Peonies

Peonies

Peony (Paeonia) belongs to the monotypic genus of perennial herbaceous plants. This genus is the only one in the peony family. There are about 40 types of such plants. Among them there are herbaceous, treelike, and also species combining traits of both treelike and herbaceous. Under natural conditions, such plants can be found in the subtropical and temperate regions of Eurasia, as well as North America. For the first time, peonies began to be cultivated more than 2 thousand years ago, and this happened in China during the Han era. This plant got its name in honor of the famous healer, whose name was Pean. He could heal both a common man and a god from any mortally dangerous wounds that appeared as a result of fierce battles. Herbaceous peonies are the most popular among gardeners of middle latitudes. They have large, incredibly beautiful and fragrant flowers. They bloom in the last month of spring and decorate the bushes for about 6 weeks. It is about them that will be discussed below.

Peonies features

Peonies are semi-shrub (tree-like), shrub, and herbaceous. The height of the bushes can reach 100 centimeters. On a fairly large rhizome, powerful cone-shaped roots are located. There are several shoots. Alternately located unpaired pinnately separated or trifoliate leaves are painted in all color shades of gray, green, and also dark purple. Single flowers are very large (diameter about 15–20 centimeters), they look great both on a bush and in a cut. Such a plant has a non-capricious character and is very easy to care for. Thanks to their spectacular foliage, even after flowering is over, peonies will delight with their beauty even until autumn. Such plants grow well and develop in the same place for several decades. To date, thanks to breeders, more than 5 thousand different varieties have been born. For the most part, they were bred by crossing the medicinal peony and the milk-flowered peony. The difference between the varieties lies in the color and size of the flowers, in the duration of flowering, as well as in the height and outline of the bush.

Peonies of the 21st century! This is a must see!

Planting a peony in open ground

How to plant peonies

Growing such plants is not a troublesome task that will take you a lot of time. It is worth paying special attention to the choice of a site suitable for planting, since peonies will grow on it for quite a long time. In an adult bush, the roots go deep (about 70-90 centimeters) into the ground and in this regard, after the peony reaches the age of 4 or 5 years, it will be rather difficult to transplant it to a new place. You should choose an illuminated area, and these plants need direct sunlight for 5-6 hours, and always before lunch. Plants react extremely negatively to a draft, therefore it is recommended to plant them under tall bushes or trees. It is not recommended to choose lowlands for planting, since rot can form on the root system due to stagnation of liquid in the soil.

Peonies grow well on loam, the acidity of which is 6-6.6 pH. If the soil is too clayey, then it can be corrected by adding sand, peat and humus. Clay, peat, and humus must be added to the sandy soil. Wood ash, sand, and organic matter should be added to the peat soil.

How to plant peonies out of the box

Planting peonies in autumn

Planting and transplanting of such flowers is carried out in the last August and first September days. The hole should be prepared 7 days before planting, while it should be 60x60x60 in size. The distance between the pits should not be less than 70-100 centimeters. At the bottom, you need to make a good drainage layer, the height of which should be equal to 20-25 centimeters. It is made from broken brick or crushed stone, as well as coarse sand. After that, a nutrient mixture is poured, which includes humus, 200 grams of superphosphate, 300 grams of wood ash, compost, 100 grams of lime, 100 grams of potassium sulfate, while the layer should be 20 to 30 centimeters high. Therefore, soil mixed with compost is poured into the hole. Before planting, the soil will settle, and you can place the plant's rhizome in the hole. Then it is covered with garden soil and tamped a little. It should be remembered that it is impossible to deepen the peony when planting, because in this case it will have dense foliage, but it will not bloom. If you want your plants to be strewn with flowers, in this case you need to deepen the rhizome in such a way that the upper bud is at a depth of 3 to 4 centimeters, no more. Also, do not forget that the transplanted plant does not form flowers in the first year and has a sluggish appearance. It may happen that flowering also does not occur in the next year. You should not be afraid if the bush does not externally show signs of disease. The problem may be that the peony is simply not ripe.

Planting peonies in spring

How to plant peonies in spring

As a rule, such plants are not planted in spring. If it is in the spring that you have excellent planting material, then experts advise saving it without planting it in open soil. To do this, it is planted in a pot with a volume of 2 to 3 liters and transferred to a dark, cool place (cellar, basement). In this case, the substrate in the pot should be slightly moistened all the time. Experienced flower growers advise for this to lay pieces of ice or snow on the surface of the substrate, in the process of thawing it will cool and moisten the soil. In the last days of April or in May, the peony must be transferred to the garden and placed in the dug hole right with the pot. Then everything is buried. In autumn, it is transplanted together with a lump of earth (by means of transshipment) to a permanent place.

