In addition to the sense of smell, the lateral line, which perceives movements and fluctuations of the water, is of great help to the predator during the hunt. Thanks to this, the catfish is able not only to "track" the fish passing by, but even to estimate its approximate size. Moreover, without seeing the victim and not feeling any smells.
Catching catfish is certainly very exciting, but also quite difficult. You can catch this predator with a wide variety of tackle: for a donk-zakidushka, spinning on a spoon, circles, girders, sheer tackle and, finally, a float rod. The attachment can be very diverse, but it must be animal: live bait, parts of fish, crayfish, crawling, frog, brush of dung worms, large insect larvae. In most cases, a millimeter line with a tee # 10-12 is sufficient.
It is very interesting to catch catfish with the help of a kwok (see fig.). But since this tackle is practically not used on our reservoirs, I will only briefly talk about it. A kwok is a wooden instrument that is struck on water and produces a very distinctive sound. Catfish hears it from afar, approaches the source of the sound, notices the nozzle and swallows it.
There are different points of view about exactly what attracts soma to Kwok strikes. Some anglers believe that the sounds of Kwok are reminiscent of a fish croaking of its tasty prey - a frog. Others believe that these are the calling sounds of the female before spawning. Still others argue: having heard the sounds of Kwok, the catfish takes them for a potential rival and appears in order to “deal with” him. And yet, ichthyologists, studying the sounds of kwok using acoustic equipment, came to the conclusion that the blows of a properly tuned piece of wood (kwok), although rough, imitate the moment when the catfish swallows prey. And his brothers, having heard these sounds, hurry to take part in the feast.
But no matter how you are going to catch a catfish, you need not only a lot to be able to, but even more to know. And, above all, this applies to a specific reservoir in which to fish. A successful hunt for a predator directly depends on this. Most anglers certainly know that the favorite places for catfish are pits and whirlpools. It is in them, as a rule, that catfish are kept during the daytime. But how to determine the bottom topography and the place where the catfish can be?
The easiest way to do this is floating from a boat ... Going a little higher upstream, dissolve the tackle into a plumb line (with the leash and hook removed) and "feel" the bottom with a sinker. Having made 3-5 such swims in different directions and noting the change in depths along the coastal landmarks (bushes, individual trees, breaks in the coastline, etc.), you can get a fairly accurate idea of the size and configuration of the pit. However, it is not enough to find a hole, you also need to know exactly in which direction the exit from it is directed. That is, in which direction the catfish will go for feeding. In other words, it is necessary to establish its running path. Only in this case can you count on success.
Often the catfish itself “helps” in determining its location. Going out to hunt, he often gives himself away with loud characteristic bursts: "floundering." Fishing a hole should be done in two ways: while at anchor or quietly rafting downstream. In the first case, you will need a reliable anchor with a strong thick rope at least 40 meters long. It is most advisable to anchor 10-15 meters above the pit. In the second case, it is very good to fish for holes located along the stream. Moreover, in pits with uneven depth and flooded snags. This fishing method is predominant. If one run was unsuccessful, you need to move 10-12 meters to the side and repeat it. Sometimes such swims have to be done up to ten.
But if the place is chosen correctly, and there is floundering, then the catfish bite will not keep itself waiting long. It feels different ... More often than not, the fish pulls smoothly. Sometimes he pulls, but then he lets go.Often only touches the attachment, but does not take it. In such cases, it is very useful to tease the predator by twitching the bait. More often than not, it triggers a grasp. It happens that the catfish rubs around the fishing line for a long time, touches it or, having captured the bait, shakes it in the same way as a ruff usually shakes a float.
Another bite, though not too frequent and, apparently, characteristic of very large catfish, manifests itself as a sharp jerk. Immediately after hooking, the fish persistently, strongly and without stopping pulls to where it is deeper or upstream. At this moment, it is very important to smoothly deflect the line - the catfish can get off the hook from the jerks. It is especially dangerous when it goes to the bottom, as the fish gives itself the opportunity to rest and continue its resistance with renewed vigor. Therefore, it is necessary to take all measures to, firstly, prevent the implementation of this maneuver, and secondly, if the fish still went to the bottom, try to force it to leave from there. To do this, you can knock with the edge of your palm on the base of the rod (the catfish is panicky afraid of knocks), or you can throw stones where the predator is hiding.
