Garden marjoram is a valuable spicy-aromatic, medicinal plant
Garden marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) of the family is also called garden oregano, majorin, sausage herb.
His homeland is the Mediterranean coast of Europe and Africa. The ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans used marjoram as a spice. It was used as a seasoning for food, as well as a miraculous remedy for many diseases, but marjoram was considered especially effective for colds.
In culture, garden marjoram is widespread in countries with hot and temperate climates. It is found in southern Europe, Poland, Germany, Hungary, northern Africa, India, Indochina, USA, Canada, and Latin America. Now it is widely cultivated in the Baltic countries, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The value of marjoram
Marjoram is valued as a spicy-aromatic, medicinal, and more recently as an essential oil plant due to the fact that it contains 1-3.5% essential oil with an extremely strong pleasant aroma of pepper, mint, cardamom and thyme combined. This oil is easily recovered by steam distillation. It is a mobile colorless or slightly yellowish liquid with a pleasant, very strong and persistent spicy-floral (marjoram) odor and a pungent spicy taste.
Marjoram essential oil is a valuable material for the perfumery, cosmetic and food industries. It contains terpenes (terpenol, borneol, etc.). It has a peculiar strong odor, strongly spicy, slightly pungent taste, similar to thyme, but more subtle and sweet. Young shoots of the plant contain a lot of ascorbic acid, as well as carotene, rutin, tannins, including phenols, bitterness, etc.
This plant is used as a medicinal and spice plant. Marjoram was nicknamed sausage grass, since in many countries it serves as the main seasoning for sausages.
In the pharmaceutical industry, tea is prepared from marjoram and an essential oil is obtained.
For beekeepers, marjoram is valuable as a late summer honey plant.
Requirements for growing conditions
Marjoram in the garden
In the subtropics, marjoram is a powerful, highly developed perennial plant 0.8-1 m high. In our country, marjoram is cultivated as an annual plant. Perennial culture is possible only in the Caucasus. In a temperate climate, it is a compact shrub up to 30-50 cm high.Numerous stems forming a bush, erect or arcuate, thin, creeping, extending from the root collar, tetrahedral, medium- and strongly branched, strongly pubescent, woody at the base, brownish-green in color or with a red tint.
Its leaves are petiolar, small, 1.5-2.5 cm long, 0.8-1.5 cm wide, opposite, oblong-ovate, entire, with glandular hairs. The whole plant is covered with silvery-gray fine-grained pubescence.
The flowers are small, white, pink or reddish, collected in oblong inflorescences, consisting of three to five spike-shaped bundles located at the ends of the branches. Blooms in July - August. From germination to the beginning of flowering, an average of 130-140 days pass.
The fruit is dry, consisting of four seeds. The seeds, or rather the fruits, which are nuts, are light brown with a strong specific odor, and are very small. There are 3.5-5 thousand pieces in 1 g. Seed germination is high - up to 80%. They can be used for 7-8 years. When sown with dry seeds in moist soil, seedlings appear in 8-20 days.
Marjoram is a thermophilic plant. The minimum temperature for seed germination is + 10 ... + 12 ° С, however, the optimum temperature for the emergence of seedlings is considered to be + 20 ... + 25 ° С. Marjoram is sensitive even to slight frosts, at + 1 ... + 2 ° С the seedlings may die completely.
Marjoram is a light-loving plant and produces a higher yield of better quality in open, well-lit areas. With shading and on the northern slopes, the yield of green mass and the content of essential oil decrease, and its quality deteriorates.
Marjoram is picky about soil nutrition and moisture. He prefers loose, well-drained soil. Dry sandy and damp clay soils are unsuitable for it. Having a fibrous, shallowly penetrating root system, it grows better on fertile, humus-rich soils, well supplied with moisture. When grown in drought conditions, it needs regular watering. Fertilization has a beneficial effect on the growth and development of this plant.
Three varieties are zoned in Russia: Lakomka, Skandi and Tushinsky Semko.
In accordance with the biology of this plant, marjoram is placed in areas protected from the prevailing winds. It is grown mainly on irrigated plots after tilled, carefully cultivated crops that free the soil from weeds. In addition, large doses of organic fertilizers are usually applied under them. For the main soil cultivation in autumn or early spring, a complete mineral fertilizer is applied at the rate of 1 m2: nitrophosphate or ammonium nitrate or urea 15-20 g, superphosphate - 25-30 g, potassium fertilizers - 15-20 g. Before planting seedlings, add 10 -15 g of nitrogen fertilizers.
