Stories of new plant species for St. Petersburg and Russia
Studying the history of the appearance of gardens in St. Petersburg, Tsarskoe Selo, one involuntarily plunges into the activities of Peter I, unfamiliar to most of us, as an organizer and creator, a zealous owner of the first gardens.
He carefully preserved forests during the initial construction of the city. The most valuable broad-leaved species - oak - was almost never found. And those trees that we met were especially protected. In the first description of St. Petersburg 1710-1711. mentions of Peter's order to keep "in special honor" two ancient oak trees that grew on the seaside of the island of Retusari (Kotlin). They were surrounded by a fence, in the shade they set up a gazebo overlooking the sea, in which the tsar liked to "sit with the shipbuilders". But in the descriptions of the city five years later, there is no longer any mention of these oaks.
Peter I's special predilection for oak was explained by the fact that it was the main tree species from which the hulls of ships were then built. One of the ships of the young fleet built in 1718 was even named "Old Oak". It was said that Peter the Great himself planted acorns along the Peterhof road, wishing that oaks were planted everywhere. Noticing that one of the noble nobles smiled at his work, turned around and said in anger: "I understand, you think I will not live to see mature oaks. True, but you are a fool. I leave an example to others, so that, doing the same, descendants over time, they built ships from them. I do not work for myself, the benefit of the state in the future! "
Another valuable broad-leaved species, beech, was extremely rare in the forests of the time of Peter the Great. Perhaps its last specimens were found in the 50s of the last century at the Duderhof Heights.
Building up the city, Peter the Great preserved the mother forests as much as possible: a small spruce grove was left on the banks of the Neva in front of the present Trinity Bridge; another spruce grove was preserved on the banks of the Moika River, opposite the Particular Shipyard; The spruce forest was left on the island during the establishment of New Holland. The latter was declared by Peter to be a reserve, which marked the beginning of the history and the very protection of urban nature. The laws were strict: for the felling of protected forests, as well as trees suitable for building ships, "the death penalty will be carried out without mercy, whoever may be" (decrees of Peter I of November 19, 1703, of January 19, 1705) ... Judging by the fact that the decrees were repeated, the felling continued, there were punishments for them, but, as historians say, the matter did not reach the death penalty.
But the forests, of course, were doomed to felling, since the city was being built, and the main material in the beginning was wood. In addition, the owners of estates on the Fontanka were ordered to cut down dense forests in order to deprive the habitats of "dashing people" who "repaired attacks" on the townspeople.
Arrangement of the first gardens
The gardens at the beginning of the 18th century were arranged in the Dutch style, which Peter I loved so much. As a child, he grew up in such gardens in Moscow, which were strongly influenced by the Dutch Baroque. This love for beautiful gardens, trees, fragrant flowers and herbs remained with him for life. Passion for gardens was supported by considerable knowledge of botany and horticulture. Peter I, in fact, was the first and main gardener of St. Petersburg. He single-handedly decided which plants would grow here, and he was engaged in this with enthusiasm, as well as many other urgent matters. Where does such love and knowledge in gardening come from?
According to the historian I. Ye. Zabelin, "not one of our ancient Tsars, in his home life, did not engage in agriculture with such passion as Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich" (Peter's father). "... because of his liveliness of character, he devoted himself to every business with particular fervor" and, in addition, "loved to bring every business ... to full decency and dispensation." It is surprising that he went down in history under the name of the Quietest ... The fruits of his labors were vast gardens in Izmailovo and Kolomenskoye, in which not only ordinary fruit trees and berries grew, but also rare, even exotic species for the Moscow region: walnuts, mulberry (mulberry tree), Siberian cedars, fir. The vineyard was also planted, but the Astrakhan vine did not grow well there.
(It is interesting that at the behest of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich and with his participation, the first Russian ship "Eagle" was built on the Oka River. Historians find the profile of the ship on the spire of the Admiralty similar to that first ship. So the passion for building ships, apparently, is also not accidental in the life and works of Peter I).
Peter, in all likelihood, inherited from his father and taste for gardening. He planted the same gardens at the palace in Preobrazhensky, where he lived at the beginning of his reign, before leaving for St. Petersburg. Overseas curiosities were grown in the gardens of Peter: cypress, wintering under cover, many flowers from Western Europe. Tulips, daffodils, carnations, marigolds, marigolds (calendula), yellow lilies and other rarities bloomed here. The dog rose, which was then called the "svoborinny color", enjoyed the honor (a real rose was not grown in Russia at that time). Peter especially loved fragrant herbs, wrote out their seeds and ordered to plant them along the paths: rue, tansy, hyssop, "German mint", kalufer (or canufer, balsamic chamomile - a perennial from the Caucasus, Asia Minor, a spicy herb, added to snuff in the XVIII century). It was from the Moscow region and Moscow that Peter ordered to send plants for planting in St. Petersburg. In the spring of 1704, the first flowers and herbs were sent to equip the Summer Garden
It is known that the Summer Garden was "divorced in 1711 according to a plan drawn by the sovereign himself" (SN Shubinsky). Peter I took care of planting gardens not only in St. Petersburg, but also in Moscow, Taganrog, Riga, and Ukraine. He entered into all the details of garden construction, gave orders, being abroad; subscribed to books on gardening, created projects for new gardens.
Judging by the Tsar's papers, he himself ordered tree saplings from Holland through Revel, as well as from Moscow, Lvov, Siberian province, and Ukraine. He especially loved lindens, which are familiar to northern places, and chestnuts. The trees were taken out under the supervision of gardeners, with every precaution to preserve them. In 1712, 1,300 linden trees were ordered from Holland. In addition, elm, cedar, hornbeam, larch, poplar from Holland were imported to Russia. The oaks, which Peter valued so much, were imported from the surrounding Novgorodian places.
Back in 1707, foreign gardeners were invited to transplant large, mature trees without damage, as was done at the French court. One of these craftsmen was Martin Gender, a gardener from Potsdam. Peter's letters to Apraksin have survived: "... you can buy young trees of orange, lemon and others, which are a wonder here.
