3 things gardeners often lose money on

 3 things gardeners often lose money on

Your garden allows you to save on the purchase of necessary products, feed for livestock, it can serve as an additional source of income when selling seedlings, flowers and surplus crops. And the site also requires expenses for its maintenance, while, oddly enough, its owners often waste money.

Planting material

High-quality planting material is the key to future harvest. You should not rush to purchase seeds and seedlings, so as not to fall for the catchy pictures with which sellers generously decorate their goods.

The same variety of the desired plant in a simple package can cost several times less than in a bag with a promising photograph.

Experienced gardeners prefer to buy seeds by weight. Of course, in trusted places, otherwise there is a risk of running into scammers who, under the guise of the necessary materials, even sell weed seeds, the fight against which will continue for more than one summer. In pursuit of the spectacular look of the plant they like, buyers often forget to read about the conditions of its growth, or they can be deliberately misled, assuring, for example, that apple trees grown in a nursery in the south of the chernozem regions will perfectly take root in the northern regions.

Alas, the life of plants planted in an unsuitable habitat for them often ends quite soon after continuous diseases or complete freezing.

In order to save money when buying planting materials, it is better to forget about the habit of buying goods "in reserve" - ​​the shelf life of seeds is limited, and over time, their germination only gets worse.

Fertilizers and soil improvers

It would seem that there should only be benefits from fertilizers, so the more there are, the faster and richer the harvest will be. Unfortunately, this is not entirely true.The elements that make up fertilizers and soil improvers are either in synergistic or antagonistic relationships with each other, and an excess of one of them can lead to a deterioration in the assimilation of another element by the plant.

For example, an excess of nitrogen (and there is a lot of it in manure) leads to the fact that the plant absorbs less phosphorus, potassium and iron, which are important for the full ripening of fruits.

Money spent on the purchase of soil, soil or manure of inadequate quality infected with diseases or pests will not only be thrown to the wind, but also entail new expenses, so when buying, you should look for reviews on the supplier and carefully check the purchased product.

Insufficient protection of the site

The absence of fences and barriers makes planting in the garden defenseless from livestock and rodents, which will gladly enjoy both seedlings and ready-made crops. Therefore, you should not save on this, but take care of good protection: enclose the area with a strong net from large animals, and for set traps or lure a cat into the garden for small rodents.

Popular varieties of columnar apple trees

Probably, anyone wants to pick juicy and sweet summer apples, fragrant autumn and strong, stored until the new year, winter apples in their own garden. But how many favorite trees can be placed on 6 acres? It turns out that there are many, if these are columnar apple trees. Consider the main varieties and their description.

  1. Features of apple trees
  2. Classification
  3. Winter varieties
  4. The best varieties
  • Autumn varieties
  • The best varieties
  • Summer varieties
  • The best varieties
  • Approximate dimensions
  • The best dwarf varieties
  • Varieties for the Moscow region
  • Varieties for Siberia
  • Where can I buy seedlings
  • Gardeners reviews
  • Summarizing

  • 6 reasons rich people dress modestly

    The movement to “destroy cupboards” is gaining momentum.

    "Fast Fashion" comes into fashion. This is when people deliberately “don't bother” about their style. And they put on in the morning the first thing they groped while awake.

    This is the answer of the best representatives of the modern world to the imposed culture of "following trends". But it's not just a matter of protest.

    Today, what is fashionable is that which is “practical” and does not take “too much time”.

    The trend, oddly enough, was laid not by a fashionist at all, but by a businessman. Steve Jobs. Everyone knows that in the second half of his life he adhered to the same dress code: blue classic Levi's jeans, a black turtleneck with a high neck and white New Balance sports sneakers.

    Mark Zuckerberg does roughly the same thing. He doesn't cheat on dark blue jeans and a gray T-shirt or sweatshirt.

    It was with the filing of these two that the phenomenon became mainstream. At least in the United States.

    If you've ever wondered why the heck some billionaires wear the same “UG” every day, although they can afford absolutely any clothes, then here are 6 compelling reasons why they do it.

    • 1. Fewer decisions - less fatigue.
    • 2. Less time wasted.
    • 3. Less stress.
    • 4. Less time wasted.
    • 5. This is a sign of maturity.
    • 6. Less money will be wasted.

    1. Fewer decisions - less fatigue.

    This phenomenon has already been noticed and proved by scientists-psychologists. It is even written about in "Wikipedia". The bottom line is that it makes no difference to your brain whether you make a big decision or not. He will spend as much energy deciding what to wear before going to the office as deciding whether to ask the boss for a raise.

    For people who make important decisions every day, removing even one daily issue from life is already something. Give up the answers to "unnecessary" questions - and you will have more mental space and energy for other important things and tasks.

    This rule is followed, for example, by US President Barack Obama.

    “You may have noticed that I only wear gray and blue suits. I am trying to reduce the number of decisions I make. And I don't want to think about what I eat or wear. I have many other important questions to be answered! ”.

    All the details related to his wardrobe and food are decided by his wife Michelle.

    Mark Zuckerberg does the same for the same reasons. Moreover, the young billionaire still drives an old Honda Accord. He simply does not want to change the car so that he does not have to waste time “adapting” to it.

    Well, you get the idea: this guy doesn't buy a Ferrari just because he doesn't want to learn how to drive it!

    “I feel like I won't be able to do my job if I waste energy and energy on stupid and unnecessary things in life, and not devote myself to creating new products and services,” he explains.

    2. Less time wasted.

    We do not even suspect how much can be done if we do not do anything superfluous in life. But as soon as you start doing this, you will realize that you have opened a new life, full of freedom and opportunities!