Outdoor peony care

Peony care in autumn

In autumn, it is time to plant and transplant such a plant. In the case when transplanting and planting is not carried out, you just need to cut off the withered leaves and shoots. It is recommended to burn the trimmed parts of the plant, as they may contain viruses, pests and bacteria. It is recommended to sprinkle what remains of the shoots with wood ash, while 2 or 3 handfuls are taken for 1 bush.

Peony care in spring

You do not need to water the peonies too often. One adult bush takes 20-30 liters of water, since it must penetrate to the depth at which the root system lies. Especially such plants need watering at the beginning of spring, during intensive growth, as well as during the formation of buds and flowering, and even in August-September, since it is at this time that young buds are laid. When the plant is watered, it is necessary to loosen the surface of the soil and, in the presence of weeds, be sure to remove it. Watering should be done at the root so that the liquid does not end up on the surface of the leaf plates.

How to feed

After the snow cover has completely melted, the soil near the bushes should be shed with a disinfectant solution. To prepare it, you need to pour from 2 to 3 grams of potassium permanganate into a bucket of water, this volume of solution is enough for watering 2 bushes. At the beginning of the period of intensive growth, peonies are fed with a solution of ammonium nitrate (15 grams of substance per bucket of water). From May 8, flowers should be watered with foliage from a watering can with a strainer with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer, in the dosage indicated on the package. Such feeding is carried out 1 time in 30 days. It is recommended to add ordinary washing powder to the nutrient solution (1 tbsp per bucket of water). In this case, the solution will linger on the leaves, and not just drain into the soil. Peonies should be fed in this way in the evening or on a cloudy day. When the buds are formed and during flowering, it is necessary to feed the plants with a solution consisting of 7.5 grams of ammonium nitrate, 10 grams of superphosphate, 5 grams of potassium salt and a bucket of water. Half a month after the peony has faded, fertilizer is applied to the soil, consisting of a bucket of water, 5 grams of potassium salt and 10 grams of superphosphate. Alternate fertilizing with mineral and organic fertilizers is possible. Moreover, they can be poured dry into a previously prepared groove around the bush. Then the fertilizer is moistened and embedded in the soil.

In the summer, when the flowering is over, the plant will only need to be watered in a timely manner, do not forget to apply fertilizers after the end of flowering, loosen the soil in time and remove weeds.

Peonies. Care and feeding SPRING before flowering

Pruning

It is necessary to completely cut off the stems in the autumn, when the first frosts come. If you need to do this before the specified time, then after you cut off the shoots, their remains should rise above the soil surface, on which 3-4 leaf plates must remain. And all because at the end of the summer period, replacement buds are laid in such plants, and in order for this to end successfully, there must be several leaves on the bush. When cutting flowers, it must be remembered that it is imperative to leave a part of the shoot with several leaves.

Peony transplant

Peony transplant. Garden World site

When to transplant peonies

In the wild, these plants are capable of growing in one place for more than 50 years. Those hybrid varieties that were created using the medicinal peony can be grown in the same place for no longer than 10 years. Then the bush must be dug up, divided and planted in a new place. And in this way, you can quickly and easily propagate peonies. But it is worth remembering that only those bushes that are at least 4 or 5 years old are suitable for reproduction, while they should fully bloom 1-2 times. Remember that the older the plant, the more powerful and overgrown its rhizome. Therefore, in order to simplify the transplanting process for yourself and prevent a decrease in the quality of flowering, transplant and at the same time separate the bushes, experienced gardeners advise 1 time in 3 or 4 years. The transplant should be carried out in the first autumn month.

Autumn transplant

In autumn, you should carefully dig in the bush, while stepping back from the rhizome by 25 centimeters. After that, it is gently loosened with a pitchfork and pulled out of the ground. Remove any remaining soil from the root system using a peg and then wash it. The jet of water should not be very strong, as this can contribute to injury to the delicate kidney-eyes. The green part should be cut almost to the root. The root should be placed in the open air and left for a while. During this time, water should drain from it, and the rhizome will become wilted and acquire more elasticity. Old, thick enough roots need to be trimmed, leaving 10 to 15 centimeters. The cut must be done at an angle of 45 degrees. Carry out a thorough examination of the rhizome and only then start dividing it. It is recommended to stick a wedge into the middle of the old bush, driving it in with a hammer. As a result, the root system itself will split into several parts. Often there are voids in the middle of the rhizomes of old bushes, as well as rotting areas. They should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected with a strong solution of potassium manganese. After this, the cut sites should be treated with a fungicide. On each of the divisions there should be a part of the bark neck with developed 3 or 4 eyes, and the presence of several roots is also necessary. Try to make the divisions approximately equal in size. So, too large cuttings can hurt for a long time, and small ones quickly die.