Plant in boxes to be transported next spring. "For the wintering of thermophilic fig trees (figs), grapes," warm anbars "(greenhouses) were built. The more extensive economic ties with Europe became, the more diverse the range of plants that were planted in St. Petersburg and its surroundings.
Many documents have survived to prove this. TK Goryshina in his book "The Green World of Old St. Petersburg" provides interesting information about this. So, in 1719, the gardener Schultz was sent an order to Hamburg for "3000 pieces of Spanish syringa (lilac), 100 pieces of roses, 20 pieces of terry clematis, cherries of low trees" (that is, bush-shaped), many apricot, peach, chestnut trees. The gardener Steffel was ordered to send an extensive set of seeds and bulbs of flowering plants, spicy and aromatic herbs, and another "2000 yards bukshbom". This was the name of boxwood, an evergreen shrub that was grown in a shorn form in the 18th century to create continuous linear borders, while measured by arshins (1 arshin = 711.2 mm). Orders like this were sent to Amsterdam, Gdansk, Sweden. Even in the decree of Peter (dated January 3, 1717, to Konon Zotov) regarding the sending of noble children to France for training in naval service, at the end there is an unexpected instruction: "Also look for laurel trees that are placed in pots so that from the ground to the crowns they are no higher stems like 2 feet "(1 foot = 304.8 mm).
For the heat-loving southern plants, greenhouses had to be built. The trees were brought from Moscow, Novgorodsky district, from areas north of St. Petersburg. Plants were brought from Sweden on ships specially sent there. Hundreds and even thousands of broad-leaved trees were brought for the parks of St. Petersburg: lindens, maples, elms. It is known that in the spring of 1723 about eight thousand seedlings of linden, ash, elms and maples were brought to the Summer Garden. These rocks were mainly used to create European gardens and parks. Thanks to the initiatives of Peter I, these species from exotic plantings have now become predominant in the green outfit of the city, its gardens and parks.
Peter's decisiveness, speed and onslaught were also reflected in the methods of landscaping the city. He had no time to wait for small seedlings to grow up; he needed to plant large, mature trees. In a letter to Major Ushakov dated February 8, 1716, Peter orders to harvest linden trees near Moscow in winter, chop off their tops and take them to St. Petersburg in the spring. Such transportation by carts on horseback took at least three weeks. We soon became convinced that this is not the best way to transplant. We started summer transplants with a clod of earth, which turned out to be much more effective. Even winter digging was practiced using a special machine, digging in trees until spring. In this way, it was possible to transplant even very capricious breeds. But the main thing, of course, was the careful care of every plant by highly professional gardeners.
It is curious to note that the requirements of imported plants for heat did not bother the customer too much, the "southerners" were simply placed in greenhouses. They were attentive to the soil conditions in which the plants grew in their homeland. For example, when ordering a horse chestnut in Holland, Peter I ordered to take trees growing on different soils, while collecting and sending soil samples in "small bags" in order to select the most suitable land for planting here.
In the post-Petrine period, the composition of the foreign flora largely depended on the foreign gardeners who worked at that time, who brought their tastes and preferences to the look of city gardens and parks, in addition to colossal professional experience and knowledge. Naturally, the German gardeners ordered many plants from Germany, the Dutch from Holland. When arranging the Tauride Garden at the end of the 18th century, the work was carried out by the English gardener V. Gould, and most of the trees and flowering plants were brought from England. There were even garden incidents: in the middle of the 18th century, while working in Tsarskoye Selo Park, the gardener Yakob Rechlin insisted on uprooting most of the main tree species, the linden, already growing in it, as "not very decent." It was replaced with sheared yew and tubed laurel. (It should be noted that in the past few years, the front part of the regular park and the square in front of the Catherine Palace were again decorated with laurel tub trees with spherical and pyramidal crown shapes).
History of Dutch gardens in Russia
Trying to rebuild Russian life, Peter began precisely with the creation of gardens, sending his people abroad to study Dutch gardening art. Peter's favorite gardener was the Dutchman Jan Rosen, who also created the Tsarskoye Selo Garden. At the request of the sovereign, a sculpture was added to the classic Dutch garden, which adorned the alleys and labyrinths of the garden. The ideological concept of this innovation was to introduce elements of a European, secular attitude towards the world and nature into the worldview of visitors. A new for them, common European emblem was being introduced into the minds of Russians. In this regard, in 1705 in Amsterdam, by order of Peter, the book "Symbols and Emblems" was published, which was later reprinted several times.
The book presented examples of the symbolic system of gardens, their decorations, triumphal arches, fireworks, sculptural decorations of buildings and gardens. In fact, it was a new, secular "primer" of the sign system instead of the previous church one.
In an effort to establish closer cultural ties with Europe as soon as possible, Peter I strove to make ancient mythology understandable and familiar to educated Russian people. Gardening art was the most accessible and at the same time highly effective. The Summer Garden, as the first city garden, became a kind of "academy" where Russian people passed the beginning of European cultural education. Labyrinths of sheared living plants were arranged there according to the models of Versailles, as well as plots from the life of people on the themes of "Aesopian parables". Peter valued Aesop's Proverbs so much as an important element of the new European education that they were translated by Ilya Kopievsky and published in Amsterdam in Russian and Latin among the first books. The same subjects were used in the construction of parks in Peterhof, Tsarskoe Selo.
Historians note Peter's special love for rare flowers (their seeds and seedlings were ordered from abroad), to "porcelain sets for decorating flower beds", and also an addiction to garden crackers. Various firecracker fountains still attract the attention of numerous guests of the beautiful parks of Peterhof.
The Dutch garden was filled with fruit trees and shrubs, arranged in a regular style, and always a lot of flowers. The owner's house could be located on the side of the main axis of the garden, on both sides of which there were terraces and green "offices". (The summer garden is an example.) In Dutch gardening, it was customary to densely plant a house (or palace) with trees. In the same way, in the Old Garden of Tsarskoye Selo, trees used to closely adjoin the garden facade of the Catherine Palace.