In the conditions of the Central zone and North-West of Russia, marjoram is grown mainly by the seedling method, in the south - by sowing seeds in the ground. Seedlings are grown in greenhouses or hotbeds. Amateur gardeners usually grow seedlings on a well-lit, warm windowsill. To obtain high-quality seedlings, seeds are sown at the end of March - mid-April directly in pots measuring 5X5 cm, 2-3 seeds each, or in sowing boxes with subsequent picking. Seed consumption per 1 m² of planting area is 0.01-0.03 g. When sowing for seedlings, you can not cover the seeds with soil, just press gently against it, cover with a film on top and monitor the moisture content.
Plants are planted in a permanent place after the threat of spring frosts has passed. The scheme of planting seedlings is 60 (70) x10 (15) cm. Planting of seedlings is carried out with preliminary watering of the holes (in the mud), then mulching them with dry soil. Sowing in the south in open ground is carried out with the same distance between rows. For even sowing, the seeds are premixed with sand. In the future, the seedlings are thinned out, leaving a distance in the row between the plants of 10-15 cm. In the future, caring for marjoram plants consists of three to four inter-row loosening and several weeding in rows.
To ensure a high yield during the growing period, it is necessary to do 5-6 waterings, especially at the beginning of growing, when June is dry. It is not bad to combine 1-2 waterings with fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers (10-15 g per 1 m²) or pre-fertilize with slurry (1: 3).
You can grow marjoram in greenhouses, hotbeds and on balconies.
Young plants of marjoram are sometimes affected by a fungal disease - Alternaria. Spots appear on the leaves, plant growth stops. The reason for this is damp weather or too thick plantings. Marjoram moth, or rather its larvae, in the south, eat leaves, gnawing holes. The marjoram plants are harvested, cutting them off for the first time before flowering at a height of about 5 cm from the soil surface, the second time at the end of summer before the onset of the first autumn frosts as low as possible to the ground. Marjoram is tied in bunches and dried in a well-ventilated area in the shade.
After drying, the buds and leaves are threshed, ground into powder and stored in a sealed container. Marjoram retains its aroma for a long time, especially when stored in hermetically sealed glass jars.
The use of marjoram in medicine
Marjoram has a softening and warming effect, stimulates appetite, improves digestion, calms the nervous system, has a mild diuretic effect, weakens flatulence, and improves the menstrual cycle. It helps with nervous disorders and colds. In dietetic nutrition, it is used as a salt substitute and to strengthen the stomach. Marjoram infusion is used for diseases of the respiratory tract and digestive organs.
In folk medicine, it is used as a tonic and anti-catarrhal, antispastic, anti-inflammatory and tonic (in the form of a decoction and tincture); with neurasthenia, paralysis, depression, dizziness, headaches, asthma, runny nose (as an additional remedy); with varicose veins, rheumatism, gout (in the form of rubbing with marjoram oil); for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (especially in children), accompanied by swelling, colitis, diarrhea, as well as for various baths and treatment of wounds.
Popularly, dried young shoots of marjoram, collected before flowering, are used as an antispasmodic and antiseptic agent for gastritis with low acidity of gastric juice, for chronic cholecystitis, enteritis, and also as a general tonic multivitamin, antiscorbutic agent. Infusion of the herb is indicated for insomnia, headaches, cough with copious phlegm, vomiting and stomach cramps. Fresh chopped marjoram herb is applied to inflamed calluses at night.
Healing infusion of marjoram is taken 1/4 cup four times a day 5 minutes before meals (4 teaspoons of chopped herbs are poured with a glass of boiling water, kept for 15 minutes and filtered).
The use of marjoram in cooking
Currently, marjoram is one of the most widely used spices. It should be used with caution, in the correct ratio, which requires some experimentation and judgment.
Marjoram is a favorite spice of Polish, Lithuanian, Belarusian, Latvian, Estonian and Slovak and other European cuisines. As a spice, leaves and flower buds are used fresh, toasted and dried (in the form of a powder from the leaves). Lightly roasting the herbs before use improves their taste.
Marjoram is eaten as a seasoning for various dishes. Aromatic vinegar is obtained from it. Table vinegar, infused for 5-7 days on marjoram leaves, acquires a pleasant aroma. A few drops of this fragrant vinegar added to a salad or vinaigrette will give them a spicy taste.
