Venus flytrap

Venus flytrap

The carnivorous insectivorous plant Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is a species of the monotypic genus of the Rosyanka family. Under natural conditions, such a plant can be found in New Jersey, Georgia, as well as in North and South Carolina, and it prefers to grow in peat bogs. This species has been listed on the American List of Endangered Plants.

The scientific name of this plant is muscipula, which means "mousetrap". Most likely, this is due to the fact that the specialist who described this species was simply mistaken. In England such a flower is called Venus flytrap, which is identical to the Russian name "Venus flytrap". In another way, this plant is also called dionea. This flower was first found in 1760, at the same time it was given the name Dionea in honor of the Greek goddess who was the mother of Aphrodite (Venus). Such an unusual flower has long been grown indoors, and it is very popular with flower growers around the world.

Brief description of cultivation

  1. Bloom... It is observed in May or June and lasts for several weeks.
  2. Illumination... In general, the plant needs diffused bright light. However, the flower should be illuminated by direct sunlight for 4-5 hours every day. For its cultivation, windows of an east or west orientation are well suited. If the Venus flytrap grows in a terrarium or florarium, then it must be provided with additional lighting with special lamps.
  3. Temperature regime... In the spring and summer, the air temperature in the room can vary from 20 to 30 degrees, and in winter it can be reduced to 8 degrees.
  4. Watering... Experienced growers recommend placing the flower pot on a tray filled with water (rain or distilled water is best). Moreover, pay attention to the fact that the holes at the bottom of the pot must be immersed in the liquid. In this case, when the plant needs moisture, it will be able to take it in the right amount by itself.
  5. Air humidity... Such a flower needs a very high level of humidity. That is why it is recommended to cultivate it in a florarium or terrarium.
  6. Fertilizer... The plant does not need feeding, since it takes all the nutrients from insects. During the growing season, one bush should be fed 2 or 3 flies, which should not be very large and must be alive. At the same time, you cannot put flies into the same trap every time.
  7. Dormant period... With the onset of the autumn period, watering is reduced, and water cannot be left in the sump. Before the onset of spring, it is recommended to transfer the bush to a cool place (from 7 to 10 degrees), while it is completely deprived of light and nutrition. But do not forget to occasionally water the soil mixture with a little water. In the first days of March, the bush is transferred to its permanent place and all the traps left over from last year are cut off. Then it is necessary to gradually return to the care that the plant requires during the growing season.
  8. Transfer... The flower is transplanted in spring at the very beginning of the growing season, but only if necessary (as a rule, once every 2 or 3 years).
  9. Reproduction... Leafy cuttings, dividing the bush, and sometimes seeds (if artificial pollination is successful).
  10. Pests... Spider mites and aphids.
  11. Diseases... Sooty fungus.

Features of the Venus flytrap

The perennial flower Venus flytrap is an insectivorous herb that belongs to the Rosyanka family. This genus includes only one species. An adult bush reaches a height of no more than 15 centimeters. The plant has a bulbous stem. During flowering, a tall peduncle appears, on which a corymbose inflorescence is formed, consisting of white flowers. Since under natural conditions such a predatory flower grows in soil in which the nitrogen content is very low, it extracts this element from mollusks (or rather, slugs), as well as from various insects.

From a short underground stem, 4–7 leaf plates grow, which form a rosette. After the bush has faded, traps begin to grow in it. Their length can vary from 8 to 15 centimeters, and they are painted in a green tint, however, under intense light, the color of their inner cavity becomes reddish. The formation of traps is observed on the tops of short petioles, which are collected in a rosette. The length of the petioles gradually increases and over time they take up a vertical position. The trap includes 2 flaps with very sparse bristles along the edges. The trap has glands inside that are capable of producing nectar, and it is he who attracts the victim. There are also 3 triggers on the edge of the trap. After they are irritated by the insects, the trap will slam shut, and the Venus flytrap itself will begin to produce digestive secretions. The plant is able to digest its prey in 5-10 days, and then it will reopen the trap leaf. One trap is capable of digesting 2-3 insects, and then it dies off. But it also happened that the same trap was able to digest 7 victims in a row.

Venus flytrap. Caring for Dionea

Caring for the Venus Flytrap at home

The Venus flytrap is cultivated both indoors and in the garden. Despite the fact that it is quite difficult to grow it, it is quite possible if you know all the rules and features.

