago, aconite, lilies, lychnis, helenium, etc. Plants in neighboring groups should differ in terms of flowering time. Then the middle plan is drawn up. Ornamental perennials less than 60 cm in height are planted on it together in several copies at a certain distance: irises, hosts, astilbe, phlox, chamomile, doronicum, Gaillardia, rudbeckia, oriental poppy, aquilegia, liatris, daylilies. These plants form the basis of the exposition and act as accents. For the design of the foreground, undersized and creeping plants are used: arabis, carnations, low irises, saxifrage, aubrieta, primrose, sedum, stachis and others. Annuals are used for the same purpose: alissum, lobelia, godetia, begonia, pelargonium, etc. Particularly interesting are the joint plantings of spring-flowering bulbs, without which decorative gardening is impossible: white flower, hyacinth, iridodictium, kandyk, crocuses, muscari, scillas, galanthus, pushkinia, hazel grouses, tulips, chionodoxa, corydalis, endymions and others. They exist splendidly and create attractive compositions in the right season.
Most bulbous are ephemeroids. Therefore, they do not compete with perennials for airspace.
The effectiveness of mixborders is created by combining plants with contrasting colors of flowers and leaves. For example, red poppy and blue irises, yellow geleniums and purple asters, purple astilbe and gray-green hosts. There are many options. The expressiveness and decorativeness of mixborders is achieved by the inclusion in the combination of plants with gray, gray, bluish and dark leaves. The harmonious combination of colors is appropriate in small flower beds.
When choosing plants for a mixborder, it must be remembered that it is best to place plant species nearby that differ in the texture of the leaves. For example, iris and poppy, astilba and hostu, basilis and daylilies, swimsuit and lilies, gypsophila and rose, iris with xiphoid leaves and openwork dicentra.
Groups - a commonly used type of planting of perennial flower crops
During flowering, they create colorful spots. The size of the group, the height and number of plants planted in it depends on the size of the lawn, the presence and location of shrubs and trees. To extend the flowering period and increase decorativeness, annuals and biennials are sometimes planted in groups. Groups of perennials planted in personal plots look especially good against the background of a green hedge of shrubs, often forming a single whole with them. The distance between plants in a group depends on their type and size, growth rate and ability to grow. Close planting tends to oppress each other and reduce the ability to bloom.
Tall plants with large leaves are planted in 1-3 specimens per 1 m2 (peony, delphinium); medium-sized plants - 5-10 specimens each (phlox, perennial lupine, perennial aster, daylilies, aquilegia); low plants - 20-25 specimens, and dwarf and bulbous - up to 50 specimens per 1 m2 (primrose, turf phlox, iberis, tulip, daffodil). This allows them to develop better and create a great decorative effect. Simple groups are usually created from one species or variety of plants, from two or three or more species, blooming at the same time or at different times. Any plants are suitable for simple groups. Groups of tall plants are planted at a distance from the paths, they are clearly visible. Low plants or those with particularly beautiful flowers should preferably be planted closer to the path so that they are visible. Complex groups can consist of plants of the same species, but of different varieties (tulip, phlox, peony, iris) or from different species (lupine, rudbeckia, forget-me-not, peony, iris, tulip, paniculata phlox, perennial aster, etc.).
Interesting groups for the selection of plants and their colors:
- spring: pink tulips with dark blue forget-me-nots, border - white daisies; red tulips, border - blue crocuses or white daffodils;
- summer: blue delphinium mixed with white bells, border - pink lychnis;
- autumn: montbrecia, border - coleus; canna with red and yellow flowers, border - silvery wormwood.
Groups of perennials differing in shape and color are good: irises bordered by primrose, red heucheras with snow-white bells, blue delphiniums with red phlox, yellow rudbeckia with purple asters. Beautiful single color groups are obtained from cannes. It is allowed to use several varieties of plants with separate spots of different colors. Planting light-flowering perennials in front of light-leaved tree groups and dark-flowering perennials in front of dark-leafed tree species enhances the characteristics of the group as a whole. In the group, both harmonious and contrasting in color combination of plants with simultaneous and non-simultaneous flowering is possible. Mixed groups are formed from two species of plants planted alternately and flowering at different times. In such plantings, there are groups that bloom in early spring, while shrubs and tall perennials do not yet have leaves.