    How to starch a napkin? We do everything right

    Before preparing the solution, you must decide for yourself how hard the napkin you want to achieve? Three options are possible here:

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    1. If you want to starch the napkin just a little, then your solution should be as follows: for one liter of water you add one teaspoon of starch.
    2. If you need medium hardness, then add one tablespoon of starch for one liter of water.
    3. If you want to achieve extreme hardness, then the ratio of ingredients will be as follows: for one liter of water - two tablespoons of starch.

    Large napkins and especially knitted tablecloths are best starch in a medium strength solution.

    How to prepare a starch solution?

    We talked about the solution options, now about how to prepare a starch solution. You have already decided on the right amount of starch. Next, dissolve this starch in a little cold water. The consistency of the solution should resemble thick sour cream. Then brew this solution with boiling water, stirring constantly, we bring the solution to the required volume.

    So, the solution is ready. Now you need to completely immerse the napkin in the warm solution. Then take it out, wring it out and spread it out on a flat, horizontal surface. In order for the starched napkin to straighten, it must be well straightened with pins, while paying attention to the correctness of the pattern. After that, iron the napkin, but at the same time it is important not to overheat it, otherwise it will turn yellow and all your work will be wasted. Be creative! Now you know how you can starch the napkin.

    On the same topic, there is also a video for you, where you will be shown the whole process. Take a look.



    Valentina Kiseleva's speech at Maria Shukshina's round table on March 20, 2021. Thanks to Valentina, Maria's round table finally touched upon the topic of an unselected virus. Show in full.

    14 signs of a false pandemic, global conspiracy and genocide of humanity:

    1. The covid-19 virus has never been isolated by anyone, it simply does not exist.

    2. The CPR method cannot be designed to test people for anything, it is a random number generator.

    3. Scientists, researchers and doctors are not allowed to discuss the imposed problem.

    4. The whole world imposed censorship in the Internet space. One can only speak well of the so-called "virus", otherwise blocking threatens!

    5. The so-called "coronavirus pandemic" was preceded by the "Event-201", which is training for totalitarian anti-human measures in all countries. And the very event itself already speaks of an artificially created lie on a global scale, behind which there are specific names.

    6. Local overload of the healthcare system is caused by an artificially created panic in the media and provocative activities in the logistics of the system.

    7. Deaths from the so-called virus were caused by the deadly treatment imposed by WHO and well sponsored by it. At the same time, according to the CDC, the survival rate from the so-called virus is 99.6% (this is official statistics).

    8. On the basis of what, when the mortality rate from any disease is 0.4%, the world is put on rigid "self-isolation", masks and other criminal measures are imposed, lockdowns are announced?

    9. Criminals have introduced a new term - asymptomatic disease. There are no asymptomatic diseases. Any disease implies the presence of symptoms.

    10. The complete disappearance of the Flu across the planet is a diversion. All cases of influenza and acute respiratory infections have been renamed the newfangled deceitful disease.

    11. The entire pandemic exists primarily in the media space. In the real world, none of this exists.

    12. The so-called virus is so deadly that people doubt its existence. This already says a lot.

    13. Not a single study has been carried out that would have been confirmed by Koch's postulates.

    14. What is the basis for any vaccine development at all, and so-called "vaccination" is promoted? Which in itself is a biological experiment on humanity, which is considered by the Nuremberg Code "Crime against humanity."

    This is a global conspiracy against humanity, targeted genocide and extermination of humanity.
    Call a spade a spade.

    Unite and try to be together
    We are in Telegram https://t.me/qanonrus
    We are on VKontakte https://vk.com/qanon_ru


    Dedicated to the most honest and courageous President of Tanzania, who did not let KoronoFascism into his country!

    Tanzanian President John Magufuli greatly interfered with the cult. because the information that he conveyed to his people was relayed by many of the world's media and, accordingly, awakened millions of people around the world.

    He fought the Deep State within his own country. He drew correct and logical conclusions after the experiments with PCR tests. This we will not hear today from 99% of world politicians who are on a leash with the shadow world mafia. Many of them do not even realize it, because they are in a state of deep sleep.

    Bright memory, John. You were a real hero.

    You are the plan! By spreading the truth, we participate in the awakening of Humanity and make a choice in favor of Freedom and Justice.
    Unite and try to be together
    We are in Telegram https://t.me/qanonrus
    We are on VKontakte https://vk.com/qanon_ru


    It seems like a real miracle: using the system of Ivan Neumyvakin, we can become healthy, Show in full. as cosmonauts, despite environmental pollution and other negative factors. And this will not require huge money for operations and medicine. We will generally refuse them and will help ourselves.

    As the head of the health program for Soviet cosmonauts, the doctor of medical sciences, professor, laureate of the State Prize of the CCCP Ivan Pavlovich Neumyvakin was allowed to recruit the best scientists.

    He took from them all the power of domestic medicine and enriched it with his inventions.

    A unique health system was created, thanks to which our cosmonauts have not been sick for more than half a century.

    - Therefore, at first I had to determine where the line between health and illness is, why does a person start to get sick?

    Second. Is it possible to use something in the space from the equipment of the official medicine? It turned out that nothing!

    In my doctoral dissertation, I have a collection of author's videos on inventions. They are also prioritized today.

    After leaving space exploration, I tried to incorporate into the health system everything that I had worked for space. But I ran into fierce opposition. It turns out that by my developments I am “undermining the author of home science”. After all, I found the main reason why a person is sick.

    A universal cause of illness?

    - In what way do you differ from the official medicine?

    - She recommends: first, second, third. But we are presenting an energy system, a living machine. Inside we have a "conveyor", and the mouth is a "free system". We should not swallow food, but carefully chew it, practically “drink” it. At this time, the "computer" - the brain - sees: bread, porridge, a piece of meat. And gives instructions to the stomach. For meat, more concentrated hydrochloric acid is needed, and for bread - a little less, for porridge - the same.

