Intoxicating aroma of coffee ...
A true connoisseur of good coffee will never brew it from purchased ground powder. The coffee should only be ground with a hand grinder just prior to preparation. And many are sure that it is also better to roast coffee beans on your own. And very enthusiastic coffee lovers can brew coffee even from the beans of their own harvest.
Moreover, growing a coffee tree on your windowsill is not at all difficult. Indeed, one plant can collect about half a kilogram of coffee beans. Not much, of course, but what a pleasure it is - your own coffee!
There are more than 50 types of coffee genus, and only half of them provide grains for your favorite drink. And for our window sills, only one type is suitable - arabian coffee... In greenhouses, this plant grows quite tall, and rarely reaches a height of 1.5 m in rooms. It blooms twice - in spring and summer. Ripe berries resemble small cherries, their flesh is sweet and edible. And inside these sweet cherries are two pale green fruits.
Caring for the coffee tree
The coffee tree needs a lot of light, its place is on the southern windowsill. In low light, the tree grows poorly and does not bear fruit. In the summer, the coffee plant can be taken out into the fresh air, but not in direct sunlight. The tree should overwinter only on the southern window at a temperature of 18 ... 21 ° C. The coffee tree is a capricious plant, does not like to change location. By turning the plant regularly, you will get a well-leafed crown, but you will not wait for the harvest.
Watering should be regular and abundant in summer. The water should be soft, settled, without lime, warm (a few degrees above room temperature). It is necessary to maintain a weak acidity of the soil. To do this, once a month add 2-3 drops of acetic acid or several crystals of citric acid to the settled water. Regular spraying will not harm it either. Once a week (with the exception of the flowering period) the tree can be given a warm shower. In spring and summer, they are fed regularly, once every 7-10 days, alternating an aqueous infusion of mullein (1:10) with a full complex of mineral fertilizers. In the spring, you can increase the dose of nitrogen fertilizers, during the ripening of the fruits - phosphorus, in the fall - potassium. Horn shavings or bone meal (200 g per 10 kg of soil) are an ideal source of highly absorbable phosphorus.
The coffee tree is transplanted once every two years in the spring. In diameter and height, the pot should be 2-3 cm larger than the previous one (the coffee tree has a large root system). The soil should be clayey, rich in organic matter and phosphorus, certainly slightly acidic, air and moisture permeable.
The coffee tree propagates by seeds and cuttings. The first way is easier. A tree obtained from seeds does not require special crown formation, but begins to bear fruit only in the third year. Coffee berries appear as a result of self-pollination. They are removed for seeds fully ripe. The grains are cleaned, washed, soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for half an hour. Seeds for planting should only be fresh. The flat side is laid on the surface of the soil (it should be a loose, permeable substrate). It is not necessary to deepen the seeds. Pour with warm water, cover with foil or glass. Several times a week, the shelter is removed for a couple of hours to ventilate the soil. Seedlings appear in a month and a half. When several pairs of true leaves have formed, the seedlings are planted.
The age of the coffee tree is short-lived. After 8-10 years, the plant loses its decorative effect, the branches become bare. You can try to rejuvenate the tree by cutting the crown 10 cm from the ground and forming a new one from young shoots.
Be sure to try your own coffee. Select grains from ripe berries and soak them in water for 12 hours (this will clear them of mucus), then dry the grains for 7-10 days. After that, keep them in the oven for 2-3 hours at a temperature of 70-80 ° C. Without these procedures, coffee beans will not acquire the desired taste. Fry the seeds cooled after drying in a pan, stirring constantly, until light brown. Chill again and fry again until dark brown. Only after these procedures can the coffee be ground and a drink can be prepared. By the way, homemade coffee contains much more caffeine than the one sold in stores.
For those wishing to grow their coffee on the windowsill, I can offer Arabian coffee seeds. I am waiting for an answer in a large format envelope with a return address and stamps of 30 rubles. Write: Brizhan Valery Ivanovich, st. Kommunarov, 6, stanitsa Chelbasskaya, Kanevsky District, Krasnodar Territory, 353715.
Valery Brizhan, experienced gardener
Photo by Olga Rubtsova
What about tomatoes?
Tomatoes and cucumbers are very light-loving plants. Therefore, leave the idea of getting their fruits in winter without specially equipped supplementary lighting! But starting from the end of February, you can already sow seeds of specially selected compact and unpretentious varieties (tomatoes - Little Red Riding Hood, Baby, Balconnoe Miracle, cucumbers - City Cucumber and others).
The only exception may be the bushes (or rooted cuttings) of tomatoes saved from the fall. But in this case, we are talking not so much about fruiting as about temporary overexposure of plants.