These ancient lindens mostly survived the Great Patriotic War. In the 60s, the reconstruction of the Old Garden began in order to revive its regular "Versailles" look, in imitation of which it was created. Each reconstruction of historical objects, be it architectural monuments or parks, which are living objects that change over time, arouses discussions among specialists and society about the period for which a given object should be restored to its historical appearance. In the case of the Dutch Garden in the Catherine Park of Tsarskoye Selo, the choice was made in favor of the period of the greatest heyday of the park and the palace in the middle of the 18th century, during the reign of Elizabeth Petrovna. Most of the old trees, which could no longer be cut according to the rules of a regular garden, were cut down, to the great chagrin of many admirers of Tsarskoye Selo gardens.
Later the term "Dutch garden" came to mean a small garden near a house with a lot of flowers. It began to have a similar meaning in the English language, called "Dutch Garden". "Dutch gardens" were classified as gardens of the romantic type. Such were the gardens of Russian estates of the 19th century, being an integral and organic part of the transition from the architecture of the house, the mansion to the landscape part of the estate park. DS Likhachev in his book "Poetry of Gardens" describes in great detail and fascinatingly the history and various styles of gardens of different times and countries, including the romantic gardens of Tsarskoye Selo.
The history of new plant species for St. Petersburg
At the beginning of the XXI century, we got used to the abundance of ornamental plants growing in private gardens, parks, and just on the streets of cities. But this was not always the case, and the actual ornamental gardens are still very rare.
More often than not, our private gardens are reminiscent of the composition of the cultures of the old Dutch gardens, which began to decorate the capital and its suburbs. And in them fruit trees, berries, garden vegetables and many flowers were certainly planted.How did the accumulation and enrichment of the types of decorative and food crops, methods of caring for them take place? And again we have to go back to the times of Peter the Great.
Thousands of people were employed in the construction of St. Petersburg. Working conditions in the local climate were monstrously harsh. In order to somehow maintain the health of the workers and the army, by order of Peter in 1714, the Pharmaceutical Garden was founded on one of the islands in the delta of the Neva River. Various medicinal plants began to be grown there. But Peter's idea from the very beginning was much broader than this practical task.
Gardeners were obliged to breed rare "overseas" plants. Subsequently, the Pharmaceutical Garden grew into the Medico-Botanical Garden. On its basis in 1823, the Imperial Botanical Garden was established, which by the beginning of the 20th century became one of the largest botanical gardens in the world, a center of botanical science. His collections of living plants, herbarium, collection of botanical literature are becoming known far beyond the borders of Russia.
The collection began with herbaceous plants, but by 1736 there were about 45 species of wood species. Through the efforts of botanists, the collections were continuously replenished after each expedition. In different years, the number of only arboreal species acclimatized in our conditions reached 1000 names, not to mention herbaceous garden and greenhouse plants. Further, the Botanical Garden became a source of introduction to the culture of St. Petersburg and its environs of new, adapted to local conditions, many hundreds of species of ornamental plants.
Special scientific institutions collected collections of agricultural crops, developing new technologies for their cultivation, creating new varieties and hybrids. The Institute of Plant Industry, its Experimental Stations located throughout the country became such an institution. Since 1938, the Control and Seed Experimental Station in the city of Pushkin was engaged in the study and implementation of ornamental crops in the production and planting of greenery in the city. In the best years of her work, there were more than 1300 species and varieties of ornamental plants in the collection and production, including flower crops of open and protected ground, flowering shrubs and a large arboretum. The history of many now familiar ornamental plants began in the past centuries.
It is interesting that the tree-like caragana (yellow acacia, as it is called in common parlance), which is now so common in landscaping, was "introduced" into planting by the scientist gardener G. Ekleben, who in 1758-1778 served as the chief master of the Imperial gardens. He was an ardent supporter of the cultivation of the "Siberian pea tree", as this breed was then called, and not only as an ornamental plant, but also as a food plant, using its fruits as food like peas and lentils. True, the food merits of the caragana were not recognized at that time. Getting acquainted with the history of decorative gardening in St. Petersburg, we learn about the fashionable plants at different times, methods of cultivating and preserving them in northern places. In the first half of the 18th century, roses and boxwood were considered the most fashionable. And the now habitual shelter for them for the winter with spruce paws, felt, matting was invented by the Dutch gardener B. Fock.
Many ornamental plants in those days were bred as spices: levkoy, anemone, golden rod (solidago), gentian (gentian) and other species.
In St. Petersburg, there were attempts to acclimate foreign plants for practical use, and not only for decorative purposes. These experiments were carried out by the Free Economic Society, created in 1765. In 1801, Alexander I granted him the western half of Petrovsky Island. On a plot of land cleared from the forest, forage grasses (sainfoin, alfalfa, timothy), buckwheat, oilseeds, dyeing and aromatic herbs, as well as sesame and cotton were sown in the hope that "all this can be born near St. Petersburg."
One of the historians of St. Petersburg was later very critical of new undertakings, but rightly noted the undoubted value of these experiments. This enriched the future cultural flora of our places, and also became one of the sources of urban weeds. In the course of these experiments, it was possible for the first time to grow from larch seeds, which so decorated the city and its parks. But on the whole, the daring experience did not bring the expected result, and in 1836 the land was taken away from the Free Economic Society, and it was allowed to build summer cottages on Petrovsky Island.
In general, the number of species of foreign plants in St. Petersburg was quite significant, although not all attempts at acclimatization were successful. This, together with the ensemble architecture, also made the capital different from the rest of the country. Many species ended up in greenhouses, and others received the name of "fugitives from culture" from botanists, because they really seeped through garden fences and scattered along streets, wastelands, lawns and other habitats. Already at the end of the 19th century (and now also), wild garden flowers came across in the city: early American aster, Central European daisy, subtropical cosmos, Asian aquilegia, now - the ubiquitous North American Jerusalem artichoke. One of the wild medicinal chamomiles - fragrant - from Aptekarsky Island spread not only in St. Petersburg, but also went further, deep into Russia and the Far East.