Illumination

In order for the flower to develop normally, it will need to create the most suitable conditions. Experts advise, if possible, to put the bush on a window of western or eastern orientation. When choosing a suitable place for him, it should be borne in mind that he needs sunbathing every day, lasting from 4 to 5 hours. And remember that the bush is able to normally tolerate the rays of only the evening or morning sun. If there is too little light, then the Venus flytrap will need additional artificial lighting.

This flower, cultivated at home, is often grown in florariums or terrariums, since it is in this case that the optimal level of air humidity can be achieved, which should be quite high. But under these conditions, the flower must be provided with artificial lighting: for this, a lamp is installed at a height of about 20 centimeters from the bush, the power of which must be at least 40 watts. The lamp must be turned on every day, and the optimal daylight hours for such a plant are from 14 to 16 hours.

The flower reacts extremely negatively to stagnant air, in this regard, the room where it is located must be systematically ventilated. However, there should be no draft, and the bush must be shaded from the direct rays of the sun. In the summer, if possible, transfer the bush to the balcony. Remember that the flower reacts extremely negatively to any of its movements, therefore, trying to achieve uniform growth of the bush, in no case should it be turned.

Temperature regime

In the summer, such a plant should be kept at an air temperature of 20 to 30 degrees. And in winter, it is recommended to move it to a cooler place (about 7 degrees).

Watering

The root system of such a plant cannot process mineral salts from the soil; therefore, soft rainwater is used for irrigation. But keep in mind that it is necessary to store such water in plastic containers, and not in metal ones. If there is no rainwater, then it can be replaced with distilled water. Make sure that the soil mixture in the container is always slightly damp. If the plant feels a lack of water, then its traps may die because of this.

It is not recommended to water the Venus flytrap in the usual way. It is better to put a pot with a bush on a pallet, into which water is then poured. Make sure that the holes in the bottom of the pot intended for drainage are immersed in the liquid. In this case, the plant will be able to take water when it needs it.

Top dressing

This flower does not need additional fertilizing, so you do not need to add any fertilizers to the soil mixture. He gets all the nutrients he needs from the insects he eats.

How to feed a Venus flytrap

To feed such a flower, in no case should beetles with a hard chitinous shell, earthworms and gnawing insects be used, since they can injure the trap. Also, you cannot use sausage or meat for feeding, as this may cause rot on the trap. Throughout the growing season, it is enough for the bush to give 2 or 3 not very large spiders, flies or mosquitoes. An insect cannot be given to a plant if:

  • it is weakened or affected by some kind of disease;
  • it was grown in an extremely humid environment and with poor lighting;
  • the bush was recently transplanted or suffered any other stress.

From the last days of September, it is necessary to stop any feeding, and resume it again only with the onset of spring.

Carnivorous plant Dionea Venus flytrap eats

Venus flytrap transplant

The Venus flytrap grown indoors requires regular transplants, which are carried out 1 time in 2 or 3 years. The best time for this procedure is spring. A flower pot for transplanting a bush should be chosen high, but not wide. The fact is that its root system in length can reach about 20 centimeters. Transplant Venus flytrap very carefully, as its root system is rather fragile. To begin with, remove the bush from the container, and then remove all the soil mixture from its roots. In the event that the substrate is poorly separated from the root system, it is immersed in water for a while. The foliage must be rinsed with a sprayer.

A suitable soil mixture should consist of perlite, peat and quartz sand (2: 4: 1). Before combining all the components together, the sand should be boiled in a distillate, and the perlite is poured with water for 7 days. Such a plant does not need a drainage layer. When the transplant is completed, the bush will need 5 weeks of rest, during which time it will be able to adapt to the fresh soil mixture. Throughout this time, the bush should be in a little shade, and do not forget to increase the abundance of watering.

Venus Flytrap Transplant

Venus flytrap bloom

How to care during the flowering period

In the Venus flycatcher, flowering is observed in May or June. The bush grows long peduncles, on the top of which corymbose inflorescences are formed, they include white flowers, which reach about 10 mm in diameter and have a sweetish odor. The bush blooms for several weeks. If you do not need seeds, then cut off all the buds from the bush before they open. The fact is that flowering takes a lot of energy from the plant, and therefore the development and growth of its traps deteriorates.