    But you have swallowed food without eating it. It is only from the top, slightly enveloped in salt acid, which cannot penetrate inside the piece.

    But the most terrible thing is that at this time the hydrochloric acid, which was released in sufficient quantity to process the same piece of meat, is diluted with water, which is consumed at the end. You decrease the concentration of acid, as a result, the food cannot be overcooked. And everything that you ate turns into "slags" - unfinished products of the exchange of things.

    We go four or five times more than is necessary to maintain health. The rest of the "extra" food is a job for doctors, the beginning of your illness. Not today, so tomorrow - but it will definitely be.

    - Do you suggest drinking less liquids?

    - This is looking at what. The point is that only "clean" water enters the cage. It is this water that you need to drink two liters. Mineral waters, more so carbonated drinks - dangerous products of the poultry must clean them. Coffee and tea give a short burst of energy, but this only aggravates the lack of water. These and similar drinks cannot be processed.

    "Dirty" water enters the cell, and instead of getting energy, the last one should spend it on cleaning the liquid. "Dirt" is thrown away, but there is not enough water - and there is little energy.

    I think now it is clear why the poultry "slagged". And it does not matter what the "unclean" liquid pours into: into atherosclerosis, hypertension, arrhythmia ... Yes, into anything!

    The main cause of the vast majority of diseases is obvious.

    - There are states associated with slagging of the body. In it, the cells begin to live in fact in a rotten, oxygen-free environment. Therefore, they mutate, become cancer markers. In general, cancer cells exist in any organism, but in a healthy person they are suppressed by the immune system. And when the individual is weakened, these cells begin to multiply violently. In principle, we need them - in order for the body to know: good and evil are always nearby. But goodness should not allow evil to spread. And if you yourself suppress good - due to stress, improper nutrition, provoking hypodynamia, and so on? Good leaves, and evil takes its place.

    We have created a health center in which for three weeks, without drugs and enemas, we cleanse the internal environment of the body. And a person excludes, for example, hypertonia - one that cannot be removed by the cardiological center. Well, it can't! And we simply remove the "dirt" from the body.

    - Due to the half-starved existence. Special herbal teas for cleaning blood, liver, kidneys, pancreas. A special system that allows you to fast for two days and drink these teas for two days.

    - In your centers successfully treating abnormal sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and other diseases that are generally considered incurable ...

    - After three or six months, patients who were lying, already go to the store, to the market, serve themselves. And the secret is simple: they saturated their cells with water, which they previously lacked in a catastrophe.

    Doctors completely ignore the fact that water is the best electrolyte, it is energy. Without it, the mitochondria cannot work - their kind of hydroelectric power plant, supplying the cell with energy. And the first organ that suffers from lack of water is the brain. Hence - irritation, headache, migraine, rapid fatigue, poor performance.

    Today I officially declare: from my point of view, there is no diagnosis. Cancer and AIDS are states of effect, not cause.

    If a person is sure that cancer is a temporary state, then he can get rid of it. To do this, one must first of all look at what was wrong in life he did, repent of his sins, ask forgiveness from the people whom he offended. And then you need to tune your consciousness to recovery. It is this mood that overcomes any damaging factors.

    - People are surprised when you tell them that the heart ... is not in the chest.

    - The heart is a motor for pumping liquid, it is mainly located below the navel ...

    - An adult person has a height of 150-180 centimeters. Liquid under the influence of gravity falls down, but it needs to be raised from the bottom up. And this is done by the muscles in which the vessels are located. These are special pumps that push the blood upward with their contractions. And if the owner of his body does not engage in it: does not exercise, does not train the muscles of the trunk and legs, then he has atherosclerosis, varicosis, trophic discharges.

    Against the background of the "dirt" that is in the body, the blood thickens. And the heart needs to exert more effort to push this blood. First, there is hypertrophy of the left ventricle, then a different kind of arrhythmia begins, and then a heart attack or stroke occurs. The heart does not have the strength to work instead of more than five hundred muscles, which should pump blood.

    So, the heart should work with good blood, not condensed, but liquid, filled with water. But how to achieve this, almost no one teaches people.

    Few people know that you need to drink water 10-15 minutes before eating - one or two glasses. It freely passes through the small stomach curve and collects in the area of ​​the duodenal ulcer, where the alkali accumulates. As a result, the water is not acidified by the stomach, but is alkalized.

    - You can't drink traditional compote, coffee or tea?

    - In no case! You can only swipe after the food. And one and a half or two hours after eating meat, do not eat and do not drink anything: you need the stomach juice to work, "to eat" this meat. Because a person needs something in him, he lives “in the periodic system of Mendelev” and must replenish his body with all the elements.

    And if you are on an empty stomach, when your stomach is empty, you want to eat - you need to drink water. We drank - I don’t want to eat for half an hour. Then they drank some more. And when it’s already "under the spoon" - eat.

    At us, as twelve o'clock, so everyone goes to lunch in the dining room. But don't eat if you don't want to! We must give the body a rest. Because his food, which he ate in the morning, is not overworked! If you pile more on top, it will rot. Hence - all the negative consequences.

    So drink water on an empty stomach. Water is food, because we actually make up three-fourths of water. For a day you need to drink on an empty stomach 1.5–2 liters of pure water. Everything else does not work for health.

    Look at some people after 60–70 years. When they start drinking about two liters per day of clean water, their wrinkles are smoothed out, the intestines begin to work normally.

    The poultry bathes in the water - this is the basis of her life. Therefore, you need to drink a lot and only on an empty stomach, and only clean water.

    - Pure water is not the one that is sold. Bottled water is sour, it has a pH of 6.5–7. And how to make really clean water?