They use marjoram for making meat soups, liver sausages, for frying poultry and lamb. It is also suitable for cooking legumes, tripe soup and some cheeses. As a spice, marjoram leaves are added to various salads, especially fish. Marjoram is used to flavor puddings, kvass, jelly, compote, tea, canned food. It can be successfully used in the preparation of sweet rhubarb dishes and dried apples.
Marjoram green shoots are used to flavor pickles. Powdered marjoram can flavor minced meat, meatballs, dumplings, fish, vegetable, egg dishes, as well as offal dishes. Marjoram is an excellent seasoning for liver pate, while replacing black pepper. Marjoram is also used for pickling cucumbers and tomatoes.
candidate of agricultural sciences
Growing tarragon - this interesting herb in all respects begins with growing seedlings.
First, prepare a container with soil for seedlings. The best soil for growing seedlings is a mixture of turf, sand and humus. It is recommended to mix everything in equal parts.
Before planting, the soil must be moistened, then the seeds must be planted in it.
Determine the quantity based on your desires. Most often, 1 sq. m is consumed 0.3 gr. seeds.
The recommended planting depth is 0.5 cm.
When growing tarragon seedlings, it is important to maintain the correct temperature regime. Before emergence, the optimum is + 22-24 ° C, then within a week - 17 ° C, then up to 20 ° C. Undoubtedly, such hardening will significantly strengthen the plant.
After about 17-20 days, seedlings emerge. In May, when the frost passes, the seedlings can be transplanted to a prepared place.
It is advisable to prepare the soil for tarragon in the fall. It must be dug up, thoroughly cleaned of weeds and fertilized:
- humus - 4 kg per 1 sq.m.
- superphosphate - 40 gr.
- potassium salt - 20 gr.
It is also important that the place is sunny, otherwise the tarragon greens can be practically without taste and aroma.
Before planting, the soil must be well loosened, then the plants must be planted in rows. The optimal distance is 20 cm between plants, 50 cm between rows. Depth - 10 cm.
After planting, the seedlings should be watered thoroughly.
Tarragon can grow in one place for up to 10 years. However, in practice, for a variety of reasons, it grows for 5-6 years.
At the end of the first summer, the green leaves are already ripe for consumption.
Caring for tarragon is more than trivial - watering, weeding and loosening the soil.
It is necessary to moisten the soil abundantly 1-2 times every two weeks. In dry weather - water more often accordingly.
Also, every spring it is recommended to feed it:
- compost - 4 kg per 1 sq. m.
- wood ash - 3 tbsp. l.
- nitrophobic - 1 tbsp. l.
During the summer, 3-4 times from the tarragon, it is necessary to cut the leaves for the appearance of new shoots. After such procedures, tarragon turns into a beautiful fluffy bush.
Perhaps the most common variety Gribovsky 31 - the so-called "Russian tarragon", the cultivation of which is most common in areas of the middle lane.
In other countries, the cultivation of "French tarragon" is more common.
What is the difference between them? The Russian variety is more cold-resistant and unpretentious.
French tarragon is more capricious in cultivation and care, as well as in climate, but more aromatic.
Application and culinary features
Tarragon has a pleasant taste and light aroma of anise, and therefore is often used in various dishes and medicinal recipes. But we will talk about the useful and medicinal properties of tarragon below.
Fresh leaves are often added to salads, meat and fish dishes, soups and vegetable mixes. Moreover, tarragon is a frequent component of sauces and fillings for dumplings, pies, pizza and many confectionery products.
Also, fresh and dried leaves are used for pickling and pickling cucumbers, tomatoes, zucchini, squash, vegetable platter. Tarragon helps to preserve the strength of vegetables and gives a light piquant aroma.
Tarragon is often used in various food industries. For example, gourmets often choose cheese with tarragon and other herbs. Certain varieties of vodka, wines and liqueurs are complemented with plant extract for aroma. Tarragon greens are also used in the production of various canned meat and fish.
Dried tarragon greens are often used in the preparation of various mixtures of culinary spices.
For example, at home, you can mix dried dill, marjoram and tarragon (2: 2: 1).
To dry the tarragon, it is necessary to cut off the branches at the very beginning of flowering, tie and store in a cool place. Further, the herb can be used for 2-3 years if stored in sealed cans.
