Most often, peach trees are found in the southern regions: it is these conditions that are required for a plant for full development. Most of the varieties are zoned in the regions of the North Caucasus, peaches also grow in the Crimea and in the Krasnodar Territory, but often plantings of thermophilic fruit trees are found in other areas with colder climates. Despite the harsh conditions, peaches can also produce a good harvest there.
In order not to accidentally be left without tasty fruits, peach seedlings of different ages are usually kept in the school. This solution allows you to quickly get a replacement in case the mature tree disappears. Peach can be grown from seed. This method of reproduction does not always guarantee the complete transfer of varietal characteristics, but trees obtained from the stone are considered more resistant to temperature extremes. That is why in regions unusual for peach, they are often grown in this way. Planting a seed also attracts with its benefits (high-quality seedlings can cost a lot) and provides the gardener with the opportunity to experiment.
Choosing a peach variety for seed planting
In the northeastern and northern regions, peach trees do not live long - only about 10 years. Landings are significantly weakened by frosts and winds, as well as return frosts. This makes them more vulnerable to diseases and pests than plants from warm edges. For successful cultivation of peaches, it is recommended to choose a well-proven cultivar. The seeds can be taken from fruits from your own plot or from purchased fruits. In this case, you should ask the seller about the type of peach you bought.
As many seeds as possible should be left on the seeds - their germination rate is not too high and is only about 25%. In this case, the best results are obtained from seeds taken from local plants. Peaches and nectarines brought from far away are picked unripe for transportation, so their seeds sprout less often, and the plants obtained from them are considered more capricious and demanding. In addition, the germination rate of seeds varies, so some may not sprout in a few weeks, but only a few years after planting. On average, peaches begin to bear fruit 3-4 years after sprouting.
Growing a peach seed is as easy as shelling pears
Among the most popular and common varieties:
- The velvet season is a winter-hardy variety that ripens closer to August.
- Pomegranate is an especially early variety with sweet and sour fruits.
- Decent is another early variety with medium-sized fruits.
- Golden Jubilee is an American moderately cold-hardy variety with good immunity.
- Crimean autumn is a fruitful and winter-hardy late peach with slightly oval fruits.
- The Crimean masterpiece is an early variety with moderate drought resistance.
- Refreshing - fairly tall trees with tasty fruits, characterized by resistance to drought and disease.
- Memory Simirenko is a large-fruited winter-hardy variety with aromatic fruits.
- Early fluffy - a variety with medium-sized, highly pubescent fruits.
- Stavropol pink is a moderately disease-resistant variety that ripens by the end of August.
- Redhaven is a hardy American cultivar with tasty large fruits.
- Favorite Morettini is an Italian hybrid with medium-sized fruits ripening early.
Any varieties of peaches grown in an unusual region for them will need good shelter for the winter. The root area is covered with foliage, needles, spruce branches or several layers of non-woven covering material. The trunk and branches of the plant are wrapped in spunbond. In the spring, the shelter is removed, trying not to damage the awakening kidneys. During the flowering period, peaches often shed their ovary during the period of return frosts. In order to successfully survive the unfavorable planting time, fires are kindled near the trees in the morning. Warm smoke enveloping the branches will protect them from the cold. But such actions require strict adherence to fire safety measures.
Preparing peach seeds for sowing
The peach left on the seeds is not eaten for as long as possible, allowing it to fully ripen. The most ripe fruit is considered to be soft, often with cracked skin. Seeds can be harvested even from rotten peaches, but the seed itself should not be damaged. They are removed from the fruit, washed and dried in a ventilated place. If such seeds are sown in the same summer, they are folded into a bag and kept for at least a week in the vegetable compartment of the refrigerator for stratification. The brief coolness helps to activate the growth of the seeds, and they will germinate better. The seeds planted in the fall can be stratified in natural conditions. The garden bed with them is mulched for the winter, having previously marked the planting site, and in the spring they expect sprouts.
Although peach pits seem very hard, they open quickly in humid environments. Fruits eaten in June can be tried to germinate during the summer season. To speed up the process, the seed is opened and the seeds are soaked in warm water for a couple of days, replacing it every 3-4 hours. After this treatment, the seeds can be planted.
If they do not have time to plant peaches this year, the period of artificial stratification may be longer. The bones are placed in a container filled with wet sand. They should be deepened by about 3-4 cm. From above, the container is covered with a film and kept in the refrigerator or cellar for about 2.5 months, checking that the sand does not dry out. During this period, the bones should hatch. With the appearance of sprouts, they are transplanted into a pot with drainage holes. For several days, the seedlings are kept in a bright, but cool (about 10 degrees) place, and then transferred to heat (about 20 degrees). Water the planting as needed.