Growing a coffee tree from a cutting
If you find where to buy a stalk of a coffee tree, then it is better to use this planting method. A tree planted in this way will grow faster, and, therefore, yield faster. The second advantage of this planting method is that the tree will grow in width, not in height, as when planting a seed. Planting a stem of a coffee tree is very simple, there are no differences from other cuttings.
Coffee on the windowsill
Coffee is a very famous and adored by many people drink, which is made from ground coffee beans. Benefits are brought not only by coffee beans, but also by leaves. Infusions of raw coffee leaves are used for headaches, gout, arthritis, fever and whooping cough. An evergreen coffee tree produces healthy beans. Ethiopia is home to coffee and the coffee tree. Currently, coffee is grown in many countries around the world. Windowsill coffee can also be grown in countries with cool climates.
The coffee tree grows and bears fruit for about 60-70 years, and the first fruits will appear in 2-3 years of the tree's life. Coffee happiness growing in a pot on a windowsill will yield about 0.5 kg of fruit, and coffee beans can be ground and made into your favorite drink! A cup of coffee will energize you.
Description of the coffee tree. This is an evergreen low tree up to 5 meters tall, or a large bush. The coffee tree belongs to the genus of evergreens of the tribe Coffee from the madder family. There are about 100 types of coffee tree. The bark of the coffee tree is thin, gray or gray-brown in color. Hanging branches are placed horizontally on the tree trunk in tiers. The leaves of coffee are large, leathery, dark green, shiny, slightly wavy along the edge. Coffee flowers are small, have a pleasant smell, white or cream in color, usually sit in inflorescences in several pieces. After the end of flowering, green coffee fruits appear in place of the flowers, and then, as the coffee berries ripen, they acquire a yellow and then red color.
|In the photo, coffee beans|
How to grow coffee? You can grow a coffee tree from grains, using seedlings or cuttings. Growing a coffee tree from a coffee bean is more difficult, it is much easier to grow coffee from seedlings, so when growing coffee, seedlings are preferred. At home, the coffee tree is propagated by cuttings. Of greatest interest are mainly 2 types of coffee trees - Arabian and Congolese, from the seeds, respectively, Arabica and Robusta coffee varieties are obtained.
Seed coffee. It takes longer to grow from coffee seeds and this requires ripe coffee seeds. In addition, coffee beans lose their germination ability very quickly. Seeds are planted in a common container. Having reached a height of about 10 cm, the coffee is transplanted into separate small pots.
Saplings of coffee. When buying coffee seedlings, you need to carefully examine the coffee tree. The tree or bush should look healthy and well-groomed. It is best to deliver the potted coffee tree home in a box so as not to damage the plant. In winter or in the cold season, it is advisable to wrap the box with warm material so as not to injure the plant with low temperatures. Coffee is a southern and thermophilic plant, it loves the sun and warmth, it does not like the cold.
Propagation by cuttings. At home, the coffee tree is propagated using cuttings. For rooting, the apical branches of the tree are used, on which there are 2 pairs of opposite leaves. An oblique cut is made on the handle with a sharp knife. The cut should be 2-3 cm below the first pair of cutting leaves. Planting the cuttings must be carried out in a substrate consisting of 2 parts of river sand and 1 part of leafy soil. Before planting, the cut on the cutting should be powdered with wood ash to avoid rotting at the cut. The prepared and processed coffee stalk should be placed in the substrate until the first pair of leaves and covered with a glass jar. After 30-40 days, the first small roots form on the handle and the coffee tree will begin to grow. If a small pot was used, then the rooted stem of the coffee tree should be transplanted into a pot with a diameter of 9-12 cm.
|In the photo a cup of coffee|
Caring for the coffee tree. Young trees for the first 3 years of life need to be transplanted annually into larger pots. Further, matured trees are transplanted 1 time in 2-3 years into a larger pot. When transplanting adult coffee trees, the size of the pot should be increased by 5-6 cm. Having reached the maximum size of the pots, the coffee trees are not transplanted further, but they are fed and the soil is changed from time to time. The soil should be airy and light.
A small exotic coffee tree loves light and sun, will grow well on windows facing south or southeast, but can grow in less favorable conditions. The sun in summer will not have a negative impact on the plant and its development. In autumn and winter, from about the beginning of November to the beginning of March, as well as on cloudy days, additional lighting with a fluorescent lamp will not be superfluous for coffee. For young trees the first 2 years of life, bright light is not needed at all. For such plants, you can create a screen from transparent paper or fabric. For a mature coffee tree, the glare can be removed after the fruit has grown a little.