How to transplant peonies

Delenki are planted in the same way as the plants themselves. And this landing method is described above. On the surface of the ground where the peonies were planted, a layer of mulch should be poured, which should be about 7 centimeters, peat is perfect for this purpose. It will be necessary to remove the layer of mulch only after the sprouts of the peonies, which have a red color, break through it in the spring. The transplanted flowers will form the root system within 2 years, and in order for this process to be successful, it must not be allowed to bloom. During the first year after planting, absolutely all buds must be removed. And in the second year, only 1 bud should be left. When it bursts, you should cut it as short as possible. This is necessary in order to consider how this flower corresponds to its variety. In the event that you see that the match is not entirely complete, you will need to remove the buds during the third year, leaving only 1 of them. So, you will have to do until the flower is fully consistent with its variety. Be patient because this can happen in the third or fifth year after planting.

Breeding methods for peonies

Reproduction of peonies by seeds

The peony can be propagated by divisions, and this is described in detail above. You can also use seeds for this. However, the seeds often do not retain their varietal qualities, so this method is used only by breeders. And another disadvantage of this method is that the first flowering can occur only at 4-5 years of age. If you want to try to grow a new variety, sowing seeds that should be fresh should be carried out in August directly in loose soil. Their sprouts will appear in the next spring.

Propagation by root cuttings

This is the most reliable way to propagate peonies. In July, it is necessary to separate a not very large piece of rhizome, on which the dormant bud is located. Then he is planted. Rooting should be completed by September. However, this method is good only for those who are in no hurry. The fact is that the development of such a peony is extremely slow. So, the first flowers on it will appear only at the age of five.

Peonies after flowering

What to do when the peonies have faded?

As a rule, flowering ends in the last days of May or the first days of June. Remove all wilted flowers from the bush, and after half a month feed the plant with potassium-phosphorus fertilizer. Then provide the flower with systematic watering. With the onset of August, watering should be increased, since the peony at this time needs more moisture, because it has a budding of replacement buds.

Preparation for wintering

After the yellowing of the foliage and shoots begins, it is necessary to water the peony less and less each time. After the frost begins, you should cut off the part of the plant that is above the soil surface. In this case, the stems after cutting should be practically invisible. In the event that in the autumn you planted or transplanted peonies, then the soil surface above the rhizomes should be mulched. The layer of mulch should be about 5–7 centimeters and peat is recommended for this purpose. In this case, peonies that have not yet gained strength will tolerate wintering very well. After the first sprouts appear in the spring, it is recommended to remove the peat layer.

Wintering

These plants hibernate in the open field. Adult specimens are frost-resistant, and young ones are recommended to be covered during wintering.

Pests and diseases

Most often, these flowers are sick with gray rot (botrytis). As a rule, this disease develops in mid-May. You can find out about its presence by decaying shoots, but other parts of the plant can also be affected, while a grayish mold appears on their surface.The development of gray mold can provoke a large amount of nitrogen in the soil, prolonged rains, and too close a flower bed. The affected areas of the peony should be cut and destroyed (burned) away from other plants. For preventive purposes, it is recommended to treat the plant with a solution of copper sulfate (50 g of a substance per bucket of water), and you can also use garlic water (10 g of crushed garlic cloves per bucket of water). The bush itself, as well as the surface of the soil around it, should be processed.

Rarely does the plant become infected with powdery mildew. This fungal disease affects the leaves of the plant. You can find out about the presence of the disease by the whitish bloom on the surface of the leaf plates. You can get rid of this disease with a soapy solution. To prepare it, you need to combine a bucket of water, 20 grams of copper sulfate and 200 grams of laundry soap.

Main types and varieties with photos

Peonies - Varieties Selection 2012

There are 7 groups of peonies differing in the structure of flowers:

Non-double

Non-double (they have 1 or 2 rows of petals). There are many stamens in the center of the large flowers. Sometimes there are corrugated sheet plates. Varieties: Nadia, Golden Glow.

Semi-double

Quite large and light enough flowers. The stamens can be found both in the central part of the flower and between the petals. Typically, there are about 7 rows of petals. Varieties: Miss America - this mid-early variety has large (up to 25 centimeters in diameter) flowers that have a pink color, which changes to white after full disclosure, rich yellow stamens are also visible; En Berry Cousins ​​- the height of the bush can reach 65 centimeters, this early variety has cupped flowers with a diameter of 17 centimeters, which have a pinkish coral color.

Japanese

In the central part of the flower, there are modified stamens, which form something similar to a pompom. The petals can be arranged in one or several rows. Varieties: Carrara - a bush reaching 80 centimeters in height, this medium-flowering variety has white flowers, the diameter of which can be equal to 16 centimeters; Hot Chocolet - a bush in height reaches 80 centimeters, in such an early variety, the diameter of a maroon flower is 16 centimeters.

Anemone

Such plants are the so-called transitional form from Japanese peonies to terry peonies. The wide petals at the bottom are arranged in 2 rows and have a rounded shape, while those in the center are not so long and form a ball. Varieties: Rhapsody - this mid-early variety has a bush 70 centimeters high, the petals on the edge are pink in color, and those in the central part are creamy yellowish, the flowers have a diameter of 16 centimeters; Snow Mountain - the height of the bush of this early variety is 75 centimeters, and the diameter of its creamy flowers is 17 centimeters.