    There is normal water in the Moscow water pipeline. In the evening you pour it from the tap into a casserole or bottle, it thaws, the chlorine comes out. In the morning there will certainly be a precipitate, although it is not visible through the eyes.

    You carefully drain the top water, about two third of the total volume, but do not boil it, as usual, but bring it to small bubbles. This is the so-called "cold boiling water", which preserves its structure for a day.

    Such water is necessary for the cell. She already does not spend energy on her purification. This is virtually living water that returns health to a person.

    - Tell me, please, at what time do you need to eat food to become healthy?

    - The point is that if you eat after seven hours of the evening, you will never be a healthy person. Insulin, secreted by the pancreas at 19 o'clock, processes food for two hours. If you have eaten something sweet, then insulin will not allow the sugar level to rise above the norm.

    And from 9 o'clock in the evening the pancreas should sleep together with the stomach - by this time they need to be free from food. Then they pass the phase of the pineal gland, which produces melatonin - the growth hormone, it is released at 11 o'clock.

    - It would seem, what relation has the above mentioned to religion? But she and science today come to common conclusions. The higher beginning lies in the basis of the Universe, of all phenomena occurring in it. It is the main one and in human activity, at least - it should be like that. But we have perverted the higher laws, focused on the material, forgetting about the spiritual. And if there is no God in the soul, then, you get, you can take from life everything that is possible, without giving anything in return. That is why that bacchanalia arose, which we observe now in the life around us.

    - What should be done to change the world around us that is unwelcome and cold to our feelings, the impulses of the soul of the world?

    - You are asking me a childish question, but deep meaning is hidden in it. The answer to it was known a thousand years ago: do not do to another what you do not want to do to you. Know: you are a part of everything that is around you. One thing depends on the other. You have done evil to your neighbor - it means that you have done badly in the first place to yourself. Destroying others with your thoughts and deeds, you destroy yourself, your spiritual and moral foundation. And damage to the soul inevitably leads to diseases of the body, premature death. There is only one way to avoid them - to stop intimidating those around you, to start doing good, to make the spiritual, and not material, the main thing in life, then to live according to the commandments that religion gives.

    The system that was blocked

    - Ivan Pavlovich, your method of ultraviolet treatment allows people to get rid of chemical preparations, effectively treat animals and plants, get ecologically pure milk and meat, vegetables and fruits, other products. But why is this rescue system not used anywhere after such successful tests ?! Once again, the Evangelical truth is confirmed: there is no prophecy in your account ...

    - Unfortunately, this is so. I worked for dozens of years in the cosmonautics and could not do health care. In addition, I hoped that my medical developments would be implemented by sane people. And indeed, after carrying out all the tests, the permission of the Ministry of Health of the CCCP was obtained for their introduction into the health system. But soon the Soviet Union fell to pieces. And the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation demanded the conduct of the same tests, but already under the auspices of the Russian Federation, because the results obtained in Soviet institutions, for him, you see, are useless. This is nonce!

    But I had already gone on a pension, and for a second test I had neither the strength nor the financial means. And nobody wanted to help me. Then I realized that I was undermining the existing methods and means of treating people, animals, plants, soil, which in fact cripple them, but at the same time feed the producers of medicines, herbal fertilizers, and mineral fertilizers and mineral fertilizers.

    - What do you propose for medicine, Ivan Pavlovich?

    - Widely root my health system. She was blocked in large cities where medical services are well developed. But it is very weak in the depths, and there you can try to implement this system. A standard project has been created, which will allow the chief physician and his staff in regional hospitals or in remote corners of Russia to heal 25-30 people for three weeks. You don't need any tomographs, no complicated equipment - you need the usual methods that doctors use to free people from drug addiction.

    In the State Duma of Russia, this proposal of mine found understanding at a higher level. But when the question of implementation arose, the authorities responsible for health in Russia did not find the money needed to organize health centers. And in general, my whole ecological system of health of man, animals, plants, land turned out to be "useless" ...

    Recently, one representative of the government said that small cities are impractical - they need to be united with megapolises. But the implementation of this project would destroy the basis of Russia. Where else can her revival begin?

    Revival begins from the earth, knowledge of nature, love for all living things, the desire to preserve it for posterity. On the earth are born those people who should glorify Russia. It is from there that health should come, and not from megapolises, whose inhabitants have no idea "where the rolls grow."

    - Is there really no hope for the implementation of your developments, which allow you to cleanse the earth, to heal all living things?

    - Fortunately, they recently became interested in Belarus. There, until now, free medicine and free education are preserved.

    It is not surprising that this country has developed an interest in my health system, which turned out to be "unnecessary" in our country. I would like to believe that the health of the entire planet will begin from here.

    I really hope that in Russia there will also be people who want their children and grandchildren to live in good health on the reborn land, and not die of illness in a poisoned environment. And root my system.

    If interesting subscribe.

    Essentialism. The Path to Simplicity read online by Greg McKeon

    Essentialism. The path to simplicity

    This book is for everyone who is mired in everyday worries and who does not have enough time for the most important things. The author of the book, writer and psychologist Greg McKeon, recalls: your time and energy are priceless, they cannot be wasted on those things and those people that are not really important to you. You and you alone must determine what is worth your limited resources. Essentialism is a new approach that allows you to do less, but better, in all areas of your life. He very clearly explains how to focus on the most important and get rid of all that unnecessary that surrounds you and prevents you from focusing on priorities.

    Published in Russian for the first time.

    Essentialism. The path to simplicity

    Reprinted with permission from The Crown Publishing Group and Synopsis Literature Agency

    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form whatsoever without the written permission of the copyright holders.