But it is hardly necessary to pull the line too much: there is always a danger of breaking the line if the catfish is hiding among stones or in snags. And if the catfish cannot be “smoked” out of the shelter, one thing remains - to wait until it leaves it. If he fails to lie down, then the catfish responds to all the angler's maneuvers in the same way - "crawls" along the bottom. When the catfish is completely exhausted, it begins to rise to the surface, and then it seems that some kind of motionless load hangs on the hook. And then another difficulty begins (which I wish all anglers to experience!): Because of the large weight of the catfish, it is very dangerous not only to load it over the side, but also to bring it ashore. I had to read and hear the stories of fishermen about how they dragged the caught catfish ashore, grabbing them with their hands under the gills.
In this regard, I recall an interesting episode that took place on the Kuban River and was described in a local newspaper. Two students - "walrus" noticed a huge catfish near the coast, stuck in shallow water. Seizing a convenient moment, one of them saddled the fish and, in order to hold it, put his hands under its gills. And then the catfish gripped the hands of the "rider" with gill covers and dragged him into the water. His comrade hastened to help a colleague. Only together they overcame the catfish, which weighed nearly 80 kilograms! And if not for the help, or would the catfish be larger? What then? Therefore, in order to avoid such incidents, it is necessary to pull the catfish out of the water together: one takes the prey on the fishing line, the other lifts it with a hook. In addition to an exciting fight with a large, strong predator, the angler (if he is lucky enough to catch this fish) will be able to appreciate its taste value. Because somyatina is incredibly tasty. It contains 3-5 percent fat, 15-18 percent protein. It is good in any form: you want it - boil it, if you want - smoke it or preserve it. So catch catfish - and you won't regret it.
Catfish fishing (Freshwater giant - 2) - garden and vegetable garden
In terms of size and weight, the white-eye can be classified as a medium-sized fish. Its usual length is 15-20 cm with a weight of 200-250 g. Sometimes there are specimens up to 25 and more centimeters long with a weight of 500-600 g. It prefers deep and fast-flowing waters, therefore it is difficult to find it in small rivers and lakes.
White-eyed is caught all year round, with the exception of the breeding season and deafness. Its bite is most active immediately after spawning and before the onset of autumn cold weather. It is necessary to search for the white-eyed on the current, at a depth of one and a half to five or more meters. In spring and autumn, it is better to bait the hook with a worm or caddis flies, in summer - with maggots and grain baits. More prey is fishing in the wiring from the bottom with bait.
Predator. It can weigh up to 2 kg, and a length of 60-70 cm is usual for it.
It is hardly worth hunting specifically for bersh: its bite is very unstable and short-lived during the day. He takes mainly narrow fish - bleak, gudgeon, small dace, etc. In the spring, after spawning (June), he willingly grabs the worm. Fishing gear is the same as for other predators: live bait tackle, spinning rod.
A beautiful, strong, agile, but very shy fish. The chub can be attributed to the category of fish of greatest interest to the angler.
The usual weight of an adult chub in our reservoirs is 1.5-2 kg. However, individual specimens can reach a weight of 6-8 kg with a body length of 75-80 cm. Individuals of the maximum 18-20 years of age are also larger in size.
As soon as it warms up a little and the hollow water is cleared of turbidity, spring fishing can begin. At this time, flocks of chubs go out to fat in places with a middle course, a cartilaginous bottom and a depth of 1.5 to 3 m. Usually these are the boundaries of holes above or below the rifts.
Of the tackle, it is best to take a donk with a reel (you can convert a spinning rod for this purpose by equipping it with a heavy flat sinker). Before the appearance of May beetles, it is necessary to plant worms, the meat of barley shells, insect larvae, small gudgeons, dough rolls and bread crusts.
The chub's bites are sharp, as he takes the nozzle on the move and immediately swallows it. It is necessary to strike smoothly, but energetically. You don't have to stand on ceremony with playing - this fish rarely breaks off the hook.
With the flight of May beetles, chubs appear more and more often in the upper layers of the water, and it is advisable to change the donk to a wire rod, while paying attention to the float - it should not be very bright. You should also take care of the groundbait.
At this time, fishing with a float rod with a nozzle for various insects and their larvae is lucky. It is advisable to bait the May beetle without the upper rigid wings, so that the sting of the hook is brought out.