Terry bomb-shaped, hemispherical, spherical

The petals are connected in a hemisphere, and after full disclosure, the flower is a ball. Varieties: Pink Cameo - the height of a bush of such a medium late variety is 80 centimeters, and the diameter of pinkish-cream flowers is 16 centimeters; Monsieur Jules Elie - a bush of this early variety has a height of 90 centimeters, the diameter of fragrant pinkish-lilac flowers is 20 centimeters.

Rosy

The petals of this variety are very similar to rose petals in both size and structure. They are wide, large and rounded. Varieties: Solange - in this late variety, the diameter of the whitish-cream flowers reaches 17 centimeters, heavy shoots that need support can be up to 70 centimeters high; Henry Boxstock - the height of the bush of such an early variety reaches 90 centimeters, and the rich red flowers have a diameter of 16 centimeters. This group has a subgroup - semi-pink. These flowers have stamens in the central part. Varieties: Goody - the height of the bush of this mid-early variety is 70 centimeters, and the diameter of rich crimson flowers is 16 centimeters; Ballerina - this early variety has a powerful bush, the diameter of the white-creamy-greenish flowers is 18 centimeters.

Crown spherical and hemispherical

The petals are placed in 3 tiers: the upper tier is a ring of petals, and the middle tier includes narrow petals (narrower than those of the lower and upper tiers). Most often, the petals of the lower and upper tiers are colored the same, while the middle one may have a different color. Varieties: Nancy - the height of the bush of such an early variety reaches 80 centimeters, and the diameter of the peach-pink flowers is 17 centimeters; Aritina Nozen Gloria - a bush of this very early variety has a height of 70 centimeters, and its lilac-pink flowers reach 20 centimeters in diameter.


Herbaceous and tree-like peonies: varieties with photos and names

Tree-like and herbaceous peonies - varieties with photos and names of which we have selected, are ideal for decorating any garden. We have prepared a description of the plants, indicated the timing of their flowering and frost resistance, so that you can create a beautiful flower bed that blooms throughout the summer.

Oak (Latin Quercus)

The oak belongs to the Beech family. Lives in a temperate climate. Oak is a giant among trees, a long-lived plant. There are many types. In Russia, English Oak and Red Oak became widespread.

Peonies are long-livers of country gardens, they are not demanding on growing conditions and develop well. Their species diversity allows you to create combinations of color combinations in flower beds. By choosing the right planting material, you can achieve rolling flowering from one peony bush to another. Consider the best varieties of peonies, photos with the names and characteristics of growing each of them.


Consider the most popular varieties of peonies

Currently cultivated:

America

This variety was developed about fifty years ago in the United States. It is a hybrid of a Burmese ruby ​​and a local variety. The plant is very decorative, it belongs to herbaceous peonies.

It has light green sturdy stems, up to 75 cm high. It blooms in early summer. The flowers are large, up to 20 cm in diameter. It reproduces exclusively vegetatively, since it does not produce seeds.

About three years after planting, the bush grows densely. By this time, the number of buds reaches one or two dozen. Over time, up to four buds can form on each stem.

A distinctive feature of the flower is its yellow core and double-row arrangement of double petals. Has a faint pink scent.

Armani

One of the most luxurious varieties. The height of the stems reaches 1 m. The flowers are large, up to 20 cm in diameter. Possesses a dark burgundy color, with every day of flowering, becoming darker and darker.

Terry petals, dense. The number of petals exceeds a hundred, they are distributed evenly throughout the flower. Closer to the center, the petals become smaller in size. The peony does not lose its decorative properties even after flowering. The foliage becomes dark green by the end of summer, and dark red in September.

The plant is planted in fertile or well-fertilized soil. The best option is to apply fertilizer to the bottom of the hole prepared for planting. In this case, the plant may not be fertilized for the first three years.

For the first two years, the plant needs shelter for the winter. In this case, it is necessary to cut off the stems at a level of at least 2 cm above the buds. Shelter is made with a layer of peat or compost. Adult plants do not need to be covered.

Bartzella

Bred in the USA from the Japanese tree peony. A plant with dense yellow foliage, which is actually a hybrid of woody and herbaceous peonies.

The upper part dies off during wintering, but thanks to the woody "base", the plant is able to withstand severe winters.

Plant height sometimes exceeds 1 m. The stems are strong, capable of holding flowers without a garter. It has large flowers, from 20 to 30 cm in diameter. Flowering lasts up to 20 days under favorable conditions, blooms twice.

The traditional color is yellow, but there are apricot and pink varieties.

It is a light-loving plant, easy to care for. This variety must be planted in such a way that the buds are at a depth of about 5 cm underground, otherwise flowering may not occur.