Peter the Great Botanical Garden in St. Petersburg - all interesting and useful information about the Botanical Gardens of the BIN RAS
The Botanical Garden is the former Imperial Botanical Garden, one of the oldest botanical gardens in Russia. It is located on Aptekarsky Island in St. Petersburg and occupies the area between the Bolshaya Nevka Aptekarskaya Embankment, Karpovka Embankment, Aptekarsky Avenue and Professor Popov Street.
Administratively, it belongs to the V.L.Komarov Botanical Institute. As its department, it is part of the structure of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The Botanical Garden of the BIN RAS traces its history back to the times of Peter the Great, and it is not for nothing that it was named after Peter I.
History of the Botanical Garden
The botanical garden was created as a pharmaceutical garden or vegetable garden. Pharmaceutical gardens began to be created in Russia since the time of Mikhail Fedorovich. They were required for the maintenance of state and field pharmacies. Under Alexei Mikhailovich there were 3 pharmaceutical gardens.
The first such garden in St. Petersburg was planted on the current Bolshaya Okhta, near the ruins of the Nyenskans fortress. Unfortunately, it has not survived to this day. There were also Pharmaceutical gardens on the Moika.
Establishment of the Pharmaceutical Garden
The current Botanical Garden, or as it was then called the Apothecary Garden, was created on one of the islands lying near St. Petersburg - Voroniy by the decree of Peter I dated February 11 (22), 1713. In this regard, the island later became known as the Apothecary.
The main purpose of this garden was to cultivate medicinal herbs. Gradually, the territory of the garden expanded. Under Catherine II, the garden was 300 fathoms long and 200 fathoms wide. A large wooden house was built in it, in which a professor of botany lived, and in the summer - the president of the Medical College.
The garden has always been in close connection with the medical and educational institutions of the capital, serving them as a guide for teaching botany. In the vicinity of the Garden, a school was opened for the children of the clerical workers of the Medical College.
History of the Imperial Garden
In 1823, the Pharmaceutical Garden fell into decay due to the scarcity of allocated funds. It had two departments: medical and botanical, but the number of plants of the latter was small - no more than 1,500 species, and at the same time there were no scientific collections and manuals.
Then the head of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Count Viktor Pavlovich Kochubei, drew attention to him and planned to transform the garden, making it not only a place for cultivating medicinal herbs, but, mainly, a place for science.
The development of a plan for the reconstruction of the garden was entrusted to Professor FB Fisher, who presented this project to Emperor Alexander Pavlovich. In 1823, on March 22, the Highest command was issued to change the structure of the garden according to the plan presented.
It was ordered to combine both departments - medical and botanical - into one garden, to rebuild and improve the buildings. Then, by decree, the Pharmaceutical Garden was renamed the Imperial Botanical Garden.
Fischer was entrusted with the management of the new garden. Soon after, FG Faldermann arrived from London to take up the position of senior gardener, who brought a significant collection of living plants from the capital of Foggy Albion. In 1823, the garden already contained about 15,000 living plants.
Continuing to cultivate pharmaceutical herbs, the Imperial Botanical Garden has since then had the main goal of scientific activity. The garden served as a training ground for gardening and horticulture gardening students, and also had a department for practical training for students.
In 1830, Nicholas I ordered to transfer the Botanical Garden from the Ministry of Internal Affairs to the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Imperial Court. During the second period of the emperor's reign, the Botanical Garden achieved great development in all its parts. In 1863, by decree of Alexander II, it was ordered to transfer the Imperial Botanical Garden from the Ministry of the Court to the Ministry of State Property.
The tsar was ordered to develop the garden in accordance with the requirements of science and its application to practical gardening. Another of the important transformations in the management of the Garden was that from that time they began to hire only free gardeners, and not those belonging to the court-servant rank, as it was before.
In 1873 the Garden celebrated its 50th anniversary. His scientific collections were at that time in such good condition that the Imperial Garden of St. Petersburg was able to take part in the Vienna World Exhibition. In the following years, the St. Petersburg garden participated in all gardening exhibitions, at which it received numerous commendable sheets and medals.
Continuing to annually issue funds for scientific travel, the Garden was enriched with new collections of distant countries. In 1894, a lower school of gardening was opened in the Garden and a major overhaul of a number of greenhouses began, at the International Exhibition of Fruit Growing in St. Petersburg. In 1896, the Garden took part in the All-Russian Exhibition in Nizhny Novgorod.
Peter the Great Garden
Since 1905, Richard Pole has been the keeper of the garden. In 1908, for the first time, the issue of transferring the Botanical Garden to the Academy of Sciences was raised.
In honor of the 200th anniversary of the Botanical Garden in 1913, the Garden was named after Peter the Great.
Soviet history of the Garden
After the revolution of 1917, the greenhouses of the royal residences and private estates of the Aptekarsky Island were transferred to the garden. Since 1918 it has been the Main Botanical Garden of the RSFSR. Since 1925 - the Main Botanical Garden of the USSR. In 1930, the garden was transferred to the jurisdiction of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
In 1931, as a result of the merger of the Botanical Garden with the Botanical Museum of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the Botanical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was formed, now the Botanical Institute named after V.L.Komarov of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
During the Great Patriotic War, the Botanical Garden was badly damaged by bombing. In total, a little more than 250 plants were preserved during the blockade: small seedlings, cacti. Everything was saved, what the employees could take to the apartments, and what they could collect in one small greenhouse, which was heated by stoves.
Everything else was completely destroyed. Fortunately, after the war, the garden was restored, the greenhouses were restored, and collections were collected that even exceeded the pre-war ones.
Botanical garden today
At present, the total area of the Botanical Garden's greenhouses is about 1 hectare. Its length is about 1 km. There are more than 7.5 thousand plants in them. In the park-arboretum, collections of woody and herbaceous plants of open ground are collected and exhibited.
The best botanical gardens in Russia
If there is a botanical garden in the city, it means that there is where to take a walk! Some botanical gardens have become famous throughout the country. Let's talk about the best ones.
Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences N.V. TSITSINA
The Metropolitan Botanical Garden was founded in January 1945. Its main goal was to preserve the Erdenyevskaya Grove and Leonovsky Forest - unique forest areas that Muscovites did not touch even during the war years. The landscaping of the country's main botanical garden was carried out by landscape architects Petrov and Rosenberg, who managed to turn the vast territory into a single ensemble, while preserving its natural originality.
Today the Moscow Botanical Garden is considered the largest in Europe. On 361 hectares, there was a place for a huge park, and for botanical exhibitions, and for a reserved oak forest, and for several picturesque ponds. The collection of the botanical garden is recognized as a national and world heritage - it has 17 400 species of living plants.
One of the most interesting expositions is the arboretum of the Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences, where exotic trees from different parts of the world, from Siberia to the tropics, fit well into the landscapes of the Central Russian zone that are familiar to us. Exotic lianas, trees, shrubs feel great next to birches, oaks, elms and mountain ash. Many of them have perfectly acclimatized in our area, they bloom and bear fruit with might and main. The pride of the exposition is a picturesque garden, skillfully inscribed in Russian landscapes.
One of the most pleasant places for walking in the main resort of Russia is the Sochi arboretum, created at the end of the 19th century by the publisher of the "Petersburg newspaper" Sergei Khudekov.
The huge territory is divided by Kurortny Prospect into two sections - the upper and the lower, which are connected to each other by a cable car.
Each part of the arboretum is decorated in its own special style. Finding yourself at the top of the Arboretum, you seem to find yourself in one of the parks of beautiful southern Italy. Openwork pavilions, colonnades, porticoes, sculptural groups dedicated to subjects from ancient myths reign here.
Also in the upper part of the arboretum you will find landscape-geographical zones, where the flora of the subtropical forests of East Asia, North America, Australia, New Zealand is collected. Parrots, ostriches and majestic peacocks live here in spacious open-air cages. Swans and nutria swim in a small creek.
The lower part of the arboretum is a true English park, designed to highlight the natural beauty of wildlife. Hundreds of flowering plants, bamboo thickets, a magnificent rose garden, cascades of ponds where ducks and swans peacefully coexist with foreign pelicans. And in the lower part there is an aquarium where you can admire the inhabitants of the Red Sea.
This cozy garden, located in the very center of Moscow, is inferior in size to its colleagues - it is quite small. But - the oldest in Russia, it was founded in 1706 by Peter I. He also ordered to move here to live a few cats from the royal palace. Their direct descendants still live in the Pharmaceutical Garden.
Something always blooms in this old park with century-old trees, shady alleys, paths and lawns: from early winter to late autumn - outdoors, in winter - in a greenhouse, where rich collections of cacti, tropical vines and carnivorous plants are collected.
The Pharmaceutical Garden also boasts a rich cultural program: various festivals, exhibitions, concerts and theatrical performances are regularly held here.
Peter the Great Botanical Garden
The second oldest botanical garden in Russia appeared in 1714 in St. Petersburg. Initially, it was a small pharmaceutical garden, where medicinal herbs were grown for Russian soldiers.Gradually, medicinal herbs were replaced by collections of greenhouse plants.
In the first post-revolutionary years in the greenhouses of the garden, tropical and subtropical plants, which were "moved" here from royal palaces and noble mansions, felt great. But during the siege of Leningrad, the plant collections were partially lost. Miraculously managed to save more than 200 species of cacti, several specimens of cycads and several seedlings of palm trees.
The restoration of the botanical garden began immediately after the lifting of the blockade. Most of the seeds of subtropical crops were brought from the Batumi Garden, and in the spring of 1944, the collection of seeds was sent by the Lisbon Botanical Garden.
Today Peter the Great's garden covers over 20 hectares. The greenhouse collection of the garden is recognized as the richest in Russia - it contains more than 13 thousand plant species.
Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden-Institute
Who said that only the tropics bloom? The northernmost botanical garden in Russia is located far beyond the Arctic Circle. Its discovery in 1931 was a large-scale experiment designed to study the possibilities of adaptation of flora representatives from different climatic zones to the climate of the Far North.
Of the 30 thousand plants brought here at different times from different parts of the Earth, about three and a half thousand have managed to survive and adapt to the harsh conditions. Today, the garden's collection includes 650 species of moss, more than four hundred species of circumpolar plants, and more than a thousand species of "immigrants" from the tropics and subtropics. The pride of the collection is a snowdrop garden, a rocky garden and a living herbarium.
Central Siberian Botanical Garden
Another harsh botanical garden is located in the Novosibirsk region. It occupies a thousand hectares. The picturesque coniferous and birch forests are divided in two by the fast river Zyryanka, which gives the garden even more charm.
The collection of this arboretum contains more than seven thousand species of plants, united in colorful zones: Bonsai Park, rocky garden, Waltz of flowers, Garden of continuous flowering.
Soon the subtropics will also come to Siberia: the formation of an exposition of cacti is in full swing, each of which will be devoted to a separate story.
Botanical Garden in Rostov-on-Don
The Rostov Arboretum, which today is part of the Southern Federal University, was opened in April 1927. Since then, it has grown from 74 to 160 hectares.
The first exposition of the garden was a tree-ornamental nursery; a little later, separate collections of fruit and berry plants, nuts, a rose garden and a syringarium, as well as a fund of coniferous crops were created.
The collection of plants from all over the world includes more than 5 thousand species of shrubs and trees, as well as 1,500 greenhouse plants. The garden also owns a unique plot of natural steppe and the mineral spring of Seraphim of Sarov.
Gardens of Russia (Garden and vegetable garden) - online store
The Sady Rossii online store (Garden and vegetable garden) will help you instantly place an order for high-quality planting material, seeds and saplings offered by the Sady Rossii research and production association. The Scientific and Production Association "Sady Rossii" (formerly "Garden and Vegetable Garden") has been introducing the latest achievements in the selection of fruit, berry and ornamental crops into the widespread practice of amateur gardening for more than 20 years.
The path of a new variety from the breeder's laboratory to the hobby gardener's site should be as short as possible.