Tamara Barkhatova, florist
With your own hands - How to do it yourself
How exciting it is to walk along Moscow streets and courtyards! There are so many floral decorations ... We have already met you with a rustic-style garden, an aristocratic garden, with the work of professionals and even with a container garden. Today I will introduce you to an unusual phenomenon (I cannot find another word), which I have been observing for several years.
Imagine that the entire range of a large nursery flaunts on the street in one of the sleeping areas of Moscow: all conceivable species and varieties of conifers, deciduous trees and ornamental shrubs.
All of this is planted as an adult and is therefore worth a huge fortune (sorry for the pun). Who did it? Maybe this is an advertising campaign from suppliers of large-sized plants?
I walked through the neighboring houses - I did not find any office of the firm. I ask employees of nearby shops and employees of organizations - no one knows anything. And the incomprehensible always gives rise to either gossip or speculation.
There was no one to gossip on this topic with: none of the passers-by was disturbed by this phenomenon, people went about their business, at best casting a casual glance at this splendor. Various versions began to swarm in my head - probably the nursery went bankrupt and planted unsold plants under the owner's windows.
All of these plants could be sold "cheaply" to more successful entrepreneurs. No, probably someone decided to deprive their unlucky grandchildren of the inheritance and instead of an apartment for idiots bought this splendor to please strangers.
You can still come up with a bunch of versions, the truth has not been revealed to me - and the garden of large-sized people beckons with its mysterious origin.
At first, it was interesting for me to observe how the plants increase in volume, grow stronger, fill with juices (some conifers, however, lose their decorative effect from sunburn and diseases). Everything was planted in a row, and from the point of view of a compositional solution, it is not at all attractive for me (PHOTO 2). Only now the gravel dump was again amazing in its volumes. I know how much it costs!
But! The day came when I was pleasantly surprised: a dull gravel garden turned into an attractive composition in a natural style. What happened?
Color, color came - and revived the monotony of the green mass. Hosts of different varieties are planted between the conifers. Especially good with lilac flowers. She is echoed by the lilac catnip and the 'Mainacht' blue sage.
The lilac-blue splendor contrasts with the red leaves of the ‘Atropurpurea’ and ‘Lutin Rouge’ and the yellow spirea ‘Golden Princess’ (PHOTO on the splash screen). Catnip shoots scattering on the sides bring lightness to the composition, creating the illusion of a natural meadow, and the blue color of sage visually increases the distance between the plants in the flower garden (PHOTO 3).
These two unpretentious herbaceous perennials are good against the background of the green mountain pine ‘Mops’, and the blue spruce ‘Blue Diamond’, and the variegated white turf ‘Elegantissima’ (PHOTO 7). The ‘Schneehugel’ white sage visually separates the catnip from the ‘Mainacht’ blue sage, emphasizing the individuality of each.
Tiny yellow-leaved spireas ‘Golden Princess’ in picturesque flocks perched at the feet of larger trees and shrubs - mountain pine, thuja, ‘Blue Diamond’ spruce, silver elk, barberry ’Atropurpurea’ (PHOTO 4). The yellow color of their foliage enlivens the greenery of pine and thuja and successfully contrasts with both the blue color of the spruce and the red color of the barberry.
By carefully studying these groups of trees and shrubs, you will surely find something useful for creating your own compositions. Pay attention to the variety of shapes of trees and shrubs (PHOTO 6), color nuances (PHOTO 5) and contrasts, and you will probably want to change something, add a new interesting note to your favorite garden.
Designing flower beds and flower beds
After the boundaries of the zones and the location of the paths are marked on the site plan, you can start planning the flower beds and flower beds. Most often, they are positioned taking into account functional needs, for example, to take up free space near the fence, decorate a recreation area, and disguise an unsightly barn wall. The most beautiful flower beds are positioned taking into account the possibility of viewing from different points of the garden or from the windows of the house.
This approach, embedding flower beds in the overall planning solution, allows you to make the most of the possibilities and area of the site. Borders and ridges are broken along the edges of the paths, the monotonous green of the lawns is diluted with an intricate arabesque, the most remote and boring corners of the site are turned into mini-gardens with the help of colorful mixborders.
In general, large flower beds and flower beds are drawn to scale, small ones are highlighted with a color spot. Plants above one and a half meters stand out as a separate sign.
Landscape designers are advised to additionally make sketches for each individual flower garden or flower bed, at least on a free scale. And it is better not to be lazy and make a real sketch with certain boundaries on a scale of 1:50 or 1:25, and draw the area of the flower bed in the form of a grid with a step of 1 cm.