Growth and flowering can be stimulated with the help of fertilizers: from organic compost with the addition of wood ash from mineral ones, complex phosphorus-potassium is best suited.

Blush Queen

Terry peony, pink type. Plant height up to 90 cm, flowers up to 15-20 cm in diameter. It has an interesting feature: the color of the petals evenly changes from pinkish in the center to light beige at the edges.

Flowering begins in early summer and lasts up to four weeks. Unpretentious in care, winter-hardy. Without shelter, it tolerates frosts down to -30 ° С, with shelter - up to -40 ° С.

Prefers sunny areas, but can grow in partial shade. It is advisable to mulch the soil around the bush with hay or gravel, it is better not to use sawdust. The bush is quite sprawling, so the recommended distance between flowers is at least 1 m.

Fertilizers, except for the periods of budding and flowering, are not required. Prefers clay soils, but is critical to drainage. Watering plentiful up to twice a week. When planting, the tubers should be immersed in the ground so that their tops are covered with a layer of soil more than 5 cm.

Gardenia

Herbaceous peony. The petals are double, multi-row, white or white-yellow. The height of the plant reaches 90 cm, the diameter of the flowering part is up to 22 cm.

It blooms once a year in mid-summer. Flowering is abundant and long - up to 3.5-4 weeks. The plant remains elegant until the end of autumn. By August, the stems and leaves darken, and from the second decade of September they change their color to bright red.

Before wintering, it requires cutting off the stems (standard, at a level of 2-3 cm above the buds) and covering with foliage. When using these shelters, it tolerates winters well with temperatures down to -45 ° C. In the spring, in order to avoid peony overpowering, the shelter is removed as soon as the first thawed patches appear.

It grows on any soil, however, it loves top dressing with top dressing at the beginning of spring, the number of buds tied can be 1.5 times more. Reproduction is vegetative, carried out by dividing the bush. 3 years after transplanting, the plant develops enough to be replanted.

Henry Bockstos

A hybrid of medicinal and milk-flowered peonies, bred in the middle of the 20th century. Terry petals. A distinctive feature is that the inner part of the flower is like a separate bud.

Height reaches 90 cm. Flowers are large, up to 20 cm, heavy. In some cases, the bush requires support, especially when there are several flowers on the stems. Colors: burgundy, less often red.

Blooms in the first half of summer. The flowering period is about three weeks.

Grows well on neutral or slightly alkaline soils. Planted in the sun or in partial shade.

Vegetative propagation, preferably by dividing the bush, but cuttings can also be used. After three years, it is capable of subsequent transplants. Frost resistance without shelter - up to -20 ° С.

Joker

The variety was bred in the USA in 2004. It is a so-called "chameleon python": its color changes every day of flowering. On the first day, the color is pale pink, more intense towards the edges of the petals, by the end of flowering it becomes pink-red.

The height of the stem is about 75 cm, but the size of the flowers reaches 30 cm. The bush is slightly elongated upward with brown-green foliage. Each stem can have up to 5 buds, blooming with short breaks. No stem support required.

Flowering time - end of June, duration - up to 20 days. Terry petals, about two-thirds of the flowering time have a slight difference in shades at the edges and in the center. The smell is weak, almost imperceptible.

Grows on neutral or slightly alkaline soils. Prefers sunny areas, blooms poorly in the shade. The fertilization scheme is standard - either 2 times a year in early spring and before frosts, or once - during budding and flowering.


Genus Peony of the Peony family. Occasionally in the literature, the spelling "peon" is found, which is also correct. The genus got its name from the name of the healer of the Greek gods Peon. According to legend, Peon treated the god of war, wounded by Hercules, Ares - a treacherous and treacherous deity, a great lover of bloody battles. He treated, obviously, very successfully, which caused burning envy of his mentor, the god of healing Asclepius.

The teacher planned to poison the talented student, but Peon found out by chance about the plans of Asclepius and turned to the Greek gods with a prayer for salvation. The gods took pity on the doctor and turned him into a beautiful peony flower.

For many centuries, plants of this group have been used only as medicinal products. The ancient Romans had a special addiction to the flower, who sacredly believed in the ability of the plant to heal any ailment: not a single warrior went on a campaign without a peony root in his bosom.

A tincture of seeds soaked in wine was believed to relieve nightmares. Alcohol extract from the roots was used for diseases of the stomach, liver, kidneys. The British believed that a peony bush planted at the front door drives away evil spirits from the house.

A more practical application for this plant was found in Russia: paint for paper and fabrics was made from Caucasian peony here. The peony was also used in cooking: seeds as a seasoning went to meat dishes, and boiled roots were eaten along with vegetables.

In China, peonies have been known and loved since time immemorial. By the middle of the XVI century. in the Celestial Empire, there were already more than 30 varieties listed in special catalogs. They were very expensive, and some were literally worth their weight in gold. It was from China that the peonies began their triumphal march across other countries and continents.

