By finishing we mean the floor and the functional load of the canopy. You can do nothing with the floor and leave the earthen option. If you live there only in the summer, then you really don't really need it.
But what if your canopy is used all year round? To do this, we make a small sill around the entire perimeter of the canopy, except for the wall of the house. It does not need to be made too small or too large, the optimal height is 7-10 cm. This is to prevent water, snow or earth from getting there.
The simplest and fastest is a concrete floor. Crushed stone is poured and poured with sand concrete, this can be done. In the future, you can put tiles on top of such a floor. Some people make the floor from edged board, but it needs to be treated with various mixtures so that it lasts longer.
If you are carrying out some kind of work related to fire under a canopy, then you will not find anything better than concrete. Paving slabs are also considered, but you also need to make the right pillow for them. Otherwise, in the spring, swelling or failures are possible.
The functional load of the canopy can be different. Here you can arrange a gazebo, open veranda, summer kitchen, carpentry, or simply store tools and work clothes. But for tools and work clothes, it is better to use a shed to get aesthetic pleasure. But it is also possible to make a carport.
Building a canopy to the house
Before you start building a canopy, you should think about what the height of the canopy itself will be, what and how much materials are needed, and also what the floor will be under the canopy. Leaving the lawn is impractical enough, since water will flow there during precipitation, and the lawn under a canopy is unlikely to grow well. The experts of the KSportal.ru website recommend that the floor under the awning be made of concrete or laid with paving slabs - these are the two best options. When constructing the floor, we recommend raising it a few centimeters from the ground so that water does not flow. After you have solved the issue with the floor, we build a canopy.
Now, in a nutshell, we will tell you how to build a canopy from the materials listed above.
How to build a metal canopy frame
The metal frame for the awning is suitable for both the roof in the form of an awning and polycarbonate. In order to build this type of canopy, you first need to dig holes for the posts. Use metal pipes as pillars. The depth of the pits should correspond to the height of the pillars, that is, if you make a high canopy, then the pits under the pillars should be deep in order to create a reliable support for the structure. As a rule, for a canopy with a height of 2 meters, you need to dig a hole 1.2 meters deep, where there will be a sand cushion 20 cm and each of the pillars will be mounted a meter deep. In this case, the height of the pillars should be 3 meters. The pits for the posts should correspond to the diameter of the metal pipes with a grip of 20 cm on the sides. Those pillars that will be located near the house must be at least 20 cm higher than the distant ones, in order to ensure the flow of water.
You need to start work in dry and warm weather. When the pits are dug and the sandy flooring is made, we lower the pillars into the pits and fill them with concrete, while keeping the pillars in an even position, controlling the evenness using a level. Construct a temporary structure that will hold the pillars while the concrete hardens so as not to hold them with your hands. It is advisable to cover the poured concrete with oilcloth, for the strength of the structure. The base will harden for about 2-3 days. Do not think that if the upper part of the concrete is dry, then you can get to work - the lower one dries for a long time.
A few days later, when the concrete under our supports has frozen, we proceed to the construction of a frame for the roof. As a roof frame, we will use metal pipes or rectangular solid profiles. To begin with, we connect all 4 pillars of our canopy along the edges, using welding, after which we make the main transverse lines and then the longitudinal ones, which will rest on the transverse ones. The distance to the honey by the transverse and longitudinal lines will depend on the width of the polycarbonate sheets; for the awning from the awning, also make the distance small so that it does not fall through.
When the roof frame is ready, we pull an awning over it or fasten polycarbonate sheets with special rivets. It is important to note that polycarbonate sheets must be laid from the edge of the canopy - towards the house, for good drainage.
How to make a canopy over a porch made of wood
As for the canopy made of wood, then for its construction, you also need to think about the issue with the floor. After that, proceed with the construction of the canopy. We recommend starting the construction of a wooden shed to the house by digging holes for the supports, into which metal pins are inserted (more on this a little higher). Vertical logs will be threaded onto these pins, to which vertical wooden supports made of beams will be attached using connecting corners and self-tapping screws. Along the edges of the vertical logs, you will need to make a cut, half the thickness, in order to string 2 logs on one pin. Then, vertical ones are attached to the laid logs.
After the erection of the support structures of the canopy, we proceed to the installation of the roof frame: we fasten the logs along the perimeter, then transverse and at the end longitudinal. From above, you can either pull the awning or lay the polycarbonate.
This completes the construction of a canopy to the house.
Sketches of gazebos with drawings and dimensions
Available sizes can be increased or decreased proportionally. It is important that you understand that as the size increases significantly, the frame requires a more powerful one. Do not forget about this, and everything will work out for you: a self-made gazebo will be beautiful and reliable.
Simple gazebo made of wood
Almost the same project, but with different dimensions: the top point of the roof is raised higher, which makes it visually appear lighter. The gazebo is also quadrangular, the roof is hipped.
When installing such a roof, the most problematic are two places (nodes), indicated by circles. How to do them, see the photo below.
Chinese style gazebo (with drawings and dimensions)
Project with all dimensions, foundation markings, roof truss system, etc. Arranged in a photo gallery.
Large gazebo on the foundation
Before you build this gazebo, you need to make a strip foundation. Its parameters depend on the soil, on the material that you are going to use for the frame: metal or wood, and what you are going to glaze with. In general, the width of the tape is about 20 cm, the depth is 20-30 cm deeper than the level of the fertile layer. On heaving soils, it is better to make a pile foundation.
Drawing of a swing gazebo
The swing gazebo requires special attention: it is fastened very firmly so that the arising variable loads do not loosen or overturn the structure. To do this, you can extend the legs down, dig a hole under them, fill them with rubble, tamp, and then fill everything with liquid concrete. If the frame is made from a pipe, there are no questions; for a tree, you can use "P" -shaped mounts with a pin mounted in the lower part. Here it can be bent and filled with concrete.
For even greater reliability, crossbars are attached to the legs, which turn out to be slightly recessed in the ground. They are hammered with U-shaped staples.
You can read about the manufacture of ordinary swings of different types here.
A wooden canopy to the house is an additional space, closed from rains and bad weather, which can be used as a summer outdoor veranda, or as a parking lot, this is a kind of decorative extension, which, if properly executed, can be used to decorate your building. Based on the above, we can safely say that you can build a canopy to the house with your own hands. But if you are not sure that you will do it well, then it is better to turn to professionals.
Remember that this structure will not last for one year, and if it distorts it next spring, then the structure will have to be redone - and these are additional costs that are best avoided even at the construction stage. Approach the structure with all responsibility, and then you will have a well-ventilated place on the site, protected from the scorching rays of the sun.