In the spring, along with the awakening of nature, summer residents also become more active, because the hot season is coming. To get a good harvest in the fall, it is necessary from the beginning of the season to prepare the soil for future beds, choosing the right fertilizers in the required quantities. At the same time, the needs of the crops with which they plan to plant the beds are taken into account. Experienced gardeners know how to feed the garden and how to do it correctly. A similar question arises, as a rule, among beginners who decide to master the science of growing vegetables and flowers on their site. The need to fertilize the land is dictated by the annual depletion of resources. If you do not enrich the soil with useful nutrients, then the yield will decrease every year.
The timing of fertilization in the spring
Experts consider the spring season to be the most favorable time for applying all types of fertilizers to the soil: organic, necessarily prepared in advance, mineral, taken in strictly defined doses, as well as their mixtures. The procedure is started after the melting of the snow cover. Some amateur gardeners practice the distribution of top dressing over the snow, but with this method, the introduced substances can float away from the site along with the melt water.
Fruit trees can be started to feed without waiting for the near-trunk soil to completely thaw. It is recommended to feed vegetable and flower crops just before planting. In order not to forget what fertilizers, where and when to apply, it is necessary to draw up a plan in advance. In this case, it is guaranteed that all plants will receive the necessary trace elements in the optimal amount for their development.
When depositing funds, you cannot act according to the principle: the more, the better. Because organic and mineral substances introduced in excess can adversely affect the state of the crops grown. Mineral and mixed dressings require special care. When working with these species, the doses indicated on the label must be followed.
Organic feeding: advantages and disadvantages
- manure or humus;
- bird droppings
The organics, which perfectly loosen the soil, contain many useful microelements. In the village, these fertilizers are in abundance in every courtyard, so they can be bought inexpensively. Considering that organic matter is applied once every three years, too much money will not be required for this. The best effect on soil fertility is humus (rotted manure), which is scattered over the site for three to four weeks before digging the earth and planting vegetables.
For spring application to the soil, pre-prepared organic fertilizers are suitable. Overripe manure, which has turned into humus in a couple of years, increases the fertility of the land at times
A ten-liter bucket of humus is distributed on one square meter of the garden, which can be replaced with peat or compost. Here's how to compost yourself:
Organic dressings, in addition to obvious advantages, have a number of disadvantages, namely:
- some substances (fresh manure, bird droppings) can simply burn the roots of plants;
- a large amount of funds that must be delivered to the site and distributed, applying a lot of physical effort;
- the risk of infection by vegetable flies onions and carrots;
- problems with searching in the absence of farms and personal farmsteads nearby;
- harsh specific smell.
There is also an interesting Meatlider method, for more details see the video:
And here is another video example about making fertilizers yourself:
Mineral - the key to high yields
It is easier to work with mineral fertilizers, since they are sold in concentrated form in all specialized stores. However, special care must be taken when calculating the amount to be applied. You should be guided by the dosages recommended by the manufacturers, depending on the needs of the crops grown in a particular place in the garden plot. Granular phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizing is applied in accordance with the established norms in the soil in the spring immediately before its digging. In this case, useful trace elements will be in close proximity to the plant root system. The recommended bedding depth of the pellets is approximately 20 cm.
Many gardeners are prejudiced against mineral fertilizing, believing that chemistry is harmful to the land and the plants growing on it. Of course, the soil structure does not improve from the application of mineral products. For this purpose, organic matter is needed. But plants get access to all the trace elements necessary for growth, such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Potassium-based preparations promote faster ripening of fruits. Complex fertilizers, which include two or even three components, are able to satisfy the needs of plants for all nutrients. Complex dressings are available in the form of liquid or granules.
Mineral fertilizers in granules are applied in the spring in strictly defined doses to the soil, thereby providing plants with all the necessary nutrients
In spring, ten square meters of a vegetable garden are usually brought in:
- 300–350 g of nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, carbamide or urea);
- 250 g - phosphorus agents;
- 200 g - potassium substances that can be replaced with wood ash.
In summer, during the intensive growth of plants, feeding is repeated, but the dose of all fertilizers is reduced by three times.
Granular superphosphate is a versatile nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer suitable for use on all types of soil. Provides food for crops grown in the country or vegetable garden
Unlike organic fertilizers, mineral complexes must be applied to the soil annually. And more financial resources for the purchase of mineral dressings should be allocated from the family budget. Naturally, you won't have to wait long for a return on investment. In autumn, the site will delight you with a rich harvest, and flower crops will begin to bring aesthetic pleasure even earlier.