It is also recommended to prepare vinegar with tarragon, which can be used for dressing salads. It is necessary to fill in 2 tbsp. l. finely chopped tarragon with a glass of vinegar (9%), pour into a dark bottle and let it brew for 2-3 weeks.
When preparing meals, it is important not to overdo it with tarragon. Otherwise, a too strong aroma will interrupt the taste of the dish itself.
The optimal amount for salads is 4-5 leaves, in the form of a dried seasoning - 1-2 pinches.
Vegetable salad with tarragon
- tomato - 1 pc.
- cucumber - 1 pc.
- radish - 5 pcs.
- red onion - 1 pc.
- tarragon, parsley, dill, marjoram - a few sprigs
- olive oil
All ingredients must be chopped, mixed and seasoned with oil.
An excellent tarragon salad is ready. Bon Appetit!
This aromatic drink has long won universal sympathy. And not only for the taste, but also for the beneficial properties. And preparing it at home will not be difficult.
How to cook it?
- fresh tarragon herb - bunch
- sugar - 7 rounded tablespoons
- juice of a quarter of a lemon.
Of course, you can use a different amount of ingredients. It all depends on personal tastes and preferences.
Tarragon needs to be washed well and separated from the leaves from the stems. The leaves must be cut and put in a bowl. Better to use an earthenware jug or ceramic teapot. Then, in a liter of boiling water, you need to stir all the sugar and pour the grass over it.
Next, the drink should be infused for 5-6 hours. You will be able to determine readiness by the saturation of the emerald color. At the end of the preparation, add lemon juice to the drink. And you can enjoy the great taste of childhood drink.
Of course, there are many more homemade tarragon recipes. For example, someone uses lime instead of lemon. Some people like to add mint leaves.
In addition to all its culinary features, tarragon still has many useful properties, let's take a closer look at them.
Garden marjoram is a close relative of oregano. It is similar to her in use, but differs in the type of smell.
Marjoram is an annual, biennial, or perennial plant of the Yaroslav family. This is a typical shrub. The plant is 20-50 cm high, the stem is erect, branched, woody at the base. The leaves are petiolate, oblong-ovate, small, covered with glandular hairs of a silvery-whitish color, less often glabrous, whole-extreme. The root system is branched.
Blooms already in the first year of life, usually in August. The flowers are small, white, reddish or pink, collected in oblong inflorescences, consisting of three to five rounded spike-shaped bunches located at the ends of the branches. Seeds are very small, oblong-ovate, yellow or light brown. The seed diameter is not more than 0.5 mm.
The mass of 1000 seeds is 0.12-0.30 g. The seeds remain viable for 7-8 years. The plant is thermophilic and can be damaged by frost. Requires well-hydrated soil and a sunny location. The seeds require good soil moisture for germination. Soils should be light in texture, rich in humus, neutral or slightly acidic. Marjoram, although it is a perennial, is weakly winter-hardy. It hibernates only in the southern regions with mild winters. There he can grow in one place for 3-5 years.
In most areas, it is grown as an annual.
This plant comes from the Mediterranean. In the wild, marjoram is still found in Asia Minor, Southern Europe, North Africa, Central Asia. The ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans knew him. Marjoram was highly regarded as a herb and as an effective medicine for many diseases. Especially successfully treated in antiquity with marjoram cold. The ancient Greeks were convinced that this mountain plant brings joy and courage. In the Middle Ages in Europe, marjoram was used as a spice and decorative, as well as in brewing, winemaking and for cosmetic purposes.
Marjoram has been cultivated since ancient times, it is widespread in countries with hot and temperate climates, in the Mediterranean, garden marjoram is a popular spice plant in Western Europe and North Africa. To obtain vegetable greens, marjoram is also cultivated in small quantities in the Baltic States, Crimea, Central Asia, in the south of the European part of Russia.
The leaves and buds of flowers, collected before flowering, serve as spice; they contain an essential oil of a sweet-bitter spicy taste and having a peculiar smell of cardamom. In medicine, infusion of marjoram greens is used for diseases of the respiratory tract and digestive organs, in folk medicine - as a tonic and anti-catarrhal agent. Marjoram soothes the nervous system, stimulates appetite, and has a mild diuretic effect. It is used as an external pain reliever, for therapeutic baths and compresses.