Winter care

With the onset of the autumn period, new leaves stop growing, and preparation for the dormant period begins at the flower itself. The plant needs to be helped to enter hibernation, for this it will be enough to reduce the number and frequency of watering, and the water now needs to be poured out of the pan. In winter, the bush should be kept in a shaded place, where it should be pretty cool (about 7-10 degrees). For example, the plant can be transferred to a closed loggia, and if desired, it can be put together with the pot in the lower drawer of the refrigerator. Throughout the winter, the flower does not need light or nutrients. However, it is necessary to water the Venus flytrap in winter, but this is done very carefully and rarely, since with stagnant water in the substrate, the root system can rot. During the dormant period, the bush completely loses its decorative effect: its foliage turns brown and dies off.

In the first half of March, the bush is transferred to its permanent place, after which all the traps left over from the last growing season are cut off from it. Further, they begin to take care of him in the same way as is necessary in the warm season. But remember that the bush will begin to grow intensively only in the last days of May.

Reproduction methods

Growing a Venus Flytrap from seeds

To grow a Venus flytrap from seeds, you first need to get them. And this will require artificial pollination of its flowers, which is carried out using a cotton swab or a brush with soft bristles. If the pollination is successful, then about 30 days after it, small bolls are formed on the bush, inside which there are seeds.

Remember that the seed material of such a flower loses its germination rather quickly, so it must be sown 3 months after the end of pollination. To do this, take a small container filled with warm soil mixture, which includes 30 percent quartz sand and 70 percent sphagnum moss. In the event that the seed has lain longer, then before proceeding with sowing, it must be stratified. To do this, the seeds are wrapped in moss and put in a bag, which is tightly closed. Then this bag is removed on the refrigerator shelf for 6 weeks.

Spread the seed over the surface of the soil mixture, and you do not need to embed it. Then moisten the crops from the sprayer using soft water. The container is transferred to a mini-greenhouse and placed under a bright but diffused light, which can be either artificial or sunny. The optimum air temperature for germination is from 24 to 29 degrees. The first seedlings should appear after 15–20 days. Check the surface of the substrate every day and, if necessary, moisten it with a spray bottle, as it should be slightly damp all the time. When another 15–20 days have passed, the grown and strengthened seedlings dive into individual small pots, reaching from 80 to 90 mm in diameter. But remember that the seedling you have grown will not become an adult plant soon, but only after about 5 years.

Leafy cuttings

Cut off a leaf plate from an adult bush. The cut site is treated with Kornevin, after which the cutting must be planted in a soil mixture (peat and quartz sand) at an angle, covered with a transparent bag or glass jar on top, and transferred to a place with diffused and bright light. There the leaf will remain until growth appears at its base. This usually happens after 3 months. Remember that not all leafy cuttings will be able to take root, as they are often affected by fungal diseases.

reproduction of dionea (flycatcher)

Dividing the bush

You can propagate such a flower by dividing the bush. This method is the simplest and fastest, and therefore is very popular with flower growers. It is recommended to carry out division during transplantation. To do this, take a bush that is 1-2 years old, pull it out of the container, remove all soil mixture from the roots, and then use a pre-sterilized sharp tool to separate the daughter sockets from the adult bush. They are planted in individual pots and removed to a shaded place, where they will stay until they take root.

Diseases and pests

Pests

Despite the fact that the Venus flytrap is an insectivorous plant, it can also suffer from various pests. For example, aphids can settle in traps, which makes them deformed.To get rid of such a harmful insect, you can treat the flower with an insecticidal preparation (in the form of an aerosol).

If there is excessively dry air in the room, then spider mites can settle on the bush. To exterminate them, you will need to spray the bush with a solution of an acaricidal preparation. One treatment will not be enough, so the plant is sprayed 2 or 3 times with a break of 7 days.

Diseases

With stagnant water in the substrate and an excessively high level of air humidity, a sooty fungus forms on the bush. To get rid of it, fungicidal agents are used. Also, if the flower is in unsuitable conditions for it, then gray rot, or botrytis, may develop on it. As a result, a gray fluff appears on the surface of the bush. As soon as the first signs of such a disease are noticed, it is necessary to cut off all the affected parts of the bush as soon as possible, and then it is sprayed with a solution of a fungicidal preparation.