Peach seed planting features
Peach seeds obtained from the pits can be sown directly on the garden bed or germinated at home, in a pot. The seed can be previously extracted from the seed or planted in the ground as a whole.
Sowing in open ground
Seeds sown closer to the beginning of July should sprout by the end of summer. During the fall, they must prepare for the coming cold weather. Whatever shelter the seedlings protect, only plants with a sufficiently strong brownish bark can survive the winter. In order for the peaches to move into this stage, they try to slow down their growth. To do this, planting ceases to water and feed, and also pinch their tops.
Sowing results from late summer or early fall will not be visible until next spring. Seeds will naturally stratify during the winter.
In both cases, a well-lit area with fertile and drained soil is selected for the peach. Nutrient additives are additionally added to the soil: compost and a complex mineral composition (one third of a glass of fertilizer mixture per 1 sq. M). Before planting, the soil is well dug to the depth of the shovel bayonet. The seeds are planted in 1-2 rows to a depth of 6-8 cm, keeping a distance of about 15 cm between them. Such a bed is called a school.
Sowing in a pot at home
To ensure that young plants do not die from frost, it is recommended to start growing them not in the garden, but at home. The seedlings obtained in this way are transferred to the ground next spring, and they will be able to give fruits already in the 3rd year of development.
For home cultivation of a peach, a pot of 1.5 to 2 liters of volume is required. There should be holes at the bottom. Drainage is laid in the pot, and a mixture of garden soil, peat and sand is used as a substrate. On one 2-liter pot, you can plant 3 seeds each, deepening them at least 6-8 cm. You can first remove the seeds by carefully splitting the seed, and then soaking the seed in warm water for 1-3 days. The swollen nucleoli are planted, then the plantings are watered, covered with glass or film and placed in a warm place. It takes up to 4 weeks for seeds to germinate. During this period, you need to monitor the moisture content of the soil and regularly ventilate it. With the emergence of seedlings, the shelter is removed.
Peach care at home and outdoors
Homemade peaches will need optimal growth conditions. They need good lighting: a pot with plantings is placed in the brightest corner. If there is not enough sun, lamps can be used. In summer, seedlings need warmth (about 25 degrees), in winter - moderate coolness (about 16-18 degrees). During the cool content, watering is carried out about a couple of times a month, while in the summer the peach is watered about 2 times a week. The soil in the pot should not dry out completely. The top layer of the soil is periodically loosened.
You should not keep the peach in the container for longer than the season. As the seedlings grow, they begin to press against each other, and the soil in the pot is depleted. In the spring of next year, these peaches are transplanted into the garden. Houseplants are considered more sensitive to changing weather conditions, so they are looked after carefully.
Trees growing in open ground will need to be watered periodically, weed, loosen the soil in the trunk circle, and also mulch it. The irrigation schedule changes during the warm season. In June, watering can be carried out about once every couple of weeks, in July - once a month, and by the end of summer, stop completely so that the plants get stronger before winter. The plants are transferred to a permanent place next spring. Peach needs especially careful care in the first 2 years of life.
Planting a peach in a permanent place
In the garden, the peach should grow in a warm and sunny place, sheltered from strong winds and not subject to stagnation of moisture in the soil. The distance from the tree to other large plantings should be about 3 m. The same distance is maintained from the buildings shading the tree.
For planting a seedling, prepare a pit 50-60 cm deep and about half a meter wide. About 15-20 cm of drainage is laid at the bottom of the pit, and then a mixture of garden soil with humus or compost and mineral fertilizers is poured. The seedling is placed in a pit, its roots are straightened, covered with soil mixture and tamped properly. When the pit is about 2/3 full, good watering should be done, and after the water is absorbed, the rest of the soil is poured into it.
Peach. How to plant correctly
What to do to make a peach bear fruit every year
In order for a peach tree to be able to produce an annual harvest, it is necessary to fulfill the basic conditions for caring for it:
- Creation of reliable protection against frost;
- Timely prevention of the spread of diseases and pests;
- Protection against return frost during the flowering period;
- Ensuring the formation of fruit wood.
Peach, like all stone fruits, forms flower buds on annual shoots. Peach fruit buds coexist with leaf buds. As a rule, on such shoots of three buds, two will be floral and one leaf. False fruit shoots have only a growth bud, and all the rest will be flowering. In order for the tree to form more fruitful shoots, it must be properly shaped. Even from the moment of planting, the main shoot is shortened to a highly developed bud. In the future, if you wish, you can turn the plant into a bush or tree.