Leaves and young shoots are eaten in fresh and dried forms as a spicy seasoning for salads, sauces, soups, meat, fish, vegetable and mushroom dishes. Marjoram is an ideal spice for cooking offal, game and fatty poultry meat. It is also used to flavor puddings, sausages, pie fillings, cheese, vinegar, tea, canned food, pickles and kvass.
Marjoram is included as an indispensable component in the famous spice mixtures and bouquets of European cuisine. It is the marjoram that gives the taste to expensive sausages. Marjoram is especially popular in German cuisine. There it is even called "sausage grass". The smell of marjoram will not leave anyone indifferent. An essential oil is obtained from the aerial part of a flowering plant. It is used in the food and perfume industries.
In culture, 2 forms of marjoram are widespread, differing in early maturity and the appearance of the bush. In Russia, 5 varieties are zoned: Baikal, Lakomka, Scandi, Thermos and Tushinsky Semko. Local populations are also used.
The best predecessors for marjoram are row crops, under which large doses of organic fertilizers were applied. A site protected from the prevailing winds with a rich in organic matter, light and carefully cultivated soil, into which 20-25 g / m2 of ammonium nitrate, 30-40 g / m2 of superphosphate and 10-15 g / m2 of potassium salt are added in spring, is allotted for marjoram. You can apply complex fertilizers - Kemiru-universal, Kemiru-super, azofosk - 70-80 g / m2. In the middle and northern regions, it is grown in seedlings, in the southern ones - by sowing seeds in open ground.
For seedlings, seeds are sown in March - early April in seed boxes installed in a greenhouse or greenhouse, or on a rack in a greenhouse. The optimum temperature for seed germination is 20-25 ° C, and for seedling growth 15-20 ° C. The seeds are very small, so they are not covered, but only pressed against the soil and covered with a film until single shoots appear. Seedlings thin out. Plants usually dive in the phase of 2 true leaves according to the 5 × 5 cm pattern, or in peat-baked, plastic pots of small size. After 2 weeks, you can feed the seedlings to stimulate growth. Top dressing is given in liquid form, dissolving 15 g of ammonium nitrate, 20 g of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium salt in 10 liters of water, and the solution is enough for 2-2.5 m2. If the plants do not develop well, feeding can be repeated after 2 weeks.
When the threat of frost has passed, the seedlings are planted in open ground with 2-5-line ribbons (between lines 20 cm, ribbons 50-60, plants in a row 15-20 cm) or wide-row (45 cm between rows, in a row between plants 10-15 cm) ...
Sowing in open ground is carried out in the same way, pre-mixing the seeds with sand. On top of them, they are usually lightly sprinkled with a thin layer of humus. If they are sealed, then no deeper than 0.3-0.5 cm. 0.3-0.6 g of seeds per 1 m2. Seeds sprout in 2-3 weeks. Seedlings are thinned, leaving the plants in a row every 10-15 cm. In the southern regions, where marjoram overwinters, you can use old bushes for vegetative propagation, which are divided into parts and planted in the same way as seedlings.
Care - loosening row spacings and weeding. Watering is carried out as needed. Fertilizing is also carried out by introducing 10 g of ammonia liter, 15 g of superphosphate and 12 g of potassium salt per 1 m2. It is good to feed with complex fertilizers - Kemira-Lux, Solution, Azofoska at a dose of 20-30 g / m2. Cut green leaves and stems with flowers 1-2 times during the growing season: the first time before flowering, then during the beginning of mass flowering, at a height of 5-6 cm from the soil surface. Tied in bunches and dried in the shade in a well-ventilated area. Store dried marjoram in an airtight container to preserve its flavor. The most valuable part of dried greens is delicate leaves.
Marjoram seed growing is fully possible only in the southern regions. Where marjoram does not hibernate, mother plants can be grown by sowing in mid-summer. Then young plants are harvested by planting them in vessels or boxes, for wintering in a basement or storage. In the spring they are planted in the ground. Marjoram seeds fall off easily, so the testes are removed when most of the seeds are brown.
Young plants of marjoram are affected by Alternaria. The causative agent of the disease is a mushroom. The disease manifests itself in damp weather or with excessive thickening of plants. Spots appear on the leaves, plant growth stops. Control measures are agrotechnical. Of the pests, the marjoram moth is found. The moth larvae eat the leaves. On marjoram, as on all green crops, chemical preparations are unacceptable. During the summer of butterflies, traps with attractants or trapping vessels are set.