    © Translation, edition in Russian, design. LLC "Mann, Ivanov, Ferber", 2018

    Wisdom consists in removing everything that is unimportant from your life.

    [1 - From the English. essence - the essence. Hereinafter, notes are provided by the editor.]

    Graphic designer Tricia Morse had a simple rule of thumb in her work: do what you were asked to do. When people came to her with requests, she answered with consent without hesitation. She was pleased to hear the customers' gratitude: “Thank you so much! You helped me so much! "

    The trouble is that Trisha agreed to so many things at once that she soon began to tire. Everything was getting out of hand. Trisha worked around the clock to please every client, but her work only got worse and more often error occurred. After some time, her drawings ceased to be liked by both customers and herself.

    Desperate to defend herself, Trisha began to say no. At first, she lacked determination. When she received another order, she asked herself: "Will I have time to complete it within the specified time and with the available resources?" And if the answer was no, the offer had to be rejected. Trisha's clients were not happy about this, but respected her for her honesty.

    Each small victory added confidence to Trichet. Now she was evaluating orders according to a more stringent criterion: "Can I spend my time and resources on something better?"

    And if the answer was yes, Trisha refused the assignment. At first it seemed to her that it was impossible to indulge her own desires like that, but gradually she created for herself a free space in which she was engaged in creativity. She was no longer scattered among dozens of projects, but carefully planned each one with potential obstacles in mind. The quality of her work has returned to its previous level.

    Trisha began to follow this principle in her everyday life. Instead of immediately responding to any request, she gave herself time to reflect and decide whether she should agree. Trisha began to reject almost all offers and requests, leaving only those that were really important. And then she properly planned the chosen cases, prepared for them and eliminated all obstacles on the way to their implementation.

    Surprisingly, over time, clients began to trust Trichet even more. She became calmer in communication, and people understood that her words could be trusted. If she took up something, then she really brought the matter to the end and put all her strength into it. In the end, Trisha's new approach has benefited both parties. The work became more pleasant for her, and the clients received a better quality result.

    Now let's talk about you. How often have you answered “yes” to someone's request, personal or work, without even thinking about what you were actually asked? How often have you hated what you do and thought, "Why did I just sign up for this?" How often have you agreed with someone just to please or avoid problems? Or has “yes” become a universal answer to any question for you?

    Think about it, have you ever suffered from overwork? Feel like you are working too much and not efficiently enough at the same time? That you pay too much attention to the little things? Have you been constantly, but unsuccessfully busy? Feel like you are running as fast as you can, but not budging?

    If you answered yes to at least one of these questions, then the only way out for you is to become an essentialist.

    Dieter Rams has been a senior designer at Braun for many years. All his activities were based on the principle that there are only a few truly important things in the world, and everything else is noise. His task was to cut through this noise to the very essence of things. For example, at 24, he was given the assignment to design a gramophone. At that time, it was customary to cover gramophones with heavy wooden covers or even make them built into furniture. Instead, Dieter and his team created a turntable with a transparent plastic cover, that is, removed from the design everything that, in their opinion, was noise. This decision was so revolutionary that the managers of the company began to fear bankruptcy. It seemed to them that such gramophones would simply not be bought. It takes a lot of courage to give up the unnecessary. But in the 60s, the minimalist style began to gain popularity, and soon all the turntable manufacturers were already copying Braun's design.

    Dieter's main design principle can be summed up in a short German phrase: weniger aber besser ("less but better"). And this is the most successful of all possible definitions of essentialism.

    The Essentialist's way is a constant search for less, but better. Discipline is critical. It is important not only to sometimes remember this principle, but to adhere to it in everything.

    The Essentialist's way is not to make a promise to yourself: “Starting January 1, I’ll say no more often,” and not to finally clean up your inbox in your mail, or even find yourself a new time management strategy. The Essentialist constantly asks himself the question: "Am I doing this?" There are so many opportunities and activities in the world that we do not have enough time or resources for everything. And while many of them seem interesting to us, only a few are really needed. The Essentialist Path teaches us to see what is really important, that is, to consider all the existing options and choose only the most valuable ones.

    Essentialism doesn't help you do more things, but teaches you how to choose the right activities. But at the same time, you are not doing less just to do less.Essentialism is the ability to wisely invest your time and energy in critical endeavors to achieve maximum efficiency.

    The difference between an essentialist and a non-essentialist is shown in the table on the next page. Both people make the same effort. Only on the left side of the table, these efforts are distributed among dozens of different tasks. This person is most likely progressing very slowly in each of their endeavors and does not feel any satisfaction from success. The man from the right side of the table

    spends energy on just a few tasks. As a result, he sees his progress in areas that are important to him, and this brings him joy. The Essentialist path means giving up the belief that we can do everything. Instead, it requires us to be realistic and make tough decisions. But in many cases, one such decision will save you from a thousand needs to make choices in the future, which means that you will not have to ask yourself the same question over and over again.

    The Essentialist does not learn from his own mistakes, but carefully plans his life to avoid them. He does not make decisions instinctively, but deliberately chooses several of the most important tasks from dozens of tasks and strives to fulfill them. The Essentialist's path is always straight and bright. In other words, essentialism is a disciplined and systematic approach that identifies the most effective points of effort. If you can learn to do it right, then the actual task will be almost no difficulty.

    An Essentialist who follows his own path is in control of his actions. Therefore, this principle leads to new levels of success and significance. It allows us not only to enjoy the result obtained, but also to enjoy the movement towards it. But there are a huge number of obstacles that push us off this path and prevent us from becoming real essentialists.

