Colchicaceae

Colchicaceae

Colchicum plant (Latin Colchicum), or autumnal, or colchicum, belongs to the genus of flowering perennials of the Colchicum family, common in Central and Western Asia, Europe, North Africa and the Mediterranean. There are about seventy species in the genus. The Latin name for colchicum is derived from "Colchis", which means "Colchis" - an area of ​​the Black Sea region, in which some species of colchicum are widespread.


What is the taxonomy of plants, who created, when and in what year.

Plant taxonomy, taxonomy section. S. p. has a long history - from the first attempts at classification based on a few, easily conspicuous external features that are not connected with each other by internal unity and common origin, to modern systems based on a huge number of facts and taking into account truly kinship (homological) ties. Even Theophrastus divided plants into 4 groups - trees, shrubs, semi-shrubs, or shrubs ("friganon"), and herbs. Later, before the Renaissance, only the observations of Albert von Bolstedt (Albert the Great), who first noted the differences between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, are of interest. During the Renaissance, the Italian Andrea Cesalpino published (1583) the first artificial classification of plants, based mainly on the structure of the "reproductive organs" - fruits and seeds. In addition to the main groups adopted by him under the influence of Theophrastus (trees and shrubs, half-shrubs and grasses), he also identified a group of seedless plants - ferns, mosses, mushrooms and algae. At the end of the 16th century. K. Baugin distinguished between the categories of genus and species and outlined the foundations of the binomial (binary) nomenclature. In 1693 the English naturalist J. Ray established the concept of the species, and in 1700 the French botanist Tournefort - of the genus. The third main taxonomic category, the family, was defined back in 1689 by the French botanist P. Magnol. The Tournefort system, based on the structure of the corolla (class of labiates, class of four-lobes, etc.), has become widespread due to its simplicity. More complex, but more natural was the system of Rey (1686-1704), in which he introduced the name Dicotyledones and Monocotyledones, he divided these 2 groups into classes according to the type of fruit, and classes according to the structure of the leaf and flower.

The culmination of the period of artificial systems was the system of K. Linnaeus (1735). Linnaeus based the classification on the number of stamens, the methods of their accretion and the distribution of unisexual flowers, dividing all seed plants into 23 classes, and attributed algae, mushrooms, mosses and ferns to the 24th class (Cryptogamia). Due to the extreme artificiality of Linnaeus's classification, the most different genera fell into the same class, and the genera of indisputably natural families (for example, cereals) often ended up in different classes. Despite this, Linnaeus's system was practically very convenient and was available not only for specialists, but also for botanists, since it made it possible to quickly identify plants. Linnaeus improved and approved the binomial (binary) nomenclature in botany. Therefore, according to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the actual (valid) names of genera and species of most groups of living plants date back to 1753, when the first edition of Linnaeus's "Plant Species" was published. The turning point to the natural method in S. p. the book of the French scientist M. Adanson, The Family of Plants (1763–64), was published. He considered it necessary to use the maximum number of different characters for the classification of plants, giving all characters the same meaning. Of even greater importance for the development of S. r. had a system (1789) of the French botanist A.L. Jussieux. He divided plants into 15 classes, within which he distinguished 100 "natural orders" (ordines iiaturales) Jussieu gave them names and descriptions, most of them have survived to this day as families (Gramineae, Campanulaceae, Rosaceae, Papaveraceae, etc.). Mushrooms, algae, mosses, ferns, as well as naiad species were combined by him under the name of acotyledones. Seed plants (without naemon) he divided into Monocotyledones (monocotyledons) and Dicotyledones (dicotyledons), referring to the latter also conifers.


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