Further, having carefully studied the seasonality and duration of flowering, the height of plants, their compatibility with each other, as if a mosaic can be "assembled" on a leaf, a future flower bed.
Conventionally, all plants during planning can be divided into three types:
- Accent plants are the main, focusing, accentuating, setting the general mood and color mode. They should be distinguished by their unusual shape, leaf color or large, bright flowers.
- Skeletal plants create a background without focusing on themselves. Their presence on the flower bed allows you to make it a single whole.
- Filler Plants perform a decorative role. Very often they are planted only to create a so-called "seasonal outbreak" during their flowering period.
When planning flower beds, the following must be taken into account:
- Lighting features.
- The degree of soil moisture.
- Soil characteristics (acidity, structural composition, thickness of the fertile layer).
Color planning is very important, as a haphazardly variegated flower bed tires the eyes, creates a feeling of anxiety and tastelessness.
The color scheme depends not only on the preferences of the owner, it must be linked to the general style of the site, taking into account the compatibility of colors, and skillfully make contrasts.
The background color of the flower bed is almost always green. In the plant world, this color has such a rich color palette, from greenish-blue to pale emerald, that it is worth making the most of the possibilities of this color when choosing skeletal plants.
The basic colors of any flower bed are green, red, blue, yellow, white, silver. On their basis, contrasts are created on the flower bed, or, conversely, harmonious combinations.
For many, the planning stage seems boring and unnecessary. However, a truly interesting flower bed can only be made by observing the color proportions. This is what will allow you to make a plan carefully drawn up on paper, or at least a sketch.
When arranging flower beds, you should try to use plants that have different flowering periods - annuals, perennials, bulbs. "Carpet" flower beds have become very popular, where plants with beautiful decorative leaves of various colors are planted.
The main types of flower beds: rabatki
Regular view of the Rabatka flower garden: photo
Rabatki - not wide (no wider than 2 m) arcuate or rectangular stripes. Refers to the regular style. They serve as decorations for the walking area. Placed parallel to paths, decorative fences, buildings.
Rabatki can be two-sided or one-sided, based on their location. Plants in double-sided beds are usually planted in such a way that the tallest crops are on the central axis of the flower garden. And closer to the edges, the landing height decreased. In one-sided ridges, the height of the plants increases from the foreground to the rear. At the same time, the choice of types for decorating a rabat is not limited.
Flower garden - many options
Shades and tones, color, rhythm, composition - all these terms from the artist's lexicon are applicable in the work of a florist. And everyone who has had to arrange an ordinary flower bed in their garden knows how difficult it is to work with living colors.
The requirements of plants (life span, size, flowering time, needs for moisture and light, the ability to get along with neighbors, and much more) have to be combined with aesthetic tasks. To repeat a diagram or a picture from a magazine, where everything is so harmoniously and beautifully arranged, turns out to be very difficult in practice.
Often this happens due to the discrepancy between the style of the house and the site, the chosen style of the flower garden or specific natural conditions, which dictate something completely different. Talent, taste, practical experience will certainly help to correct mistakes, but it is difficult to do without special knowledge.
Many types of modern flower beds have appeared a very long time ago. The traditional ridges on our plots are nothing more than rectangular beds, on which spicy-aromatic and medicinal plants were grown in monasteries, even during the Middle Ages. And the popular patio today, the so-called inner courtyard, emerged as an element of gardening art in the Spanish-Moorish gardens. In the 17th century, in the era of the regular style, such a concept as parterre appeared. Now we, highlighting the various zones of our garden, assume the presence of a parterre part.
The call of the French philosopher Rousseau to return back to nature made landscape flower beds popular - free outlines, with the inclusion of natural materials: stone, water, ornamental shrubs. At the same time, mixborders (ridges of irregular shape), rockeries (rocky hills), flower beds around water bodies appeared. For two centuries they dominated the gardens and parks. And in the 20th technocratic century, natural gardens began to gain more and more popularity - naturgarden, where a person tries to reduce his intervention to a minimum, leaving everything in the hands of self-regulating nature.
All these types of flower arrangements are subdivided into regular and landscape ones.
Regular-style flower beds are borders, ridges, flower beds, parterres and modular flower beds. That is, everything that is characterized by clear lines, geometric (rather complex) patterns, the use of inert materials such as marble chips, and the inclusion of small architectural forms in the form of vases and sculptures.