With the appearance of grasshoppers in the meadows - a tasty food for chub - summer fishing begins. This period almost coincides with the calendar summer. The main tackle is fly fishing and a float rod, and the main attachments are grasshoppers and dragonflies. Fish at this time should be looked for near the bushes hanging over the water.
Autumn fishing begins in September and ends at the end of October, when the water becomes noticeably colder. At the beginning of the period, the chub keeps on steep banks, where there are depths with the current, and then rolls into pits. In the fall, the angler must again arm himself with a donkey. You can put a bunch of worms, dough, crusts of bread, fragrant cheese, and best of all, a small green frog on the hook.
The usual size of a dace is 18-20 cm in length and weighs 180-200 g. Rare individuals reach a length of 30 cm and a weight of 400-500 g.
This nimble fish is found in almost all our rivers. You can also find it in lakes, but only with clean running water and a sandy bottom.
It inhabits, as a rule, on shallows with a middle course, below the rifts, near the mouths of flowing streams and rivers. It keeps in large flocks in the bottom layers.
Fishing begins immediately after the water clears up and lasts until late autumn. The most prey fishing - in the wiring with bait from crackers, cereals, finely chopped worms, etc. Dace is also caught with float rods and fly fishing. Pieces of worms, insect larvae (especially maggot), cereal grains, flies, grasshoppers are used as attachments.
The dace bites "in good faith" - it quickly grabs the nozzle and immediately moves aside. We must be ready for a quick response. The dace caught on the hook resists briskly, sometimes even slips out of the angler's hands.
It is found in all our reservoirs. The usual size of the ruff is 7-12 cm in length with a weight of 20-30 g. Only rare specimens reach a length of 15-18 cm and a weight of 150-200 g.
In the spring, after the ice breaks up and until June, when the water warms up above 12 ° C, ruffs go aground and feed greedily even during spawning. At this time, they can be caught with float and bottom fishing rods all day long. The main nozzle is worms.After warming up the water, the ruff begins to take only in the morning and in the evening, and with the moon and at night - into pieces of a worm.
Autumn fishing is more catchy, when the water gets colder and ruffs begin to gather in large flocks. Then they are caught by planting whole worms or bunches of bloodworms, mainly with bottom fishing rods.
Despite the fact that the ruff fish is small, prickly and bony, it occupies a well-deserved place in the menu of the fisherman's cuisine, namely: "without a ruff, an ear is not good."
The ruff is also used as bait when fishing for burbot.
One of our largest and most beautiful fish. The usual size is 35-50 cm with a weight of 1.5-3 kg. Occasionally there are individuals 70-80 cm long and 10-12 kg in weight.
The most suitable tool for catching asp is a spinning rod. Both artificial baits (spinners) and tackle made from dead fish are used.
There are two most common spinning tricks for asp fishing: in the main stops and in the splash.
When you go to the rapids, the rift or to the channel between the islands, an approximate zone is determined where the asps are kept, and they begin to catch it, throwing the bait upstream. First, the near section is caught, then the distance of the casts is increased, and their direction is changed, going downstream. In summer, the bait is carried out in the upper layers of the water. In autumn, when the asp rolls into the pits, the bait is kept closer to the bottom.
The lure asp grabs sharply, so that a short blow is felt on the rod. You should not hesitate with hooking and reeling. The asp gasping for air quickly becomes numb.
Fishing for asp and live bait can be prey. It is best to use bleaches and minnows as a bait. In summer, live bait should be kept in the upper layers of water, in autumn - closer to the bottom.
With the advent of insects, asp can be caught with fly fishing. But it is more expedient to use this tackle in small rivers overgrown with grass, using beetles and large grasshoppers as baits.
There are two types, or rather, two breeds of crucian carp: round, or gold, and oblong, or silver.
The size of adult crucians is highly dependent on the habitat conditions. In reservoirs where there is a lot of food, individuals with a length of 20-25 cm and a weight of 500-800 g are common. Under especially favorable conditions, crucians reach a weight of 1.5-3 kg.
Fishing for crucian carp begins in early spring at shallow depths, where the water is warmed up faster by the rays of the sun. After a hungry wintering, crucian carp takes worm and bloodworm into pieces well until spawning. During spawning, the biting stops and resumes only after a few days, unless there is a sharp change in the weather.