Herbaceous peonies came to America only in 1850, and it took enterprising Americans only 13 years to officially recognize the indisputable merits of peony flowers (1903 - the American Society of Peony Breeders was created, which still exists).

In Russia in the 17th century. peonies were considered more as a medicinal plant, and were grown in pharmaceutical gardens.

Brief content of the article:

Botanical characteristic

Herbaceous perennial, less often a shrub, growing wild exclusively in the Northern Hemisphere: 45 species in Asia and Europe, 2 in western North America. In Russia, out of 15 species, 9 live in the Caucasus, the rest come from the Far East and Siberia.

The bush is multi-stemmed, the stems, depending on the variety, are simple or branched, with a height of 30 to 100 cm. The stem ends with a flower. In autumn, the aboveground part of the bush dies off. Powerful rhizomes with renewal buds remain in the ground for the winter. Leaves of a complex structure, of various shapes in species peonies. Large green or bluish tint. The arrangement on the stem is alternate.

The flowers are large and very large, up to 20 cm in diameter in wild and non-double varieties, simple with fully developed stamens, and complex in semi-double and double flowers with partially or completely modified stamens.

The peony fruit with large black or red seeds is very effective and can be used as a natural floristic material along with flowers.

Classification and varieties

Most of the currently cultivated varieties of peonies come from the species lacto-flowered peony (Paeonia lactiflora) - 70%, from crossing it with other species, mainly with medicinal peony - 30%, and directly from the form of medicinal peony (Paeonia officinalis) - less than 1% of officially registered varieties.

A wonderful Far Eastern species - the lactic-flowered peony, also grows in natural conditions in Transbaikalia, Mongolia, China, Japan, Korea. The varieties obtained from it are distinguished by high winter hardiness. The view is beautiful in itself: pure white simple flowers with a diameter of 8-10 cm, with golden stamens.

The varieties derived from the medicinal peony, which are home to warm regions - France, Switzerland, Northern Italy, are less resistant to low temperatures.

The garden classification of peonies is based on the structure of the flower, but it is difficult to determine the type of peony from the photo. There is also a division of varieties into groups according to the height of the bush and the timing of flowering.

There are at least 10 thousand varieties of peonies in the world, although there are much less officially registered ones - about 4.5 thousand. Many varieties were created at the end or even in the middle of the 19th century, still have not lost their popularity and today are as beautiful as one and a half centuries ago!

It is possible with a great deal of confidence to name the most, perhaps, known and probably familiar to gardeners all over the world, the peony variety - this is the famous Sarah Bernhardt. Bred in France in 1906 by Lemoine, a universal purpose, great in cut. The flower is very large, densely doubled, pink in color, and although it does not have a pronounced aroma, it is difficult to pass by the flowering bush without stopping to admire its beauty - truly "Divine Sarah".

Another popular peony variety with the no less “telling” name Scarlett O'Hara was created in the USA in 1956. The flower is simple, the petals are blood-red or flamingo-pink in color, with many contrasting yellow stamens. Differs in indestructible health and strong, tall bush. The peculiarity of the variety is that the flower is cut off while the buds have not yet opened.

The pearl-white color of the huge peony flowers of the Duchesse de Nemours variety (Mrs. Gwynne Lewis) is a classic of the genre and the bestseller in the Netherlands. Bred in France in 1856. To this day, it pleases flower growers all over the world with the strength and power of the bush, it is equally magnificent in the open field and in the cut.

Treelike or semi-shrub peony (Paeonia suffruticosa), whose homeland is China, is a very special and unique representative of the genus. The plant is of hybrid origin. In total, there are about 500 varieties in the world, most of them are Chinese:

  • with double flowers - Sino-European
  • with semi-double and non-double colors - Japanese

They first came to Russia from the Baltic countries in 1858. There are tree peony varieties of Russian selection: there are not so many of them as Asian and European ones, but unlike their thermophilic relatives, they are adapted to our difficult climatic conditions.

As a result of crossing the peonies of the yellow treelike and herbaceous species, hybrids of the Itoh group (ITO-hybrids) with large yellow flowers appeared.

These flowers owe their appearance to the breeder Toichi Ito from Japan: he managed to cross two species, which was not previously considered possible. The leaves of the new hybrid are the same as those of the tree peony, and the stems are like those of the herbaceous peony - the aerial part dies off in autumn.

Planting and care: breaking tradition

Peonies cannot be called capricious plants, however, they make high demands on light and soil. If you want to grow a beautiful healthy bush that will delight you with luxurious flowering for many years (and peonies are well-known centenarians!), You have to work hard.

The ideal soil is a well-cultivated loam with a slightly alkaline reaction. Lime must be added to acidic soil. The secret of Dutch flower growers for planting and caring for peonies in the open field: aquatic vegetation is laid out in flower beds, extracted when cleaning ponds (a particularly good fertilizer is duckweed with a high lime content).