A bactericidal infection is very dangerous for such a plant. It develops when the Venus flytrap is unable to digest the victim it has caught. Because of this, the insect trap rots, turns black, and then there is a rapid spread of the disease throughout the bush. In this case, cut off the problem trap as soon as possible and spray the bush with a solution of the fungicidal agent.

Types and varieties of Venus flytrap

In Dionea, the genus is monotypic, which means that it includes only one species: the Venus flytrap. However, thanks to breeders, today there are a large number of varieties. For instance:

  1. Danate Trap... In diameter, the bush can reach from 10 to 12 centimeters and 5–12 traps are formed in it. The plant is colored green, with a red strip running along the front surface of the traps. The inner surface of the traps is red. Both foliage and traps are placed almost vertically.
  2. Giant... The leaf rosette of such a flower is green. The bush in a relatively short time forms traps that are larger than 50 mm. If the lighting is bright, then the traps are painted in a deep purple hue.
  3. Akai Ryu... In such a plant, both foliage and traps are painted in a dark red hue, which remains in shade and in bright light. There is a green stripe on the outer surface of the traps.
  4. Ragula... The leaf plates of the bush are green, and there are also alternating traps of red and purple hues.
  5. Bohemian Garnet... The dark green bush reaches about 12 centimeters across, 5–12 traps are formed on it. Wide leaf plates cover the entire surface of the soil mixture. Traps are also placed horizontally.
  6. Funnel Trap... While the bush is young, it is colored green, but after some time its traps turn red, but the petioles do not change their color. On one bush, 2 types of traps are formed, which differ in structure.
  7. Crocedile... Young bushes are green in color, but the inner surface of the traps is pale pink. However, after a while, the traps turn red. The sheet plates are arranged horizontally.
  8. Triton... This green bush differs from other varieties in that its traps have an unusual shape. They are elongated and cut on only one side, while their teeth often stick together.
  9. Dracula... In a green-colored plant, the traps have a red inner cavity. Their denticles are short, and from the outside at their base there is a red stripe.

VENERINA MUKHOLOVKA OR DIONEA | CARE OF A PREDATORY PLANT


Venus flytrap, how to care for her at home

Venus flytrap, referred to in "academic circles" - Dioneausually gives rise to a double feeling. On the one hand, this is a pretty plant that surprises with its unusual shape and color, and on the other hand, it frightens with its "toothy jaw" and a predatory, not at all floral disposition. But in any case, the Venus flytrap will never go unnoticed and always attract attention. And the owners of this exotic are proud of her no less (or even more) than orchids, azaleas, indoor bananas and pineapples.

Even novice growers can grow and successfully care for the Venus flytrap. Despite the exoticism, Dionea is not at all a capricious plant and caring for it is a little more difficult than for the usual geraniums, hydrangeas or begonias.


How to grow a Venus flytrap at home

Growing a flycatcher from seeds is troublesome, but very interesting. For a successful outcome of the event, you need to be patient and have the necessary materials.

Preparatory stage

If you decide to grow a flycatcher from seeds, consider where you will get the seeds. They can be purchased from a specialist store or harvested from an adult plant.

Consider whether you can provide the conditions for stratification and germination of Dionea seeds. Prepare the required container and soil before planting.

Selection and preparation of seeds

Before you start preparing for the reproduction of Dionea, you need to carefully look at what the seeds of the Venus flytrap look like. Quality seeds have a black, shiny surface.

Before planting, the seeds of Dionea must be stratified. To do this, spread a napkin moistened with a solution of potassium permanganate on a saucer. Spread the seeds on the cloth, wrap and place the saucer in the refrigerator. Leave the seeds in the cold for 8 weeks. Such preparation will allow you to harden the planting material and increase the chances of germination and survival.

If you are still worried about the safety of the seeds and are afraid of infections, try soaking the seeds in a solution of potassium permanganate for 2 hours before stratification, and then dry them. Dip a napkin in a solution prepared from a glass of water and 2-3 drops of fungicide. Wrap the seeds in it and place in a plastic bag. Put the planting stock in the refrigerator and leave to stratify for 8 weeks.