The online store Sady Rossii (Garden and vegetable garden) offers not only traditional fruit and berry and vegetable crops, but also apricot, Russian plum, grapes, actinidia, rare varieties of perennials. We can say from turnips and potatoes to roses and sakura.
DIRECTORY: Seeds Pharmaceutical garden Watermelons Eggplants Rutabaga beans Peas Daikon Biennials Biennials VIP Home garden Melons Honeysuckle Strawberries Cereals Zucchini Cabbage: white late, white early, white medium late, white medium early, white medium, late broccoli, medium broccoli, Brussels, Chinese, late kohlrabi, medium kohlrabi, red late, red early, red medium late, red early medium, Beijing medium Peking medium early, Peking medium, color late, color early, color medium late, color medium early, color medium. Houseplants Houseplants VIP Corn Lianas Onions on greens Leeks Onions onions Batun onions Uncommon crops The world of toys Perennials Perennials VIP Carrots Carrots the sweetest Carrots-Miracle Cucumbers all-weather Cucumbers for open ground and film shelters Cucumbers for greenhouses Cucumbers-Odd age Hot pepper Sweet pepper Sunflower Tomatoes for long-term storage Tomatoes for open ground Tomatoes for greenhouses and film shelters Tomatoes for greenhouses, film shelters and open ground Tomatoes super large-fruited Tomatoes-Super Tomatoes-Cherry Tomatoes-Miracle Tomatoes-Miracle for connoisseurs and temporary (for open ground shelters) Tomatoes-Miracle raspberry Gingerbread herbs Radish Radish-Miracle Radish Turnip Beets Beet-Miracle Treasury of the Far East Dried flowers Pumpkin Beans Potatoes (spring) Varieties: Belarusian, Early maturing, not damaged by the Colorado potato beetle, Mid-maturing Bow (spring) Large family onion Strawberries (spring) Strawberry late Strawberry early Strawberry remontant Strawberry middle late Strawberry middle early Strawberry middle Raspberry (spring) Repair raspberry Fruit (spring) Actinidia Common barberry Lingonberry Cherry Besseya Blueberry Pear winter varieties Pear summer varieties Pear autumn varieties Cranberries Set of plums on semi-dwarf rootstock Set of Russian plums Schisandra chinensis Raspberry hawthorn leaves Japanese raspberries Mulberry plums Apple trees - low-growing - dwarfs Bulbous, tuberous (spring) Alstroemeria Atsidantera Babiana Dahlia anemovidnye Dahlia fringed Dahlia for collar Dahlia decorative Dahlia cactus Dahlia large-Dahlia miniature Dahlia polukaktusovye Dahlia Pompone Dahlia mixed Gladiolus Ixia irises bearded Iris pumila Iris Louisiana iris ensata Iris sibirica Iris Japanese Calla Cannes Crocosmia Lily Asian Lily oriental Lily oriental terry Lily Longiflorum Lily large species Lilies la-hybrids Lilies loo-hybrids Terry lilies Ot-hybrids Tiger lilies Trumpet lilies Buttercups A set of gladioli A set of freesia Sparaxis Tigridia Perennial herbaceous crops (spring) Aquilegia Akonit Anhuza Astilba Astra bokotsvetkovaya Astra briar Astra scrub Astra New England Symphyotrichum novi-belgii astrantia Badan Ligularia Veronica Anemone Volzanka Voronec Gaur Heuchera helenium Geranium Gypsophila darmera Dicentra Dodekateon Imperato Knifofiya bell sanguisorba Globe-Filipendula Lily Bloodroot Liatris Hemerocallis Lupine Mack cuff Medunitsa Miscanthus Monarda Frost Fern hepatica Peony stevia Rogersia Rhodohypoxis Chamomile Sedum Sidalcea Erythematosus Solidago Ostrich Tradescantia Yarrow Physalis Phlox paniculata Phlox spotted Phlox subulate Hosta Stock-rose Eremurus Echinacea Roses (spring) Canadian Roses Miniature Roses Climbing Roses Ground Cover Roses Floribunda Roses Hybrid Tea Roses Scrub Roses Ornamental trees, shrubs, vines (spring) Azalea akebia Asklepias Barberry Euonymus Buddleja rue Grape decorative Hydrangea arborea Hydrangea macrophylla Hydrangea paniculata Hydrangea Chereshkovaya Deutz Dereza Doren Jefferson Jasmine Honeysuckle Hypericum Iva Kalina Caltha Cotoneaster Clematis Maple Kolkwitz Asarum LEUCOTHOE Mahonia Almond Mukden Walnut Manchurian patrinia Perovskaya Rakitnikov Rhododendrons Rose Wrinkled Sakura Securinega Lilac sumac snowberry Spirea wangutta Japanese Spirea Stefanandra Forsythia Hops Bird cherry virginiana Citrus Lemons Blackberries Indoor plants (spring) Begonia Gabrantus Gloriosa Rothschilda Jasmine multiflorous Kalohortus Oxalis Nerina Selaginella Scadoxus multifloral Sprekelia magnificent Yucca Siderata (spring) Lupine Rye Books Saplings (autumn) Apricot Apricot on a semi-dwarf rootstock of Actinidia set Barberry Grapes Grapes for home winemaking Cherry Cherry Besseya Blueberry Pear Winter varieties Pear Summer varieties Pear Autumn varieties Ornamental trees, shrubs, lianas Blackberry Honeysuckle Honeysuckle Kamchatka Irga with a weakness Kryzhovy Kryzhov blackberry Raspberry-blackberry hybrids Sea-buckthorn Rowan sweet-fruited Rowan black-fruited Plum Plum on a semi-dwarf rootstock Russian plum White currant Golden currant Red currant Pink currant Black currant Ternos plum Cherry Apple trees - low-growing varieties Yarbs Summer varieties Yarbs Repaired raspberry (autumn) Perennials (autumn) Multi-tiered onions Bulbous crops Perennial herbaceous crops Tulips: Fringed, Species, Greig, Darwin hybrids, Green-flowered, Kaufman, Liliaceae, Terry late, Terry early, Multi-flowered, Late, Parrot, Early, Triumph, Tulips-Rembrandt Winter garlic
Tsar Peter I and the "pharmaceutical gardens"
The pillar date of domestic pharmaceuticals: February 14 (new style) 1706 (315 years ago) behind the Sukharev Tower Peter I founded the “Apothecary Garden” for the specialized cultivation of medicinal plants, the very first of all those established by him.