Planting holes should be deep and wide (50-70 cm), which is more important on heavy soils. On clay soil, which is poorly permeable to moisture, the pits should be made even deeper so that drainage from broken brick or gravel can be arranged.

Although peonies are very demanding on soil moisture, they categorically cannot stand constant dampness and stagnant water - their roots will simply rot. The pits are filled with a nutritious earthen mixture (humus and peat with the addition of bone meal or superphosphate).

All earthworks must be carried out in advance, 2-4 weeks before the expected day of planting the peonies, so that the soil has time to settle. The vital moment when planting a cut is the depth: strictly 3 to 5 cm from ground level.

Lower or higher, and the peonies will not bloom, this will affect the health of the plant and its lifespan. Some gardeners measure the required distance with a ruler - and it must be said, it's worth it.

The best time for planting and transplanting peonies in the Middle Lane is the period from mid-August to mid-September. At this time, the plant is dormant, and it will more easily endure stress. Only in autumn: their own peonies, bought "from grandmothers" at the bazaar, or donated by neighbors.

But since peonies from Holland, Poland, China entered the domestic market, the situation has changed radically: now everyone has to plant newly purchased peonies, contrary to laws, traditions and rules, in the spring. This is bad, but nonetheless perfectly acceptable.

The purchased root must be kept in the refrigerator until planting, so that the growth of the kidneys does not start. It is important not to overdry or flood the root, trying to maintain the most optimal humidity. Plant in the garden before it gets warm or hot.

Mulch planting. Do not forget to water and weed regularly: such a plant develops very slowly, and it is too weak in the first couple of years to withstand weeds or drought on its own.

In a word, a small peony planted in spring will need care and attention. But in the end, a luxurious bush will grow from a tiny piece of root, and it will bloom - and this is the best reward for all your efforts!

A small bonus: peonies do not need to be covered for the winter, which distinguishes them favorably from some other perennial flowers. Only young plants and all new plantings need insignificant shelter. In one place, a peony bush can grow well and bloom for about 20 years.

Bouquets and compositions of peonies

Peony is one of the best cut flowers, if not the best. There are even special cut varieties. On the site, they are planted separately, away from the front zone of the garden. The standard stem length is 40 cm. This is a lot if you cut off all flowering shoots from the bush.

In order to accumulate enough strength for flowering next year, at least half of the shoots should remain at the bush - they cannot be cut off.

The high decorativeness of the flower allows you to make bouquets of monochromatic peonies, contrasting or shading flowers.

If in our country varieties with a large, double flower are invariably popular and universal love, then Japanese florists literally idolize simple, not terry peonies. They are considered the kings of the ancient art of ikebana. After all, the florist's talent lies in emphasizing the individual beauty and uniqueness of each flower.

Photo of peonies


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Description of varieties

The main classification by which dahlias are divided is the classification according to the structure and shape of the inflorescences. There are currently 10 classes of dahlia in it. as new varieties appear, the classification expands.

Consider the existing varieties:

Simple dahlias

  • These plants have one row of petals, which is why they are sometimes also called single row.
  • From the side, the flowers look completely open, flattened.
  • The size of the flowers can be up to 10 cm in diameter.
  • Usually, in the middle of the flower there are several tubular elements, which in fact are modified stamens.
  • In turn, within this class, dahlias are divided by growth into dwarf, medium and tall, however, most simple varieties have a growth of 30 to 50 cm.

The most popular varieties:

  • Orangeade
  • Princess mary
  • Cupid
  • Kolleret

Anemone dahlias

  • According to the name, these varieties of dahlia are similar to the flowers of anemones.
  • Their petals are double, located in a flower in several rows (usually no more than 3).
  • In the center of these dahlias, there are also many modified tubular stamens.
  • The plant can have many shades - from bright white to deep pink.
  • The color of the "core" of the flower is always yellow. The diameter of the flowers is from 5 to 10 cm, the height of the stems is from 60 to 120 cm.

The most famous representatives of the varieties of anemone dahlias are as follows:

  • Comet
  • Polka
  • Inca
  • Mambo
  • Lambada

Peony dahlias

  • They have large, double or semi-double flowers that resemble peony flowers.
  • In the center, altered stamens are also densely located, but they are relatively low in comparison with other subspecies of dahlias.
  • Most often they have a three-row arrangement of petals, while their size decreases as they approach the center of the flower.
  • There are also incredibly dense specimens with a number of up to ten.
  • Also, like peonies, peony dahlias have a huge flower size: its diameter can be up to 20 cm. The bushes are tall, from 80 to 130 cm.