Marjoram greens contain ascorbic acid 9.1 mg / 100 g, carotene 4.5 mg / 100 g, rutin. Greens are rich in essential oil (1-3.5%) with a very strong odor. The substance that determines the smell is still unknown. Greens also contain tannins and bitterness.
Collection and storage
It is harvested as a spice twice a year: in late July - August and in September - early October. Harvesting is carried out in dry weather, for the first time - cutting off the stems at least 6-7 cm from the ground surface so that the plant grows again in the second - you can remove it from the soil.
Drying is carried out in small bunches in the shade under a canopy. Only leaves and flower remnants are removed from dried plants, the stems are usually removed. Raw materials can be stored in sealed glass or porcelain containers for up to 2 years.
Marjoram can also be grown at home. To do this, it is enough to purchase a freshly grown marjoram in a pot and, having transplanted it into an ordinary flower pot, arrange it for a residence on a sunny window.
It is currently cultivated on an industrial scale in many countries of Asia (India, China), Africa (Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt) and Europe (France, Germany, Greece, Poland).
Using marjoram in cooking
This plant is a good helper for the cook. Marjoram leaves, grains and stalks are used to prepare a variety of dishes. Fresh plants are consumed in any form. Often, ground parts are added to various toasts and sauces.
At home, marjoram is used for cooking:
- meat dishes:
- different types of salads
Marjoram is often used in cooking for pickling vegetables.
Marjoram green leaves are packed with many beneficial essential oils. Because of this, they are often used to prepare medicinal infusions.
Many countries boast of their traditional dishes, which include marjoram. The French use the spice to make hare-based pâtés. Czechs cook dishes from potatoes, mushrooms and pork, while Italians cook rice soups. The spice is a must-have ingredient in German sausage products, and the Armenians use marjoram as an alternative to salt and pepper.
The dried spice is very popular in many European countries and America. Increasingly, it is used to make hamburgers and other street meat dishes.
Marjoram can also be added to fatty foods due to its beneficial effects on the digestive process.
"Sausage herb", as marjoram is also called, is in perfect harmony with various vegetables. It is recommended to add the spice to potatoes, cabbage and beans. With the help of this spice, low-alcohol drinks, wine are made, added to sour cream or tomato sauce. Diabetics use marjoram as a substitute for salt.
If you want to grow marjoram in your backyard, then follow all the tips and tricks. For good growth and development of the plant, you should adhere to the instructions for watering, and also do not forget about the timely application of fertilizers.
Marjoram - a folk remedy for digestive disorders and lack of appetite, flatulence and cramps (including in infants), diarrhea, cramps, migraines, menstrual pains, headaches, in dentistry, they treat lungs, cough. The medicinal properties of the herb medicinal plant have found application in recipes for the treatment of traditional medicine.
Latin name: Origanum majorana.
English name: Marjoram, Sweet Marjoram and Knotted Marjoram.
Family: Lamiaceae - Lamiaceae.
Popular names: garden marjoram, hot herb, kitchen herb, sausage herb.
Pharmacy name: marjoram herb - Majoranae herba, marjoram oil - Majoranae aetheroleum, marjoram ointment - Majoranae unguentum.
Used marjoram parts: all flowering grass.
Botanical Description: marjoram is a perennial herb. The stem is branched, tetrahedral, covered with hairs, lignified at the base. Numerous stems (20-50) form a bush 40-60 cm high, 35-40 cm in diameter. The pubescent shoots of marjoram are sometimes cast red. Leaves are short-petiolate, small (1–2 cm long, 0.8–1.5 cm wide), opposite, oblong-ovate, with a gray tomentose bloom, with tucked edges, entire. Light red (to white) flowers, collected in a dense, ovoid false ear, sit in the axils of the covering leaves. The fruit consists of four very small, single-seeded nuts. The whole plant smells good. Marjoram blooms in June-July, bears fruit in September.
Habitat: wildly distributed in North Africa and Asia Minor, in a feral state it is found in southern Europe. As a spice plant, marjoram is cultivated in India and Western Europe.
Growing and collecting: to grow marjoram in your garden, you need to sow about 5 g of seeds in a greenhouse for seedlings in March (the plant is very sensitive to cold and may simply not grow in the open field). After the end of the frost, transplant the 15 largest marjoram seedlings into open ground (this is quite enough for an ordinary household), into light fertile soil. The distance between individual marjoram plants should be at least 15 cm. It is best to plant them in a place warmed by the sun, protected from the wind, they grow rather slowly. It takes patience and constant weeding.