    One clear winter day, I visited my wife, Anna, in a California hospital. Anna was literally beaming, but I knew she was very tired. After all, yesterday she gave birth to our daughter - a nice healthy little girl weighing 3 kilograms 100 grams [2 - A version of this story was published on June 28, 2012 in one of my blog posts for Harvard Business Review titled “If you do not highlight accents, someone does it for you, ”http://blogs.hbr.org/2012/06/how-to-say-no-to-a-controlling/ (http://blogs.hbr.org/2012/06/how -to-say-no-to-a-controlling /)].

    I wanted to fill this day with calmness and happiness, but in fact I felt tense to the limit. My newborn daughter was lying in the arms of my tired wife, while I was talking on the phone with my office, looking through my mail and worried that I would be late for a meeting with a client. One of my colleagues wrote to me: “It would be better for her not to give birth on Friday afternoon, I need you at the meeting with X”. As you can imagine, it was Friday. I knew (or at least hoped) that this was a joke, but I still felt that I needed to be present at work.

    At the same time, I knew exactly what I needed to do. I wished to spend these hours with my wife and child. So, when I was once again asked if I would appear at the meeting, I gathered all my will into a fist and confidently answered ... "yes."

    To my shame, while my wife and newborn daughter were in the hospital, I drove to work. When the meeting ended, a colleague told me: "Our client really appreciates that you were able to come." But to be honest, the expression on the client's face was not at all like respect. His eyes read: "What are you doing here ?!" I said yes, just to please my colleagues, but in the end my family, my reputation and even my relationship with the client suffered.

    Subsequently, it turned out that nothing important was decided at that meeting. But even if it did matter, I would still make a fool of myself. In an attempt to please everyone and everyone, I did not do any good, and even gave up what was really valuable.

    From this situation, I learned one useful lesson:

    Learn to highlight accents in your life. Or someone else will do it for you.

    After this story, I became interested again (read: became obsessed with) the question of how and why people make certain decisions in their personal and professional life. Why don't we want to use all the opportunities available to us? And how to learn to make such decisions that would fully reveal the potential both in ourselves and in the people around us?

    These questions have already caused me to quit law, leave England, get to California and graduate from Stanford. In an attempt to answer them, my colleagues and I devoted two years to writing Multipliers: How the Best Leaders Make Everyone Smarter [3 - Amplifiers: How the best leaders make everyone smarter.] For the sake of answers, I opened my own training company in Silicon Valley. I am currently working here with many talented and intelligent representatives of interesting global companies and trying to set them on the path of essentialism.

    All kinds of people turn to my company. Some of them live under a constant burden of problems. Some are considered successful, but they are haunted by the desperate desire to do everything perfectly. Others have fallen under the power of their managers so much that they no longer understand that they are not obliged to fulfill all the proposed tasks. Working with them, I tried to understand why such brilliant, smart, talented people are trapped in meaningless little things.

    And what I understood really surprised me.

    I once worked with a very dedicated manager. He fell in love with technology as a child, and very soon his knowledge and passion for technology began to pay off. He was ready to build on his success and continued his studies in this field with great enthusiasm. When we met, he literally radiated energy. He wanted to try and experience everything. New interests arose every day, if not every hour. But at the same time, he lost the ability to see the really important among the many possibilities. Everything mattered to him. As a result, he only became more atomized and took a tiny step forward in dozens of selected directions. He worked too hard and too ineffectively. It was him that I depicted in the left column of the table above.

    He silently looked at my sketch for a long time, and then exclaimed: "This is the story of my whole life!" Then I finished drawing the right side of the table and asked: "How can we choose one direction in which you can bring the greatest benefit?" He answered absolutely sincerely: "That is the whole question!"

    It turns out that many smart and ambitious people are unable to answer this question, and there are a number of reasons for this. For example, our society is designed in such a way that wrong behavior (consent) is encouraged in it, and correct (disagreement) is condemned. We are often embarrassed to say no, and we are usually praised for answering yes. The result is the so-called success paradox [4 - The original article was published on August 8, 2012 on my blog for Harvard Business Review called “Orderly Striving for Less,” http://blogs.hbr.org/2012/08/the-disciplined -pursuit-of-less / (http://blogs.hbr.org/2012/08/the-disciplined-pursuit-of-less/). In this book, I have used ideas from other HBR blogs many times.], Which consists of four phases:

    PHASE 1. A well-defined goal helps you succeed.

    PHASE 2. Success makes you a specialist in your business, "good old [name]", which you can always turn to. So you have more tasks and opportunities.

    PHASE 3. The more tasks and opportunities require your attention, the more effort and time you have to distribute between them. You start to dissipate.

    PHASE 4. You are distracted from what you should have given all your attention to. As a result, you no longer have a clearly defined goal that

    led you to success for the first time.

    Surprisingly, it is the drive for success that can cause failure. In other words, your own successes divert your attention from the more important things that led you to them. The paradox of success can be seen everywhere. In his book How the Mighty Fall [5 - Collins J. How great people die and why some companies never give up. (http://litres.ru/pages/biblio_book/?art=4953064) M .: Mann, Ivanov and Ferber, 2013.] Jim Collins talks about companies that were once the favorites of Wall Street, but failed. He concludes that the constant pursuit of more and lack of discipline pushed them to death [6 - Jim Collins, How the Mighty Fall: And Why Some Companies Never Give In (New York, HarperCollins, 2009).]. This happens both with enterprises and with those who work for them. But why?

    Why People Give Up Essentialism

    There are several reasons for this.

    Over the past ten years, the number of options available to us in various areas has grown several times. Due to too many choices, we cannot decide what is really important.