The place was not chosen by the tsar by chance. Firstly, it was the northern outskirts of Moscow, free from buildings. Secondly, the Sukharev Tower was a prototype of the university: the School of Mathematical and Navigational Sciences with a large library, an observatory with telescopes, astronomical clocks, sextants and quadrants for determining the heights of celestial objects and a seven-foot (more than two meters in diameter) globe was located here - a gift to the king Alexei Mikhailovich from the States General of Holland. The schoolchildren looked behind the garden too.
Sukharev tower. Old engraving
The school was headed by Ya.V. Bruce, a scholar of encyclopedic knowledge, whose scientific interests extended much beyond the training of "sons of noblemen, clerks, clerks and other ranks" necessary for the Fatherland professions, not only naval.
Secondly, there was a chapel with cells adjoining the tower, which were under the jurisdiction of the Nikolo-Perervinsky monastery. And who, if not the monks who have been engaged in healing potions since ancient times, would have looked after a useful innovation? In the description of the monastery itself, there is a mention of the fact that it had "a student hospital, a pharmacy and a medical assistant's apartment." Probably since the time of the patriarch of Moscow Adrian, burdened with diseases, who made the monastery his summer residence.
The healing properties of plants for medicinal purposes have been used in Russia since time immemorial, as elsewhere in the world. The first mentions of this are contained in the "Izbornik" of the Grand Duke Svyatoslav Yaroslavich in 1073. Actually "pharmaceutical gardens" appeared in the Kremlin more than two and a half centuries earlier than Peter I, under Ivan the Terrible. He formed the Sovereign's Pharmacy, then (under Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich, in 1620) the Pharmaceutical Chamber arose, twelve years later which grew into the Pharmaceutical Order. All of them served the royal family and close boyars.
Pages of "Izbornik" by Svyatoslav Yaroslavich in 1073. On the left - the title, on the right - the prince's family
Under the second tsar of the Romanov dynasty, Alexei Mikhailovich, the Pharmaceutical Order purchased not only overseas "selected medical products", but also made local ones, for which raw materials (medicinal herbs) were procured in various lands of the Russian state. Procurements of this kind were also facilitated by the Monastic Order - a secular institution that arose according to the Cathedral Code of 1649 to perform financial, administrative and police functions for church affairs.
The circle of concerns of the Pharmaceutical Order was expanded by servicing the army; this required the creation of a Lekarsky School with a training period of 5-7 years. In it, the children of archers and the clergy learned to distinguish between herbs, learned the timing of their collection and the wisdom of making mixtures, then they served in pharmacies or in army regiments.
The highest medical positions in the Pharmaceutical Order and at the Court were still held by foreigners. But under Peter I, the situation began to change: the first Russian doctor, "both medical doctors" (medicine and surgery) with European diplomas, was Pyotr Vasilievich Postnikov, who was enrolled in the staff of the order in 1701. Others followed him.
The Apothecary and Monastic orders became the conductors of the policy of Peter I, aimed at an all-round and widespread increase in the production and procurement of medicinal herbs in order to provide them not only to the nobility and the army, but also all without exception residents of the Russian state.
Blizhny Sovereign Pharmaceutical Order
Healing potions were sold to people before: bargaining was going on in green rows at bazaars and fairs. However, the ignorance of procurers and sellers led to fairly frequent poisoning and sometimes - to the death of buyers. According to the idea of the tsar-reformer, trade in them should have been carried out by free pharmacies, the staff of which would have consisted of specialists who had passed the test in the Pharmaceutical Order and the Medical Chancellery that replaced it in 1721. And in addition to harvesting wild medicinal herbs, they would be massively cultivated in the pharmaceutical gardens, which he ordered to establish in all more or less significant cities of the Russian state.
The very first Apothecary garden behind the Sukharev Tower in Moscow was planted by the sovereign with his assistants personally, having transferred here plants from the palace Izmailovsky Garden. For almost a century, this vegetable garden remained a source of medicinal raw materials for the Moscow hospital, to which it was assigned, and then for the Moscow Medical-Surgical Academy. After the academy moved to St. Petersburg in 1804, it was bought for 11 thousand silver rubles by Moscow University. True, it was no longer a vegetable garden with beds, but a solid botanical garden, numbering over 3.5 thousand plants grown in soil and greenhouses.
He happened to go through difficult times, which put him on the brink of destruction (the Moscow fire of 1812, the revolution of 1917), but he always revived thanks to the dedication of his employees and (in pre-revolutionary times) the generosity of benefactors, among whom were the entrepreneur P.A. Demidov, representatives of the merchant families Morozov and Khludov. At present, the "Aptekarskiy Ogorod" is the oldest botanical garden in Russia, now the Botanical Garden of Moscow State University named after M. V. Lomonosov, is a subdivision of the Faculty of Biology of Moscow State University. It is visited by over 300 thousand people a year.
In 1712, by the will of Peter I, the capital of Russia was moved to St. Petersburg. Here, under the supervision of the tsar, an equally large-scale work was launched to create pharmacy gardens. Hodonyms still retain the memory of this: this is the Aptekarskaya embankment of the Bolshoi Nevka, Aptekarskiy prospect, Aptekarskiy lane ... The gardens of medicinal plants were arranged by Peter I on the present Bolshaya Okhta, on the Moika, on Voronyi Island (now Aptekarskiy Island).Soon the local "vegetable garden" also turned into a botanical garden, which was under the tutelage of the ruling sovereigns: under Alexander I, the word "Imperial" was added to its name, and in 1913, to the 200th anniversary of its foundation, it was named after Peter the Great. Nowadays it is administratively subordinate to the V.L. Komarov, being its department, and is thus included in the structure of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
St. Petersburg. The Imperial Botanical Garden of Peter the Great. Vintage postcard.