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Spring is the best time to prepare the soil for future plantings. And the most important procedure here is fertilization. However, I do not forget about the basic rules:
- When planning the spring preparation of the garden, I am guided not by calendar dates, but by the current weather - in one year spring is delayed, and in another it comes early. A sure sign for the beginning of fertilization is complete melting of snow, complete departure of melt water. In most regions, this is mid to late April. It is not worth applying fertilizers earlier - the nutrients are washed out and go deep into the ground along with the spring waters.
- I also pay attention to what plants I am going to feed. I fertilize perennial trees and shrubs earlier - their root systems are able to absorb nutrients from the soil, even when the soil is still slightly frozen.
- Whose feeding I am never in a hurry with is vegetable crops and ornamental annuals. I apply fertilizers a few days before planting.
What the plum is missing
Experienced gardeners notice the lack of micro- and macroelements by the condition of the plant. Moreover, they can not only state a nutritional deficiency, but also say exactly what specific element the tree lacks.
|Potassium||The leaves turn brown and curl|
|Phosphorus||Light green leaves and lack of ovaries|
|Nitrogen||Leaves turn yellow|
|Magnesium||The streaks of leaves turn brown|
|Calcium||The edges of the leaves brighten|
|Gland||The ends of the leaves turn pale|
Low soil fertility negatively affects not only the appearance of the tree, but also the yield. With a lack of nutrition, many ovaries fall off, yield decreases, fruits lose in size and taste.
What fertilizers should be applied in spring
Spring is a hot time for owners of summer cottages, because it is during this period that the basis for a good harvest is laid. The quality of the preparation of the beds in the spring depends on how grateful the earth will be to you for it in the fall. But first things first.
What is spring feeding for?
What does soil fertilization give in the spring? Do you have to do this every year? Let's figure it out together.
At the beginning of the growing season, it is important to give the plants the opportunity to grow quickly, effectively resist various diseases and ultimately bring maximum benefit.
The purpose of spring feeding is to saturate the soil with useful substances and create favorable conditions for growth, flowering and fruiting.
Even the most nutritious lands sooner or later are depleted, which, of course, negatively affects the well-being, the appearance of trees and shrubs and their ability to produce tasty fruits.
To prevent this from happening, minerals and organics should be added. Mineral additives - annually, organic - every two years.
What organic fertilizers are used most often during spring gardening? Read carefully.
Compost - decomposed plant residues and household waste. The most important thing when harvesting is to ensure a high temperature in the compost pit. The rate of decomposition processes depends on this.
The optimum temperature is 40 degrees. The contents of the pit usually consist of cut grass, leaves, dried flowers, tops, sawdust, weeds and food debris (except fat and bones).
"Ingredients" are stacked in layers.
Manure and chicken droppings are often added to compost. When adding green grass, mix it with dry leaves and wood. It will increase the quality of organic fertilizer, which, with the right approach, can replace mineral additives and humus, phosphorus flour. It is introduced at the rate of 2 kg per 100 kg of waste. If peat or other acidic organic matter is present, then the ash is mixed in.
In order for the compost to “mature” correctly, experts advise alternating dry and wet layers. The decay process will go twice as fast if you sprinkle each layer with earth. Nettle, comfrey and legume waste are used for the same purpose. Remember to water the compost, but make sure that the water does not stagnate.
There are many recipes for creating compost. But the most popular are three.
Recipe number 1... Peat manure compost. For cooking (as the name implies), you will need peat and manure (in a 1: 1 ratio). The thickness of each layer is 25 cm. You can add phosphoric flour. Cover the pile with tarp or dark plastic wrap and let sit for about 7 days.
Recipe number 2... Vermicultivated compost (biohumus). This extremely nutritious fertilizer is prepared in early February.
Fill a wooden box with ventilation holes with straw, paper, and grass. Sprinkle earth on top and water. Place the earthworms in the box the next day.
Periodically indulge residents with potato peels, shells, apple peels, and tea leaves.
Recipe number 3... Collected compost. Prepared in summer. Tops, grass, tea leaves, cleaning and other food waste are poured into containers made of wood or plastic. Remember to gradually add lime, phosphoric flour, and slurry to the mixture. The container with the compost must not be covered, because it contains a lot of nitrogen.
Domestic animal excrement, mixed with straw and hay scraps, contains nitrogen, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium.