    Management theorist Peter Drucker said: “In a few centuries, when our time will already be history, scientists will most likely be interested not in new technologies, not the Internet or e-commerce, but abrupt changes in life. This is the first time that such a huge number of people have the opportunity to choose and self-government. And our society turned out to be not ready for this ”[7 - Peter Drucker,“ Managing Knowledge Means Managing Oneself, ”Leader to Leader Journal, no. 16 (Spring 2000), www.hesselbeininstitute.org/knowledgecenter/journal.aspx?ArticleID=26 (http://www.hesselbeininstitute.org/knowledgecenter/journal.aspx?ArticleID=26).].

    The reason for this unpreparedness was the fact that for the first time in the history of mankind, the number of choices available to us exceeded our ability to control them. It became difficult for us to distinguish between the important and the secondary. Psychologists call this "decision fatigue." The more often we are forced to make a choice, the worse the quality of our decisions becomes [8 - Shai Danziger, Jonathan Levav, Liora Avnaim-Pessoa, “Extraneous Factors in Judicial Decisions,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108, no. 17 (2011): 6889-6892.].

    Great social pressure

    Not only has the number of choices available to us grown, but also the force with which external circumstances and other people pressure us. How closely we are connected with each other in the modern world and what a gigantic amount of information we have to process has been said more than once. But such a connection also increases the strength of social pressure. Thanks to modern technology, anyone can speak up about what seems important to him. We are overloaded not only with facts, but also with private opinions.

    The "you can get whatever you want" attitude

    This idea in itself is not new. It has been present in the human consciousness for so long that, I am sure, almost everyone on Earth has been infected with it. It is promoted in advertising, it is supported by large corporations, it is included in job descriptions (in the form of long lists of knowledge and skills) and requirements for entering universities.

    But today, when expectations are overestimated and the possibilities of choice are endless, this attitude does more harm than good. People are trying to cram extra activities into their already crowded schedules. Companies verbally talk about the balance of work and leisure, but in fact require employees to be in touch 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and so on all year round. At work meetings, 10 priority tasks are discussed, and no one sees irony in these words.

    The word priority [9 - Priority.] Stuck in the English language in the 15th century, and at that time it did not have a plural. It stood for the single most important or first thing. For another five hundred years, it was used only in the singular, and only in the 20th century did people start talking about "priorities" [10 - In Russian, the word "priority" began to be used in the plural only at the end of the 20th century.]. For some reason, it seems to us that by changing one word, we can change reality. Today, people and companies are trying to do just that. My clients have told me that their companies sometimes prioritize first, second, third, fourth and fifth priority. In theory, this should illustrate that the company has many important goals for itself. In practice, this shows that the company simply cannot figure out which task is the most important.

    But when we try to do everything we can and get everything we want, in the end we very often find ourselves where we would never be of our own free will. If we ourselves cannot choose where to direct our time and energy, others do it for us: bosses, colleagues, clients or even family members. After a while, we will no longer understand what really makes sense to us. So, we either make our own decisions or let other people control our lives.

    Australian nurse Bronnie Weir has looked after terminally ill people for their last twelve weeks and listened to regrets about their lives. Almost every patient told her: “I wish I had the strength to live my life in my own way, and not in the way others expected of me.” [11 - Bronnie Weir, “The Top Five Regrets of the Dying », Huffington Post, 21 January 2012, www.huffingtonpost.com/bronnie-ware/top-5-regrets-of-the-dyin_b_1220965.html (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/bronnie-ware/top- 5-regrets-of-the-dyin_b_1220965.html). I first mentioned this on June 28, 2012, in a post for my blog on Harvard Business Review titled “If You Don't Emphasize, Someone Does It For You,” http://blogs.hbr.org/2012/06/ how-to-say-no-to-a-controlling / (http://blogs.hbr.org/2012/06/how-to-say-no-to-a-controlling/)].

    I am not suggesting that you continually refuse any offers. It's about acting in accordance with the strategy and rejecting what you don't need. These may not only be things you waste your time on, but they may also be promising suggestions [12 - Bronnie Weir, “The Top Five Regrets of the Dying,” Huffington Post, January 21, 2012, www.huffingtonpost.com/bronnie -ware / top-5-regrets-of-the-dyin_b_1220965.html (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/bronnie-ware/top-5-regrets-of-the-dyin_b_1220965.html) less. "]. You will stop blindly reacting to the pressure of society, pushing you to work with dozens of different directions at the same time, and learn to choose from them only what you really need.

    This book will do to your life and career what an experienced cleaning lady will do to your closet. Imagine what the closet would look like if it had never been cleaned. Do you think it would be clean there and each suit would have a place on the hanger? No matter how it is. If you do not make a conscious effort to organize the space in the closet, very soon it will be crammed with old and unnecessary clothes. Of course, every now and then, when the clutter gets out of hand, you try to do some spring cleaning. But if you don't have a strict system, then as a result, things are left as much as they were, because you cannot decide which ones to throw away. Or you are upset because you accidentally threw away the clothes you were going to wear. Or you have a stack of clothes that you do not plan to wear, but are afraid to throw away.

    Just as our closets are filled with unnecessary things, our lives are filled with chores and responsibilities that we agree to take on.

    to myself. Most of these things have no expiration date, and if you don't learn how to get rid of them, they can stay with you for life.

    This is how a true Essentialist would clean a closet.

    The first rule is to evaluate and investigate

    Instead of asking myself, "Is it likely that I will wear this in the future?" - show discipline and ask yourself: "Does this suit me?" or "Do I wear this often?" If you answer no, then you have a candidate for an outlier.

    When making decisions in your personal or professional life, you can change this question as follows: "Will what I do help me achieve my goals?" In the first part of this book, we'll talk about these types of activities.

    The second rule is to give up unnecessary

    Suppose you have laid out all the clothes from the closet into two piles: "definitely leave" and "maybe throw away."But are you really ready to bag the second pile of clothes and throw them away? After all, you spent money on it! Research shows that we value the things we own more than they actually are, and that is why it is so difficult for us to get rid of them. If you are not completely sure, ask yourself a security question: "If I saw this thing in a store, how much would I be willing to spend on it?" This usually works.