The optimum air temperature at which coffee will grow well on the windowsill is 14 to 22 ° C in winter and 22 to 25 ° C in summer. As spring approaches, it will be beneficial to gradually increase the temperature and light levels so that the coffee can come out of its hibernation more easily. In the room where the coffee tree grows, you need constantly fresh air, but it is worth remembering that you cannot make drafts, their coffee does not like very much.
Watering and feeding coffee. You should carefully monitor the soil, do not allow drying out and the formation of a swamp in the pot. When pouring coffee, it is best to use soft water at room temperature. Sun-heated rainwater is a good option if available.
In order for a coffee tree to bloom and bear fruit, it must be fed every 10 days, giving 5 g of nitrogen, 7 g of phosphorus, 1 g of potassium and 7 g of trace elements per 1 liter of water.
Chicken manure diluted in water and aged until completely fermented can be used as nitrogen fertilizer. The solution will be ready for use after no more gas bubbles and no strong odor. The solution obtained in this way is diluted with water by adding 3 of the same volumes of water.
A superphosphate solution is used as a phosphorus supplement. Pour the granules into the settled water and stir; to facilitate the dissolution of the granules, the water can be heated to 50 ° C.
Ash extract is used as a potassium supplement. To prepare an ash extract, take straw ash and stir it in slightly warm water, let it stand for a day, after which the solution is ready and can be used as a top dressing.
Soil for coffee. The soil for the coffee tree needs light, airy and permeable. The substrate consists of 3 parts of leafy soil, 2 parts of greenhouse land, 1 part of high-moor peat and 1 part of washed river sand. The pot must have good drainage. To prevent the soil in the pot from souring, you can put several small pieces of charcoal in the substrate. Pieces of coal about 1 cm in size are sufficient.
Pot for coffee. The root system of the coffee tree goes to the bottom, so it is best to use tall pots for growing. A pot of this shape will feel good.
Pests and diseases of coffee. Like all other plants, the coffee tree suffers from diseases and pests. The main pests of the coffee tree are mealybugs, spider mites and scale insects.
In the fight against spider mites and decoctions made from onions, garlic, yarrow, or alder. Chemicals such as karbofos, neoron, fitoverm and others will also help.
A mealybug that has appeared on a coffee tree can be removed with a brush dipped in alcohol or vodka. Will help get rid of mealybug and systemic insecticide.
If damage is found on the plant left by the scabbard, then a systemic drug is necessary.
The leaves of the coffee tree can fall off and rot. This happens when there is a lack of lighting and air humidity, as well as with excessive watering.
The tips of coffee leaves may curl slightly and develop brown spots if the plant is watered with hard water.
The leaves on the coffee tree turn yellow and develop brown spots when sunburned.
Caring for a coffee tree is simple, and if you create suitable conditions for it, then the coffee on the windowsill will grow well and delight with its fruits. Coffee beans and leaves have many beneficial properties and there are always uses for them. It all starts with a small coffee bean and ends with a delicious cup of coffee! Coffee happiness is endless!
Types of coffee trees
Arabian coffee tree
The species is very popular with flower growers and is a compact tree. Elongated ellipsoidal leaf plates have a dark olive bare front surface, and the back is painted in a paler shade. Small, collected in a bunch, inflorescences reach about 20 mm in diameter. It has been observed that the size of the inflorescence depends on the growing conditions. After the flower blooms, it begins to fade after just a few hours. However, the opening of the buds does not occur simultaneously, but gradually. When flowering is over, fruits are formed that have the shape of berries, after ripening they acquire a burgundy hue. When the flower is pollinated, it takes a full 8 months before the fruit ripens. Paired fruits are similar in appearance to round beans. The height of such a plant is about 5 m.
Nana dwarf coffee tree
The height of this compact tree is about 0.85 m. In indoor conditions, it blooms very luxuriantly and gives a good harvest. To give it the necessary shape, experienced growers resort to regular pinching of the tops of the stems and pruning.
Liberian coffee tree
This species grows just as well in indoor conditions. After ripening, its fruits acquire a sunny orange or scarlet hue. In length, the leaf plates reach about 0.4 m. The height of the tree can be adjusted by scraps, and with the help of them the crown is given the necessary shape.The inflorescences consist of light-colored flowers, in place of which large berry-like fruits are then formed.
A coffee tree. Growing at home
Still, we have a good climate, thanks to which it is possible grow an overseas plant at home, on a balcony or a summer residence... It will surely take root under caring hands, despite the fact that it is used to completely different conditions.
A coffee tree has also adapted to our conditions, and now many have an original opportunity to start the day with coffee made from grains plucked without leaving home.
It all starts with a little seed
To grow a coffee tree at home, it is better to purchase varieties such as "Dwarf Nana" or "Arabian"... A tree can grow from seeds, but in this case they must be necessarily fresh and not undergone any preliminary treatment. After lying for more than 100 days, they will no longer be able to have good germination.