They are added to the soil in a rotten state, when the amount of harmful impurities is minimized. How can this be achieved? Cover a bunch of plastic and forget about it for a year.
When the time is right, use a rake to spread the pieces evenly over areas where lawn grass, berry bushes and fruit trees grow.
Fresh manure cannot be introduced into the soil - aggressive components will destroy young plantations. An exception is the arrangement of warm ridges and mulching of raspberry bushes.
Humus is called compost or manure that has exceeded 2 years. It looks like a loose mass with a pronounced earthy smell. This versatile fertilizer is ideal for feeding any horticultural crop. It is used for mulching and for preparing soil for seedlings. It copes well with the role of a hole filler for particularly demanding plants.
Bird and rabbit droppings
Nutritionally superior to cow dung, however, it is practically not used in its pure form. It is a part of complex organic dressings prepared by your own hands. To do this, the droppings are diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10. The resulting infusion is again diluted (1 part liquid to 4 parts water) and mixed with compost or humus.
A rich source of potassium, which reduces soil acidity and enriches them with boron, phosphorus, manganese. It is used as an additional component of top dressing. Ash is added to manure and droppings, herbal infusions and compost.
Top dressing with ash is especially useful for tomatoes, potatoes and bell peppers, but carrots do not like it very much. The most valuable is the ash from the burning of straw, but if there is none, ordinary wood ash can be used.
Remember, ash from young branches is richer in composition than ash from old trees. If we compare the nutritional value of deciduous and coniferous ashes, then the first is more useful.
If you dream of a dense and dense lawn on your backyard, then you cannot do without peat. Remove the top layer of sod, sprinkle peat on top, lightly "dust" with earth and tamp.
After 24 hours, start planting the seeds. The peat substrate promotes rapid and uniform lawn grass growth.
Peat is brought under apple trees older than 3 years, and it is also actively used for mulching near-trunk circles.
Cons of organic fertilizers
Organic has many positive qualities - ease of procurement, environmental friendliness, a wide range of applications. But there are also disadvantages and you need to know about them.
- "Overdose" of organic matter leads to the death of young, immature plants. In addition, an overabundance of such fertilizers negatively affects the taste of the fruit.
- the danger of contamination of fields with weeds, and plantings with fungi
- unbalanced content of nutrients.
Organic fertilizers have an unpleasant, pungent odor. Delivery and distribution of them on the land plot requires large financial and power costs.
Spring feeding involves the introduction of not only organic matter, but also minerals. If the soil is saturated with exclusively organic additives, then the plants will suffer from a lack of potassium and phosphorus. This will lead to a decrease in the growth rate and a deterioration in the quality of the fruit.
But before fertilizing, you should familiarize yourself with certain standards:
- nitrogen fertilizers (calcium and ammonium nitrate, urea) are applied in 300-350 grams for each 1 m2
- potash (potassium chloride, potassium salt, potassium sulfate) - 200 grams for each 1 m2
- phosphoric (superphosphate) - 250 grams for each 1 m2.
When using factory-made granular fertilizers, carefully read the instructions on the package. Manufacturers describe in detail the dosage depending on the characteristics of the crops grown.
Many gardeners are wary of the “chemistry” packaged in colorful bags. But you shouldn't be afraid of her. Complex mineral supplements, produced in the form of liquid and granules, are designed to fully satisfy the needs of plants for all microelements.
How to recognize which mineral fertilizers are in short supply? By and large, this is not difficult to do. Examine the plants carefully and everything will become clear.
Mineral fertilizers are of different types - for different soil and plant problems.
Nitrogen supplements increase the green mass of plants and increase yields. Lack of nitrogen manifests itself in stunted growth, delayed flowering and reduced leaf thickness. Nitrogen fertilization in the spring is mandatory because this element is lacking in almost all soils.
Potassium promotes intensive growth of the root system and helps shrubs withstand sudden temperature changes. With a lack of potassium, the leaves lose their rich green tint and become pale yellow.
Phosphorus increases the rate of development and ripening of fruits. Phosphorus starvation is indicated by dull color of leaves, painful appearance of flowers and late ripening of fruits.
Ready-made mineral complexes can be both single-component and complex. They are good because they not only contain nutrients, but also increase the defenses of plants, allowing them to effectively resist bacteria and fungi. For example, the Kristallon complex possesses such properties.