Popular varieties include:

  • Red tunic
  • Opera
  • Bendall Beauty
  • Chic En Rouge

Collared dahlias

  • The structure of the flower is such that the two rows of petals that form it create the illusion of a collar.
  • The short inner petals are, as it were, framed by the long outer ones.
  • For many representatives, the first and second row have different colors that contrast well against one another, which further enhances the illusion.
  • They have average flower sizes: up to 10 cm in diameter.The bushes are also low, up to 70 cm.

Popular varieties include the following:

  • Knight Butterfly
  • Pomegranate
  • Danko's heart
  • La Gioconda

Globular varieties

  • The flowers of these subspecies are similar to balls of various sizes.
  • There are both flattened forms of the flowering part, and almost perfect spherical.
  • The flowers are quite heavy, so the stems of the plants are powerful.
  • The size of the flowers is the most diverse: from small, 7 cm in diameter, to gigantic, more than 20 cm.
  • The height of various subspecies is also different: from 30 to 150 cm.
  • Coloring - from pale pink to purple, however, about 75% of the varieties have shades of red.

Popular varieties of ball dahlias include:

  • White Astaire
  • La Bayadere
  • Kenora Fairball
  • Gypsy Knight

Pompom dahlias

Pompom dahlias in different shades

  • In fact, the same spherical, but more flattened and slightly different in the shape of the petals.
  • In addition, unlike spherical dahlias, these dahlias have a gradient or tricolor color.
  • The size of the flowers also differs: mostly, these are small specimens, no more than 8 cm, but the stems can be high: up to 1 m 20 cm.

Popular varieties of pompom dahlias:

  • Rocco
  • Viking
  • Amber Queen
  • Little William

Dahlias cactus

  • They have dense double petals, which are distinguished by a very original shape. They are so curled up into tubes along their entire length that they resemble an improvised needle.
  • Thanks to this, the plant takes on the appearance of a bristling hedgehog or cactus.
  • Among cactus dahlias, there are often those whose flower color consists of 5-6 different, often contrasting shades, which is why the plant makes an indelible impression.
  • It should be especially noted that cactus dahlias have the largest size of the flowering part, sometimes even exceeding the size of peony dahlias.
  • The diameter of the flowering parts of cactus dahlias with proper care can reach 35 cm.
  • Their very strong stems are capable of holding many huge flowers at heights of more than 2 m. Cactus dahlias are one of the most popular subspecies of garden dahlias.

Cactus dahlias with thin leaves

The number of varieties of cactus dahlias is huge, we will list the most popular:

  • Black Wizard
  • Blackbury Riple
  • Star Surprise
  • Favorite
  • Princess park
  • Klondike

Semi-cactus varieties

Semi-cactus dahlia of the Santa variety

  • These are plants in which some of the petals, as a rule, are external, have a cactus shape, and the rest of the flower is similar to some other cultivar.
  • The overwhelming majority of semi-cactus varieties have double petals, and in the "needles", as a rule, they are twisted by about half the length.
  • These flowers are smaller than cactus, however, all the same, among other dahlias they are not equal in size. The diameter of the flowering part is 8 - 30 cm, and its height reaches 2 m.
  • However, semicactus also have practically dwarf species with a stem less than 30 cm long and a flowering part of about 6 cm.

The semi-cactus varieties include:

  • Meteor
  • Just Peachy
  • Island Delight
  • Pape Pink

Nymphae dahlias

  • Terry petals, large area. Outwardly, the flowers are similar to lotuses or lilies.
  • The flowering part is medium in size. The diameter of the flowers can be from 7 to 18 cm, the height of the stems of the plant is from 70 to 140 cm.
  • The colors are varied, but almost always there is a bright white or pink color in the plant. Radial symmetry is inherent in many nymphaean varieties.

Typical representatives:

  • Kens Flame
  • Twinny
  • Rapallo
  • Glory Hamitad

Decorative dahlias

Decorative dahlias of the Duet variety

  • Plants that have some kind of specially bred feature. For example, the shape of the outer petals or the color of staminodes. As a rule, they are hybridization of a variety in order to improve its survival or decorativeness.
  • Usually, these are medium or large plants with a diameter of the flower part from 12 to 25 cm, and a high stem - from 100 to 150 cm. Another feature of decorative dahlias is the darker shape of the stem and foliage.
  • In terms of the richness of hybrids and varieties, decorative dahlias surpass even their cactus counterparts.

Popular varieties are:

  • Ringo
  • Caballero
  • New Orange
  • Pearl Pearl
  • Heathwave

There is also a group of dahlias that are not included in this classification. As a rule, these are hybrids of different groups or technical hybrids. Traditionally, they are referred to as "mixed flowers".

Growing dahlias is a task that any florist can handle. These plants are relatively unpretentious and do not require too serious time and material costs for care. A huge number of varieties and the beautiful appearance of many of their representatives can bring a fresh touch to the design of both the garden plot and the interior.


Watch the video: How to plant peonies video with Thompson u0026 Morgan