    In other words, it is important not only to identify which activities do not benefit you, but also to be able to refuse them. In the second part of this book, I will talk about how to get rid of excess, and in such a way as to win the respect of colleagues, bosses, clients and friends.

    The third rule is to act

    If you want to keep your closet in order at all times, you need to clean it regularly. At the same time, you will have to throw away a lot, and leave very little. You will have to find out the schedule of your local thrift store or charity center and set yourself the exact time to go there with your belongings. Once you have decided which activities to leave in your life (that is, which ones are the most effective), you will need to develop a system for their implementation. In this book, you will learn how to complete the most important tasks with minimal effort.

    Of course, life is not as static as a wardrobe. Your clothes always remain where you put them (unless, of course, you have children growing up in your house). But in life, new clothes (that is, requirements and proposals) appear constantly. Imagine how you would feel if every time you open the closet, you saw a pile of someone's things. In the morning it was still in order, but by lunchtime it was already filled up with junk! Unfortunately, this is exactly what happens in the life of most of us. How often did you start your day on a schedule, and by ten in the morning you were completely out of it? Or how many times have you written yourself a to-do list for the day in the morning and found it even longer in the evening? How many times have you dreamed of a quiet weekend at home with your family, and in the end jumped up on Saturday at dawn to solve another problem or go on a sudden business trip? So, I have good news for you. There is an exit!

    Essentialism is a system that teaches you how to put things in order in your life. And this is not a spring cleaning once a year or once a week, but a disciplined approach that you apply every time you receive another offer. This is a way that helps to make a difficult choice between dozens of pleasant and interesting things in life and a couple of really necessary ones. Essentialism forces you to do less, but better, so that every moment of your life brings you valuable results.

    This book will show you how to stay honest with yourself and ignore the expectations of others. You will learn how to increase your productivity in your personal and professional life, how to systematically set accents, discard unnecessary and complete the necessary tasks with a minimum of effort. In other words, we will teach you to do less, but better in all areas of your life. And here's how we do it.

    This book is divided into four sections. The first describes the essentialist's key characteristics. In the next three, these characteristics develop into a systematic process that you can apply in any circumstance and at any time. Let me briefly describe each section.

    This part of the book describes three characteristics without which a person is unable to think like an essentialist. A separate chapter is devoted to each of them.

    1. Personal choice. The first characteristic is the ability of any individual to independently decide how to spend their time and energy. If a person has no choice, there is no point in talking about compromises.

    2. The presence of noise. The second characteristic is the realization that almost everything around us is noise and only a few things have real meaning. This is why we take the time to define them. Some are more important than others that the effort we spend finding them pays off.

    3. The importance of trade-offs. It is not given to anyone to have time for everything that he aspires to, and get everything that he wants. If this were not the case, we would not have to evaluate the available choices and discard some of them. Once we recognize the importance of compromise, we stop asking the question, "How do I do this?" - and ask ourselves: "What exactly do I want to do?"

    Once you have realized and accepted all these characteristics, you will begin to think like an essentialist. Of course, after fully understanding the above factors, the method described in this book seems natural and intuitive. It consists of three simple steps.

    Step one. explore: how to separate the most important from the unhelpful

    The paradox of Essentialism is that Essentialists essentially consider more options than other people. An ordinary person is ready to agree to anything without hesitation. The Essentialist, on the other hand, takes a systematic approach and examines a myriad of options before deciding on the appropriate ones. And if a person is ready to invest all his time and energy in one or two projects, then it is logical to spend more effort on their choice and consider all the options.

    How to deal with rodents in the garden

    1. In a barn or in a country house, poisonous baits can be laid out for mice and rats. Keep in mind to spread poison in chicken coops and where other pets are not kept.
    2. Universal traps for rats and mice. Such homemade folk devices will require a little patience and diligence from you. For example, put a barrel of water, and add chaff to the water and put bait on top. Mice smelling the bait fall into the water and cannot get out.
    3. Electronic and ultrasonic scarers, correctly installed and configured, will help you protect your summer cottage or shed.

    Prevention is the key to success in the fight against mice in the garden

    If you do not want the constant autumn migration of mice to your garden and home, do not choose plots for summer cottages near fields. Otherwise, this mouse wrestling will become your annual activity.

    In order not to attract rodents to their site, in the fall, summer residents need to remove all plant residues from the beds. Cabbage coppers, small roots of carrots and beets, open compost heaps - all this attracts mice and rats. Do not prepare winter canteens for rodents.

    Mice cannot stand the smell of wormwood, so experienced gardeners advise tying fruit trees with bunches of wormwood and Chernobyl, which often grow in abundance on wastelands, for the winter. Wormwood also protects the trunks from sunburn, and at the same time the plants are well ventilated. It is necessary to tie the stems of wormwood upside down, without leaving uncovered areas on the trees.

    To scare away mice, wormwood is recommended to be scattered on the plantings of lilies - mice willingly feast on the bulbs of these flowers, often exterminating them clean.

    Setting traps and mouse traps in the garden is a Sisyphean labor, because you cannot know for sure whether a mouse will pass to them. Pesticides openly scattered along the paths and under fruit trees are also not an option. After all, useful birds can be poisoned by poisons.

    Only the option with scarers remains. But, as many gardeners and summer residents say, mice and rats may not react to some models of such devices.

    Another convenient place to live for gray rats and mice can be your garage. Often summer residents completely forget to put poisoned baits or scarers in garages. And rodents absolutely freely feast on wiring and other inedible, but necessary things in garages.

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