Factory fertilizers provide another significant plus - you can choose a complex for a particular plant or flower. So, "Bulba" is an organic mineral supplement that stimulates the rapid germination of potatoes. The Kemira-Universal mixture is suitable for fertilizing fruit trees and berry bushes. In the spring, this fertilizer is laid dry.
Important tips for spring plant fertilization
We figured out WHAT to fertilize the land with, but this is clearly not enough to achieve a positive result. It is important to know HOW to add supplements correctly.
For spring feeding, choose complex mineral fertilizers with a high nitrogen content. Examine the packaging carefully. In the abbreviation NPK, opposite the first letter N, corresponding to nitrogen, the largest numerical value should be displayed.
Do not fertilize too early, wait for the snow cover to melt. Some gardeners violate this rule and make a mistake - along with the snow, useful substances "flow away". Fertilizers in granules are applied in March - they dissolve for a long time, liquid fertilizers - in April-May. If the soil is too dry, water it before laying.
Fertilize where there are many roots. That is, not under the very trunk of the tree, but around it. After the introduction of granular nutrient mixtures, the soil must be loosened.
When applying fertilizers, it is important to consider the type of soil. You can determine what kind of soil you have in certain areas (acidic, alkaline or neutral) in a laboratory way.
This is the most reliable option, however, if there is no opportunity to donate land samples for research, you should not despair. People's signs will come to the rescue.
It has long been noted that moss, plantain and horsetail prefer acidic soils, quinoa and mustard - alkaline, clover and nettle - neutral.
Each type of soil has its own fertilizer.
Compost and grass mulch can be applied every year, and manure and droppings can be applied every two years. Sawdust, which is added to organic matter, improves the outflow of moisture into the deep layers of the soil, which means that it accelerates the absorption of nutrients. The depth of the bookmark is of great importance. You will be most effective by placing the fertilizer at the depth of the shovel blade.
Organomineral granular fertilizers are recognized as the best. They are able to dose the release of useful components to the roots - the plant receives first of all those that it desperately needs. One-component mineral supplements require careful attention, as affect the composition of the soil (degree of salinity, acidity, etc.).
Consider how to fertilize potatoes, strawberries and raspberries, fruit trees and flower gardens in the spring.
For fertilization, a point or continuous method is used. The first method is laborious because you have to add nutrients to each well.
It cannot cope with such work alone - ideally, three people are needed. One digs a hole, the second adds top dressing, the third puts the tubers.
For fertilization, a mixture of rotted manure and ash is prepared (1 liter can of manure and half a can of ash per 1 hole).
Continuous application is practiced where large areas are required. Fertilizers are simply scattered over the entire surface of the earth. For poor soils, compost (5 kg), superphosphate (3 kg), ammonium sulfate (3 kg), potash fertilizers (2.5 kg) are prepared. For fertile soils - compost (2 centners), ammonium sulfate (2 kg), potassium additives and superphosphate (1.5 kg each). Compost can be replaced with manure.
Strawberries and raspberries
Spring feeding will accelerate the ripening of fruits, which will be brighter and sweeter than usual. Fertilizers are applied on the leaf, under the roots or between the beds. The first step is to free the bushes from weeds, loosen the soil and sprinkle it with peat. Then the plant is watered with a liquid nitrogen complex, for example, "Kemira" (20 grams per 10 liters).
The next 14 days, nitrogenous additives are not added. After the appearance of the leaves, they are fed with a mineral-organic fertilizer in liquid form. Fertilizing the soil with potassium will increase the palatability of the strawberries.
Raspberries are one of the most picky shrubs to feed. Requires the mandatory introduction of compost, peat or humus. A loose environment will provide good air and moisture exchange, eliminating the need to weed the near-trunk soil.
If we talk about foliar fertilization, then spraying with zinc and bromine should be noted, which has a beneficial effect on the general well-being of berry bushes.
The first fertilization is done before the first leaves appear. A little superphosphate is laid out near the trunk circles in early March. Such terms are explained by the fact that phosphorus takes a long time to transform into a form "digestible" for trees. Organic matter (humus and ash) is introduced after the complete melting of snow and thawing of the soil. Remember to loosen the ground.
Complex mineral fertilizers are introduced towards the end of spring. It is desirable that they contain more potassium. This will significantly improve the quality of the ovaries and improve the taste of the fruit.
Now you know what fertilizer should be applied in the spring and how to do it correctly. Follow simple recommendations and a rich harvest awaits you in the fall. Good luck in your spring work!