The readiness of the seed for planting can be determined by the presence of a fine mesh of cracks in the seed coat. It is better to start preparing seeds in mid-February.

How to choose a container and soil

For sowing flycatcher seeds, a spacious, not deep bowl or plastic container, 12-14 cm high, is suitable. It is advisable to use containers that have a transparent lid. So it will be convenient to build a small greenhouse. But if there is no lid, the container can be covered with foil.

Avid Dionea lovers recommend using an aquarium for growing. It is easiest to provide the seedlings with comfortable conditions there.

The soil for the Venus flytrap must be loose.... The soil must be prepared from equal parts of peat, quartz sand and perlite. Quartz sand must be disinfected before use. To do this, the sand is calcined in the oven for 15 minutes at a temperature of 200 ° C.

Before mixing with earth, perlite must be soaked in distilled water. This material will help retain moisture and increase the chances of seed germination.

How to plant Venus flytrap seeds

  1. A layer of sphagnum moss should be laid on the bottom of the container, moistened. It will retain moisture and prevent the soil from drying out.
  2. Fill the container with soil and level.
  3. Plant the seeds, burying them 0.5 cm in the ground. The distance between the seeds is 2 cm. Sprinkle the plantings with a small amount of soil mixed with moss.
  4. Moisten the soil.
  5. Cover the container with foil and place in a bright place protected from direct sunlight. This will provide the seedlings with greenhouse conditions. Do not forget that for normal development, the plant needs to be exposed to light for at least 15 hours a day.

The optimum temperature for seed germination is 25-28 ° C. Make sure that the soil is constantly wet.

Seedling care

Caring for seedlings is not difficult, but requires care. Cotyledonous leaves will appear in 25-35 days. With the appearance of the first leaves, the sprouts must be regularly ventilated, opening the film for a short time. The "walk" time should not exceed 5 minutes. Thus, the seedlings are hardened and will not rot from excessive moisture.

Protect young plants from hypothermia. The critical temperature for seedlings is 17 ° C. It is better to moisten the plantings with a spray bottle or through a pallet.

After 5-6 leaves appear on the shoots, the seedlings must be transplanted into separate pots. Try to do this very carefully - the roots of young plants are fragile and easily damaged.

Farmed flycatchers will not reach adulthood soon. The time of maturity will come only after 5 years. The reproduction process of Dionea cannot be called easy, but as a reward for your patience and work, you will receive one of the most mysterious plants on earth.


The flower loves sunlight, because in nature it is used to growing in well-lit places, albeit in a swamp. Take care of bright light for at least four hours a day, the flower will feel comfortable. But the rest of the time the flower should not be in the shade.

The best place for a Dionea is the south window; in the summer it is advisable to take the flower outdoors - a balcony and a garden.


Venus flytrap from seeds at home

In spring, the plant blooms with beautiful white flowers, which, after manual pollination, give seeds. After about a month, tiny bolls form. The seeds are fully ripe 2-3 months after pollination.

For sowing, you can use the same medium as for growing adult Diones. They are sown over a mixture of warm prepared substrate (sphagnum moss 70% and sand 30%), and on top they are covered with 1-3 mm of washed quartz sand. Live sphagnum can inhibit seedling growth, so use finely chopped long, fibrous, dry moss.

The substrate is sprayed with warm water and, to create greenhouse conditions, the pots are covered with a transparent bag in which small holes are made. The pots are placed in a place with diffused light.


Note non-carnivorous cotyledons with attached seed, the first true leaves have traps

Monitor the moisture content of the soil, preventing it from drying out, periodically spraying water on the surface of the substrate. Usually shoots appear on 15-20 days. One week after germination, the cover can be removed.

After the seedlings form 2-3 leaves and one trap, they are carefully transplanted 3-4 pieces into a separate pot. The seedlings require a lot of light, at least 3-4 hours a day. The seedlings will take about 3 years to grow to the size of an adult predatory flycatcher.


The same seedling in a few weeks

Reproduction by dividing the mother bush is simpler. With age, when Dionea forms several points of growth, you can begin to divide it. The accreted roots are carefully cut, and young plants are planted in new flowerpots.


Reproduction by division


Watch the video: Hungry Venus flytraps snap shut on a host of unfortunate flies. Life - BBC