Grown plants reach 30 - 40 cm in height. When they bloom, it's time to harvest. By this time, the content of aromatic substances is especially high. The marjoram grass is cut not high above the ground and dried in bunches in the air. Marjoram can be stored in well-closed containers for many years without noticeable loss of active ingredients.
Active ingredients: the entire aerial part of marjoram contains 0.3-0.5% of essential oil of flowering plants on a wet basis and 0.7-3.5% on a dry basis. Young shoots of marjoram are rich in rutin (up to 0.13%), contain ascorbic acid (up to 0.45) and carotene (up to 0.006). In addition, the plant contains tannins and pectin substances, pentosans.
The essential oil has a specific cardamom aroma and is similar to thyme, but more subtle and sweeter, characteristic of this plant, a pungent spicy taste. The highest content of essential oil is observed in the plant during the period of mass flowering. The essential oil contains terpinene, pinene, sabinene, α-terpineol, borneol, phenols. The substance - the carrier of the extremely strong aroma of the plant - is still unknown.
Marjoram - useful properties and uses
For medicinal purposes, the herb of flowering marjoram is used. The area of application of marjoram in folk medicine is quite wide.It is used for digestive disorders and lack of appetite, flatulence and cramps (including in infants), diarrhea, cramps, migraines, menstrual pains, headaches, in dentistry, they treat lungs, cough. Thanks to the organic acids that make up marjoram, it acts as an antiseptic, bactericidal agent. It is used as a diuretic and as a remedy for rheumatism.
Marjoram helps with pain in the stomach and intestines, with kidney stones, with anemia, with menstrual irregularities, with nervous diseases, with allergic and colds, with inflammation of the oral cavity and bleeding gums, with insomnia, with depression, has a sedative effect. This plant replaces salt in a salt-free diet. It is also used as a tonic and antioxidant agent.
Photo of a medicinal plant Marjoram garden
- Marjoram Herbal Tea Recipe: 1 - 2 teaspoons of herbs pour 1/4 liter of boiling water, leave for 5 minutes, strain and drink 1 - 2 cups a day in small sips.
Breastfeeding babies are often awake, suffering from gas and a bloated stomach. They are helped by fennel or caraway tea, as both plants are good carminatives (gas remedies). However, it is not always appropriate to give another bottle of tea, it increases the amount of fluid in the body and causes anxiety. Rubbing around the navel with marjoram ointment justifies itself in this case. Many mothers had the opportunity to make sure that gases come out 10 to 20 minutes after rubbing. And a runny nose in infants is treated with marjoram ointment: the clogged nose is released, the child sleeps peacefully and without hindrance: Marjoram ointment can be purchased at the pharmacy, but you can make it yourself (I took the recipe from my grandmother).
- Marjoram ointment recipe: Pour 1 teaspoon of powdered marjoram with 1 teaspoon of wine alcohol and leave the mixture for several hours. Then add 1 teaspoon of fresh unsalted butter and heat the whole thing in a water bath for about 10 minutes. Then strain through a cloth and leave to cool. This fragrant ointment can be used to lubricate the nose inside and out by rubbing it lightly with your fingers. Due to the short storage time, it should be cooked in small portions. Pharmacy marjoram ointment (it also works well) is made with petroleum jelly. I advise you to cook it in oil, it's better.
Eating marjoram as a condiment. In ancient times, it was believed that marjoram was under the auspices of Aphrodite, and therefore it is a little ridiculous that now it is considered to be one of the best sausage spices. Without a doubt, then they did not stuff sausage with it, but a special rich wine was prepared from it in order to increase sexual desire. In Central Europe, marjoram has been known since the 16th century, and all this time it was used as a spice. Fatty roasts, sausages, potato soup, vegetable stews and stews with a large admixture of peas and beans with marjoram are not only tastier, but also better absorbed. It is good to add marjoram to sauces, which are used with noodles and spaghetti, as well as to fried potatoes girnon. Marjoram is very good in a spicy mixture with thyme, rosemary, basil and tarragon.