Landscape compositions include mixborders, groups, rockeries. These types of flower beds have smooth outlines, plants are placed in them in free-growing groups. Here, inert materials are also used, but already close to natural ones - stone, driftwood and others.
A special place in the garden is occupied by tapeworms (single plants) and plants in pots (in containers), which are used in both regular and landscape types of flower decoration.
The flower garden has certain components:
The parts of the flower garden should be very harmonious. In solving this issue, the use of the rule of the "golden" ratio, the classic ratio, namely: 3: 5: 8, helps. Example: 400m² is allocated for a flower garden. According to the rule of the "golden" ratio (3: 5: 8), the total is 16 parts: 400 m²: 16 = 25 m², which is 1 part. Multiplying 25 m² by the number of the "golden" proportion, we get: 25 x 3 = 75 m² - this area is allocated for flower plantations, flower beds, rabatki, borders, groups, single plantings) 25 x 5 = 125 m² - this area is used for paths: 25 x 8 = 200m² - taken under the lawn. This ratio can vary depending on the conditions of the tasks of landscaping.
In recent years, more space has been allocated for lawns and somewhat less for flowers. When designing, first of all, the dimensions and configuration of the site are applied to the plan. To do this, in nature, they take pictures using goniometric instruments and a measuring tape. Then they fix all the communication lines available on the site. On the plan, it is necessary to mark all objects to which the landscaped area adjoins, as well as all points that determine the direction of roads and paths on the future object, where certain flower arrangements and planting of various plants are planned.
In practice, the following method of mastering a landscaped object is used. The land allotted for landscaping is prepared, planned, fertilized, plowed, harrowed, and perennials are sown with cereal grasses. After good regrowth and mowing of grasses, they are allowed to walk on it. The well-trodden paths, paths and further serve as the basis for a project with a network of roads, paths and sites. When creating intra-quarter landscaping and gardens for children, the placement of places of quiet rest, sandpits, swings, ladders, etc. is taken into account.
At the administrative buildings, there are areas for parking cars, installing notice boards, etc. The opening of the sunny places is allocated for the flower beds. On the northern and western borders of the site, protective belts of trees and bushes are being designed. It is advisable to outline the same lanes from the side of the street, the carriageway - to protect against dust and excessive noise. If the designed object is used in winter, then for planting, in addition to deciduous, and coniferous plants can be used with great success. After that, they start planning other design elements - flower plantings, small architectural forms, etc. They develop a specification (select an assortment, calculate the number of plants used at the facility, their change, the required number of seeds, etc.). After drawing the boundaries of the site, roads, places for flower beds, etc. make up a draft design of a flower garden taking into account the planting of trees, bushes, plants. Most often it is performed on a scale of 1:10.
Beautiful design of flower beds and flower beds
The creation of flower beds completes the design of the local area or suburban area. Often they are located where free space is formed after arranging paths, planting trees and shrubs.
You can create spring-summer, summer-autumn or continuous flowering flower beds. They can be different in design and design, and this does not always require expensive materials, and the work is within the power of novice craftsmen. Contents Which flowerbeds and flower beds are suitable for garden plots For a flower garden, it is advisable to allocate a well-lit place, which is freely exposed to the sun's rays in the summer for 12 hours. If this is not the case, then you need to choose plants for the flower garden so that they develop well under the existing conditions. Usually, there is little space left for flower beds in summer cottages, therefore, such species are used that do not require a lot of territory. Regular flower beds and free-plan flower beds All flower beds are divided into two groups - free (landscape) planning and regular. The latter are landscaping, in which flowers are planted in the form of a regular shape or a certain pattern. These include: curbs - created from one type of low-growing plants, for example, ageratum, marigolds or ever-flowering begonias, which are planted along the flower beds of another species, border them
parterres - plants are arranged in a pattern, the composition uses bright and lush types of flowers and landscape sculptures or fountains
modular flower beds - are created from regular elements in the form of a square, a circle, a rectangle, the space between which is filled with rubble, and flowers of the bed are planted inside - perennial or annual plants, planted in the form of strips, which are located in different parts of the summer cottage, for example, around a gazebo or along the fence or paths
Rabatka with arabesque marigolds - plants planted in the form of a complex ornament of geometric shapes
flower beds - the most common and varied free design of a flower garden - panels, carpet, vertical, multi-tiered, raised, in the form of a rectangle or oval and other options.