At the behest of Peter I, pharmaceutical gardens were also set up at the other end of the Orthodox Ecumene - in Little Russia. Unfortunately, the Kharkov and Kiev projects turned out to be unsuccessful: the actual botanical gardens (as the highest form of such gardens) appeared here only in 1804 and 1918, respectively. A little more interesting is the history of the pharmaceutical garden in Glukhov (founded in 1706), one of the hetman capitals, where the elections of hetman I.I. Skoropadsky and the traitor Mazepa was anathematized. 57 years after the described events, in 1765, 12 poods of seed potatoes were brought here from St. Petersburg for the first time with detailed instructions for breeding "earth apples" from here, these fruits of "wonderful taste and satiety" were already distributed throughout the Little Russian land. But with the cultivation of the actual medicinal plants, things did not work out here.
The Luben project turned out to be much more successful. Driving in the summer of 1709 from Poltava to Kiev, the victor over the Swedes stopped at the Mgarsky monastery, bowed to its shrines and learned the history. This monastery arose even before the Mongol-Tatar invasion of the XIII century, it was founded again in 1619 by the hegumen of Gustynsky and Podgorsky Isaiah Kopinsky at the expense of Princess Raina Vishnevetskaya - in the forest, six kilometers northeast of Luben.
The son of Raina, a renegade of Orthodoxy, Jeremiah Vishnevetsky, attracted Benedictine monks to Lubny, settling them downstream of the Sula, in the village of Terny, allocating 12 acres of land for a garden and plantations of medicinal plants. After the expulsion of the Catholics, their allotments according to the universal of Bohdan Khmelnitsky in 1657 became the property of Orthodox monks. Tsar Peter I, looking around these fields, ordered to further expand the areas of medicinal herbs, increase their productivity, "make friends with Moscow gardens" in terms of improving agricultural technology and promised state purchases of medicinal raw materials.
From the village of Terny (bottom left) to Berezotochi (top right) near Luben, thanks to the opening of a field pharmacy here by Tsar Peter I, the largest center for the cultivation and collection of medicinal plants in Little Russia arose. Fragment of a map of the late 19th century
In 1721, exactly 300 years ago, by the decree of Peter I, the sovereign's field pharmacy was really opened in Lubny, and two “pharmacy gardens” with a total area of 50 acres were laid under her and in the village of Terny. The state also bought raw materials collected by the peasants. Already in Peter's times, according to a source, "83% of the population of the district procured, dried and handed over to special wholesale warehouses (of which there were more here than in any other part of the country) medicinal plants, having a stable seasonal income" .
The tradition of stable supplies of valuable raw materials by the Luben dwellers to the state continued for two centuries, until October 1917. It was also exported. So, in 1901 alone, 25 thousand poods of medicinal plants worth over 200 thousand rubles were exported from Louben to England, France and other countries. Significant revenue at that time.
Of the private pharmaceutical establishments in Lubny, the “free pharmacy of Franz Del”, which opened in 1809 (also, recall, Petrovo's initiative), is especially famous. Another remarkable local private initiative belonged to the local landowner K.N. Skarzhinskaya, who donated in 1880 at the request of the Department of Agriculture 30 acres of land in the village. Ternes for the organization of an agricultural school. Already in Soviet times, in 1929, the school was reorganized into a unique technical school for medicinal and aromatic plants.
A pharmaceutical factory for the processing of medicinal plants, founded in 1932 in Lubny, has also "risen" on the basis of local raw materials. Currently, this company produces affordable, what is called "folk" tablets, ointments and potions, many of which are based on medicinal plants. But the Ukrainian market is oversaturated with widely advertised means, and Europe is in no hurry to import native tinctures, extracts and medicinal preparations.
Anastasiy Egorovich Zaikevich and Ekaterina Nikolaevna Skarzhinskaya
On the fertile soil of the Peter's testament, a scientific institution also grew - an experimental station of medicinal plants, for which the Lubenskaya City Council at the end of 1915 allocated 4.5 tithes of land and initial funding. The first director P.I. Gavsevich and professor of agronomy at Kharkov University A.E. Zaikevich. In 1925, the station was transferred to the village of Berezotocha (12 kilometers east of Luben), to the former estate of the landowner I.N. Leontovich, allocating 450 hectares of land for experiments and selection work. About a thousand species of medicinal plants now grow on them. The technology of industrial cultivation has been developed here for 80 medicinal crops. The station has the largest herbarium collection of medicinal plants in Europe.
Now it is the "Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine". Although not long ago, after Ukraine gained independence, the station "grew" to the status of an institute, it soon returned to its "primitive state". "Status", therefore, did not pull.
Medicinal plants are priceless gifts of nature.
Alas, the village of Berezotocha, in which the experimental station is located, is also becoming withering. Now it is still the administrative center of the village council, but it may soon lose this importance, being attached to a more developed village council. Within the framework of the administrative reform.
... And medicinal tinctures and ointments are increasingly being replaced by chemistry.
Title illustration: "Pharmaceutical Garden" in Moscow. Snapshot from the information and news portal "Novosti Lomonosov Moscow State University"
Through his agents, Peter I ordered statues in Italy. He managed to buy genuine antique works, although their export was prohibited. Garden fountains adorned with gilded lead figures, including those created based on the fables of the ancient Greek writer Aesop.
The sculptures were not only a decoration, but also a teaching aid. They were ordered in series or in pairs, and they were devoted to any one topic, for example, ancient Greek myths. Under the sculptures there were plaques describing the character depicted.
In 1895 a monument to I.A.Krylov was erected in the Summer Garden sculptor P.K.Klodt. Under the pacified figure of the fabulist, high reliefs depicting animals, the heroes of his fables, are placed along the edges of the pedestal. It was the first monument to a Russian writer in St. Petersburg.
Sculpture of the Summer Garden is his pride. Such large collections of garden sculpture have practically not survived in Europe.
Today the collection of the Summer Garden includes 92 exhibits
However, in the garden you can find two original exhibits:
- sculptural group "Peace and Victory"
- tetrahedral pillar, completed with the head of Bacchus