Marjoram in folk medicine
Nervous diseases, anemia, colds with cough and phlegm, asthma, indigestion with flatulence and cramps, allergic rhinitis, inflammation of the mouth, bleeding gums - all this in folk medicine serves as an indication for the use of marjoram tea. The scope of application of the ointment is even wider: it is used for neuralgic pains, dislocations and sprains, for the treatment of poorly healing wounds, abscesses, and rheumatic diseases. It is difficult to assess how correct this is, since the active ingredients of marjoram do not exclude any of these indications.
Marjoram herb treatment
- Allergy... 1 tablespoon of herbs pour 400 ml of boiling water, wrap and leave for 1 hour. Drink 70 ml 15 minutes before meals.
- Affective syndrome... 4 teaspoons of herbs pour 200 ml of boiled water, close the lid and heat in a boiling water bath for 2 minutes. Insist 15 minutes. Strain and top up to original volume. Drink during the day.
- Insomnia, Migraine, Neuroses... 1 tbsp marjoram herbs pour 400 ml of boiling water, wrap and leave for 1 hour. Strain and top up to original volume. Drink 70 ml 4 times a day before meals with nervous insomnia.
- Gastralgia, Flatulence, Vomiting... 1 tbsp pour 400 ml of boiling water over the herbs, wrap and leave for 1 hour. Strain and top up to original volume. Drink 70 ml 4 times a day before meals.
- Metrorrhagia... 4 tsp herbs pour 200 ml of boiled water, heat in a boiling water bath for 15 minutes, remove from heat and leave for 45 minutes. Strain and top up to original volume. Drink during treatment throughout the day.
- Lack of appetite... 1 tbsp herbs pour 400 ml of boiling water in a thermos, leave for 1 hour. Strain, add to the original volume. Drink 70 ml 4 times a day before meals.
- Paralysis... 4 tsp marjoram herbs pour 200 ml of boiled water, heat in a boiling water bath for 15 minutes. Insist 45 minutes. Strain and add boiling water to the original volume. Drink 2 tablespoons chilled before meals.
- Rhinitis is acute... Use the herb marjoram garden in the form of infusions and decoction. The daily dose is 4 tsp. raw materials for 200 ml of boiling water.
- Pruritus... 1 tbsp pour 400 ml of boiling water over the herbs, wrap and leave for 1 hour. Strain and top up to original volume. Drink during treatment, 70 ml 4 times a day before meals.
Contraindications... May cause headaches and feelings of depression when consumed in large quantities. Do not abuse marjoram during pregnancy, as well as in case of individual intolerance to the plant and its individual components.
Use, useful properties and contraindications
Despite its beneficial properties, marjoram is most widely used in cooking. Most often it is used to flavor meat and fish dishes. It is also added to various soups, sauces and salad dressings. He found his application in the production of sausages, cheeses and even wine.
What marjoram looks like - photo
The essential oil of this plant is quite successfully used in the perfumery industry.
Dried marjoram is widely used in canning cucumbers and tomatoes, and they are also flavored with jelly and compotes. The pungent taste and very persistent aroma of this seasoning gives the alcoholic beverages an original flavor.
Some cooks replace marjoram with thyme or oregano. But they cannot completely replace it.
They only vaguely resemble him. In cooking, all parts of this plant are used quite successfully. Both leaves and flower buds are used. They are used fresh or lightly fried.
Of the beneficial properties of marjoram, it is especially worth noting its ability to significantly improve the digestion process. Even the heaviest and most fatty dishes cooked with marjoram are very easy to digest.
For all the advantages of this seasoning, one should not forget that too much greenery can significantly distort or completely overwhelm the taste of food. Marjoram was once used to make special flavored water that was used to rinse hands before and after meals.
Marjoram contains a unique essential oil, ascorbic acid, rutin and a number of other useful components. The healing properties of marjoram have been known for a long time. For medicinal purposes, it was used in ancient Greece.
With the softening and warming effect of this plant, women can normalize their menstrual cycle. This plant is also known for its anti-rheumatic properties.
There are many ways to use marjoram in traditional medicine. For example, it is used as a digestive stimulant. And besides, it is used as an antiseptic in the treatment of severe purulent wounds.
While watching the video, you will learn about the cultivation of marjoram.
With all the positive qualities of this plant, one should not forget that it should not be consumed by pregnant women. Also, with a significant overdose, the active ingredients of marjoram depress consciousness and worsen mood.
Have you noticed a mistake? Highlight it and press Ctrl + Enterto let us know.