But a very fresh and ripe seed is what is needed for planting success. They bury it in the ground so that the depth does not exceed 1 cm. The soil requires such a land that could pass air and water. The following composition is ideal: land 3 parts of the sheet and 2 - taken from the greenhouse, one part - river sand, but thoroughly washed, and peat. Very little charcoal should be added to this so that the soil does not sour. Drainage is required. When choosing a pot, remember that it must be high, because the root system will go down.
Watering should be done only with settled soft water. In the summer season it is abundant, and when it is cold - only once every 7 days.
If everything is done correctly, then several months will pass, and two sprouts should appear, because the coffee berry actually contains two grains that are tightly pressed against each other. When there is active growth, the plant needs to be sprayed periodically. This will give positive results: the buds develop more actively, and the tree itself grows better. But during the flowering period, this procedure should be stopped so that the flowers do not fade.
To create comfort for the tree
Many believe that the most comfortable conditions for the coffee tree - this is the hottest side. But if you find yourself in the tropics near this plant, you can see that it grows, even in hot climates, but surrounded by taller trees, and they create a constant comfortable shade. Therefore, the tree should be placed in a bright place, but without bright sunlight, away from drafts, but with plenty of fresh air.
The temperature for the tree is suitable in the summer - up to 25 degrees Celsiusand in cold season - about 15 degrees... When it's freezing outside, the roots of the plant need to be kept warm, but the tree reacts very painfully when it is rearranged from place to place.
The pot with the plant should be on a surface that does not conduct cold, therefore a wooden one is considered the most optimal.
This tree will require transplanting over time, this happens once every two years - in the spring. Fertilizers will also be required. Every 30 days, use those solutions that are suitable for the rose family. This tree likes mullein - it is sprinkled with soil.
The crown does not need to try to shape. A year later, side branches will begin to appear, and if the shoots are too long, they can be pruned. But still, there will be more ovaries on a long branch. The flowers hide in the axils of the leaves, similar to green tendrils. The buds ripen for a month, and the flowers themselves last only a few days. Fruit ripening time is from 6 to 8 months. They are somewhat reminiscent of cherries.
The long-awaited fruits should appear in the third year... If all the conditions for good care are met, then the yield from one adult tree will be 1 kg per year. The highest yield occurs at this age: from 6 to 30 years old.
How to grow a dwarf pomegranate at home
Despite the fact that this tree can easily decorate absolutely any interior with itself, few people dare to go on growing pomegranates at home. However, it is a beautiful tree with a long flowering period from April to September. Its flowers can be red, white, yellow or pink - it depends on the variety.
For growing a pomegranate at home, only those seeds that can be collected from its flower are suitable. Unfortunately, pomegranate seeds are not suitable for this purpose. Therefore, in this case, the planting material will have to be bought.
The purchased seeds are pre-soaked for 24 hours in Kornevin's solution or another growth stimulant. Then they are planted in loose soil to a depth of 0.5 cm, watered and covered with glass. The sprouts should appear in less than a month. After the seeds have germinated, they need to be transplanted into small containers that have drainage.
The best soil for dwarf pomegranates is to use soil for roses or begonias.
A grenade needs a lot of light. If there is not enough light, the tree will shed its leaves in protest. Comfortable temperature for a pomegranate is 25 ° C. In order to provide the plant with a winter dormant period, it is kept at a temperature of 10 ° C for a month. Water the pomegranate once a week. As a rule, you should water when you notice that the topsoil is crumbling under your toes. Only warm water is used to spray the pomegranate.
For good growth and flowering, pomegranates are fed from autumn to spring. To do this, use a mullein solution (first, an infusion is prepared in a proportion of 1 kg per 10 liters of water, which is kept for 5-7 days, and then diluted with water 1: 3 and used for irrigation). Chicken manure infusion is very useful for indoor pomegranate. It is prepared like this: the droppings are poured with water in a ratio of 1: 2, the container is tightly closed and left in a warm place for fermentation. After 2-3 weeks, open and dilute with infusion with water 1:25. The finished fertilizer is applied immediately after watering.
Florists recommend replanting pomegranates once 3-5 years. For the substrate, you will need 2 parts of sod land, 1 part of leaf humus, half of peat and half of sand. Sometimes sand, loam and peat are mixed - 2: 1: 1, respectively. For pomegranate, a substrate of 2 parts of clay-sod land with the addition of leafy earth, humus and sand in equal amounts is also suitable.
If you did everything right, then in five years the tree will delight you with its first harvest. In especially successful gardeners, pomegranates begin to bear fruit after three years of growth.