All of them can be installed in summer cottages, except for the parterre, which requires a lot of free space. Landscape flower gardens are convenient for summer cottages, as they have a free layout and blurred boundaries between different varieties of plants, they can be of different sizes, so they fit well in any area.
The most interesting options are mixborders, which have an elongated shape and consist of perennial and annual flowers with different periods and flowering periods.
Also, in summer cottages, you can plant groups of plants and combine them, making beautiful compositions. Beds of continuous flowering
For some types of flower beds, for example, a mixborder, the continuity of flowering is one of the main conditions for choosing plants.
But for other flower beds, such a set of plants is interesting, as it ensures continuous flowering. To do this, you can plant plants that will bloom in turn in this order: crocuses and snowdrops
Crocuses on an alpine hill Proleska, hyacinth, daffodils, tulips, anemones
Flowerbed with crocuses and hyacinths tenacious, subulate phlox
Discount from phlox annuals marigolds, balsam, salvia.
Marigolds and salvia in a flower garden You can complement the composition with coniferous bushes, if space permits.
When drawing up a flower bed, you need to follow a number of rules: select plants that bloom one after another and those that, after flowering, look decorative, for example, have beautiful variegated leaves; use plants with approximately the same requirements for moisture and soil composition, and plant varieties of illumination of the area compatible in height or so that they do not obstruct each other
plant plants of the same type in groups; use at least 7-8 types of flowers in one flower bed.
It is advisable to use both perennials and annuals in the same flower bed. The spring group is formed from bulbous (crocuses, blueberries, daffodils) and tuberous (anemones, daisies) species. In the summer group, you can include tall species (mallow, gladioli), and in the autumn - varieties with decorative foliage. Flower bed design with edible greenery and flowers
Even on a small area, you can place a flower garden and healthy vegetables and herbs. A good way to do this is to create a flower bed with edible herbs. The following plants are suitable for her: ornamental cabbage - has bright corrugated leaves and grows until late autumn, but requires a lot of space
chives - in early spring already has a beautiful feather, is planted in the background
aflatun onion - juicy and with a taste of garlic, has fleshy leaves in spring and beautiful flower stalks on a long stem in summer and autumn, planted in a continuous row
slime-onion - blooms only in July and therefore retains green leaves for a long time
rhubarb - has beautiful large foliage and forms into a powerful bush that combines well with plants that require support, such as gladioli or irises
artichoke - grows up to 2 m and is often used as a central plant in multi-tiered flower beds, blooms beautifully purple, foliage is used in salads
salads of different types - grow quickly and look beautiful until mid-summer before arrows are shot, often used to form green borders
table beet - has beautiful foliage, is planted in the middle of the flower bed.
Herbs are also used. Curly parsley, needle-like leaves with blue rosemary flowers, blue sage inflorescences, purple hyssop panicles, golden marjoram and purple basil can form the basis of a healthy and fragrant flower bed.
The scheme of a flower bed with herbs Choosing and combining plants One of the main parameters for choosing plants for a flower garden is their height. It is impossible for high varieties to overlap the rest, so they are usually planted in the center of the flower bed or in the background.
The scheme of a flower bed of perennials It is better to start the choice with those varieties that will form the basis of the composition, will be its accent. These are not only tall species, but also all large and bright flowers. Then the background plants are chosen, which complement the main ones, and also fill in the empty spaces and shape the flower garden.
It is advisable to take into account the design of the surrounding area when choosing a style for decorating a flower garden. By color, you can use both monochromatic compositions and contrasting ones. Their combinations also look beautiful.
For example, blue flowers are often lost against the background of dark foliage. But they can be distinguished and made bright by placing plants with yellow flowers nearby.
Delphiniums in the center of the flower bed Some species are not compatible with each other, therefore it is not recommended to plant them in the same flower bed. The following combinations are bad: peonies with any shrubs, for example, carnation and dahlia roses and any cultivated plants - these flowers are used for monoclumba.
And buttercup plants (anemone, delphinium, buttercup) need a lot of moisture, so any types of moisture-loving flowers grow poorly next to them. How to keep flower beds in the heat
Usually, flower beds are filled with plants that need the same irrigation regime. Therefore, they endure the heat in the same way. To maximize the vitality of flowers on such days, it is better to water them abundantly, but rarely, for example, once a week. Drip irrigation is also effective.