Bush formation involves pinching all the upper shoots. Three branches are left below, growing at different heights. The skeleton of the bush will be formed from them. At the same time, the stem can be low (10-15 cm) or high (about 30 cm), but sometimes the formation begins from the ground level. As the branches develop, they are shortened, activating the growth of lateral shoots, which can also bear fruit. Growing a peach tree as a bush makes it easier to hide it for the winter. If the peach is grown as a tree, skeletal branches are formed about 60 cm from the ground. Further principles of formation are practically the same.
Most peach varieties are self-pollinating, but many of them bear fruit more abundantly in the presence of neighboring trees.
Theoretically, peach seed propagation is allowed. The culture is grown similarly to apricot. However, for many people, the lack of germination after the seeds are immersed in the ground remains a question. Incorrectly selected planting material is a problem. The seeds of all store-bought peaches are not suitable for reproduction. Fruits for sale are harvested at the stage of technical maturity. Their nucleolus has not yet formed, and will not germinate.
Even if it is possible to germinate the seed of the purchased fruit, the tree will not bear fruit or will freeze out in the first winter. For shops, fruits of southern varieties are brought in, most often - hybrids that do not give offspring.
Peach on the backyard
Grow a peach from a stone on the shoulder of anyone. The key is to select the seeds and prepare them appropriately. Only seeds from ripe, juicy fruits are suitable for planting. Before growing a peach from a stone, these same bones (whole) are soaked in water for 7 days, changing it every 12 hours. Then they are well dried and the seeds are taken out with a hammer.
The seeds are immediately planted in a well-loosened soil, fertilized with ash and mineral fertilizers, to a depth of 5-6 cm. The plot should be sunny, without drafts; there should be no mature trees nearby (at a distance of 3-4 m). For the winter, young trees are insulated, watered abundantly in the spring and do not forget to regularly feed them with potash fertilizers and cut them off, forming a crown. You can enjoy the fruits in 3-4 g.
How to grow a peach seed
Savoring juicy peaches, some wonder: is it realistic to grow a peach tree in your own garden? Yes, really, and it is not even necessary to buy peach seedlings for this. The Land of the Soviets will tell how to grow a peach from a stone.
Suitable for growing bones of ripe, juicy, but not spoiled fruits... It is best to take peaches of varieties typical for your area for this purpose. "Alien" varieties will either grow poorly or will not take root at all. It is also good if you can find out on which tree the fruit grew - self-rooted or grafted. The first one should be given preference. Carefully examine the bones selected for planting: they must be intact, without defects.
Bones are planted in open ground in October-November (before winter)... If you try to grow a peach from a stone in the summer or spring, the seedlings will not have time to get stronger, and may not survive the winter. In addition, the seeds of early-maturing varieties may not germinate at all for planting, it is better to take seeds of varieties of medium, medium-late and late ripening periods.
You need to plant the bones as quickly as possible, without letting them dry out., otherwise they will have to be stratified. Sometimes, before planting, the bones are prepared by soaking in water for several days (the water needs to be changed twice a day). Then the bones are allowed to dry and are punctured with a hammer to extract the seed (this must be done carefully so as not to damage the delicate core). However, this preparation is optional.
Peach pits should be planted in soft, loose, well-fertilized soil. at a distance of at least 3-4 m from mature fruit-bearing trees. The depth of planting seeds is about 5-8 cm (not deeper), in a row the distance between planting should be about 10 cm, the distance between rows should be 50 cm.It is better to plant more seeds than you want to get peach trees, because not all of them will sprout , but it's good if half. After planting, you need to mulch the crops with a thick layer of grass.
In the spring, when the shoots sprout, they will need abundant daily watering... It is advisable to feed the peach with diluted humus and spray it with special preparations for the prevention of diseases.
Over the summer, the peach seedling will reach a height of about one and a half meters, side branches will begin to appear on it. When the main trunk reaches a height of 70 cm, you can start practicing crown formation... However, the main pruning is performed next spring, removing diseased and frozen branches.
Further peach pruning is done annually, in the spring, between the appearance of pink buds and flowering. The crown of the tree is formed in the form of a bowl. Every year, shoots should be left along the axes of skeletal branches of any order for fruiting (the distance between shoots is 15-20 cm), the rest should be cut "on a ring" (that is, for the entire branch).
Also next spring you can replant the peach to a permanent place... To transplant, you need to dig a hole at least a meter deep in the fall in the sunniest and most wind-protected place on the site. After planting, water the peach with two or three buckets of settled water and mulch with peat or rotted manure.
Usually the peach begins to bear fruit in the third or fourth year.... Please note that there is no guarantee that you will be able to grow an exact copy of the peach you like from the stone, most likely, a "half-savage" will grow. But peaches grown from a stone on their own plot are usually more resistant to diseases and vagaries of the weather, they freeze less in winter and give more abundant harvests.
As you can see, it is quite possible to grow a peach from a stone, the main thing is to follow simple rulesoutlined above. A little patience - and you can feast on peaches grown in your own garden.
How to grow a peach from a stone at home on a windowsill?
How to grow a peach from a stone at home on a windowsill? Having tasted a delicious peach, very often the thought comes to plant the pit himself, if not in the garden, then at least on the windowsill. And that's not such a fantastic idea. After all, having the necessary knowledge, you can easily solve the question of how to grow a peach from a stone. To do this, you need the most common stone from the purchased peaches. But it should not be forgotten that usually fruit trees are hybrids, the offspring of which do not inherit all the qualities of their ancestor. This means that if the tree grows and begins to bear fruit, then most likely its peaches will be smaller and not as sweet as the one from which the plant itself grew.
In addition, a tree growing on a windowsill will be less likely to survive if transplanted into open ground. But, if all the above obstacles do not stop, then you can get down to business. But before you plant the peach in the pot, you should properly prepare the pit. The fact is that the germination of peach seeds is very small, so you need to help the sprout to get out. When planting in open ground, the stratification method is used, when the bones are left for several months in wet sand at low temperatures. But at home, you can try a simplified version of this method, plant a few seeds in late autumn and place in a cool place. In the spring, some of them may sprout.
Or you can try another method, namely scarification. For this, the bone is prepared in a special way. First you need to carefully remove the remnants of the fruit. Then the bone is thrown into clean warm water for two days. But the water must be changed twice a day. After washing, the bone is dried in a not too hot place and without direct sunlight. And after all these procedures, you should file it with a file, but so as not to damage the seed. Better yet, split the bone. But this must be done carefully, again, so that the seed itself does not suffer. The resulting pleasantly smelling seed can now be planted in the ground.
The seed is planted not very deeply, about 8 centimeters into the hole and watered with water. But even after the tree rises, then you need to follow a few more rules on how to care for a peach. In the first year of life, it must be properly cut. How to prune a peach, it is best to consult an experienced gardener. If there is no such thing among friends, then you will have to do it yourself. The tree should be pruned two or three times a year. Pruning is started in the spring, before the peach blooms, and then the procedure is repeated in early and late summer. All branches except skeletal are removed. The strongest branches are called skeletal, directed in different directions and located at a distance of about 20 centimeters from each other.
Transplanting peach seedlings to a permanent place
Growing seedlings in pots lasts 1 season. From the second year of life, it is advisable to transplant peaches to a permanent place. A similar procedure is resorted to if dense crops were originally grown in open ground. The best time to transplant is early spring. The hole is dug with a margin so that the root system can fit freely. For backfilling, use soil mixed with earth, peat and compost. The root collar is left not buried - at ground level. After filling, the seedling is watered, tied to a peg. The soil around the trunk is covered with mulch.
Growing a peach in central Russia
The middle zone of Russia is a risk zone for everyone who wants to grow a peach tree on their own on their own. Undoubtedly, you can save the culture in winter if you wrap it completely with thermal insulation in several layers, and protect the crown with burlap. But this will take a lot of time and labor.
In this region, the peach should be grown as a short stem with 2-3 rows of shoots on each side of the trunk.
This design makes it easier to survive the winter. In addition, it can be protected from cold weather and environmental factors.
The crown formed in this way has 4-6 branches, which should be located as close to each other as possible. The ideal distance is 20 cm. Every year, when sap flow begins in the tree, it is necessary to carry out a cyclic pruning of the crop.
To do this, you need to cut off several upper branches at the age of 1 year up to 30 cm, and the shoots under them - by 10 cm.
To prevent the peach from growing too much, in July it will be necessary to pinch all young branches, which are 10-15 cm long above the outer bud. It is also required to get rid of excess growth. In the case when one of the shoots develops faster than the others, it should be shortened by two buds.
Thanks to this approach, good fruiting and quick recovery are guaranteed.
Anyone who wants to grow a peach from a stone on their site will have to make a lot of effort. But if you follow the advice of experts and follow the step-by-step instructions, then you can pick juicy fruits in the garden. In this case, the growing region is not important.