Crucian carp is a daytime fish; they do not catch it at night. The best fishing hours are from dawn to 10 am. The most suitable tackle is a lightweight float rod. They catch it in a plumb line and mainly from the shore. They bait the hook either with a piece of worm, or with a loaf of bread (preferably black). Taking into account the peculiarities of crucian carp in obtaining food, it is important to adjust the location of the nozzle well. It should not lie at the bottom, but it also cannot be raised high above it. The optimum distance from the nozzle to the bottom is 2-3 cm.
The bites of the crucian carp in most cases are sluggish, do not have a specific character. Sometimes he leads the float to the side, and at first quickly, and then slows down (the moment of sweeping). Sometimes, before moving to the side, the float bounces in place (the moment of waiting). And sometimes, after shaking, the float falls on its side: it means that the fish took the bait and lifted it up. Here, do not yawn with a sweep.
Removing the hooked crucian carp from the water is not difficult: even large specimens resist weakly. Usually, after the first strong pull, the crucian carp lies on its side and so, flat, easily goes to the net.
In autumn, as soon as the water gets colder, the crucian carp burrows into the silt and hibernates for many months.
In terms of the size and fascination of carp fishing, it undoubtedly ranks first among the fish of its family, which received its name from it.However, the carp itself (translated from Greek - fruit) is bred by hybridization from a naturally common form of wild carp.
It was not by chance that people decided to cultivate the carp. It grows very quickly. By the end of the first year of life, its length is already about 10 cm with a weight of 25-30 g. In favorable conditions, by the end of the second year, it weighs 450-500 g, and in the third year, its weight reaches 2 kg. The size of an adult carp (and he lives up to 30 years) can be 100-120 cm long with a weight of 20-25 kg or more. The usual length of the carp is 50-70 cm with a weight of 4-6 kg.
The carp produces huge offspring. A large adult female can lay 1.5-1.8 million eggs during spawning!
The presence of carp in the reservoir can be detected by the game - splashes on the surface of the water. Sometimes late in the evening, or even at night, and more often at dawn, carps jump high out of the water and flop back noisily. Surges during the day are not excluded. A sure sign of the presence of carp in the reservoir is also a specific chomping and smacking in reeds and other vegetation, where it eats small crustaceans from the stems.
Carp - schooling and sedentary fish - does not like long journeys. Having found its parking lot, you can get good trophies in one place. However, he is very shy, and catching him requires special care, endurance and perseverance from the angler. You also need an inconspicuous, but at the same time, sufficiently strong tackle.
Since carp most often dig in silt or in thickets near the coast, fishing from a boat is little practice. If you need to deliver the bait further from the shore, use a fishing rod (sometimes a converted spinning rod) with a sliding float. Carp also goes to bottom fishing rods.
The spring zhor in carp begins early, immediately after the recession of the water. Autumn fishing stops when the water temperature drops to 7-8 ° C. During the day, fishing is most successful in the morning and evening.
The bite of carp is usually sharp and firm. But not always. Often, taking a nozzle in his mouth, he slowly floats away, which is why the float first gradually sinks, and then quickly goes into the water, which indicates the need for immediate striking.
The quieted ("surrendered") carp must be pulled out of the water immediately and with a net.
In terms of size, the rudd belongs to our average fish. Its usual length is 17-20 cm with a weight of 100-250 g. Only some individuals in reservoirs reach a length of 35 cm with a weight of 0.8-1.5 kg.
It is found in almost all of our reservoirs, but everywhere it is not numerous. It lives mainly in bays and oxbows of rivers, in flowing ponds and lakes, where reeds, reeds, and other aquatic plants grow in abundance.
They catch rudd both from the shore and from a boat, mainly with a float rod in a plumb line. Where there is a lot of it, fishing can be very prey.
In spring, when the rudd comes closer to the shores in order to lay eggs on aquatic vegetation in shallow water, it is caught on a small worm almost from the bottom. In the summer, when the herbs grow, she fattens in half water and in the upper layers and willingly takes on balls of crumpled bread, on steamed rye or wheat, on other vegetable baits. On some days, fly fishing or small grasshopper fishing is prey.
The rudd bites "conscientiously": it immediately swallows the nozzle, which is why it often hooks onto the hook not with its lips, but with the palate. Hooked, she resists quite strongly. It must be pulled out with caution, since weak lips and delicate palate can easily be torn apart.
One of the coveted prey of an angler. It has a decent size: in our reservoirs there are 35-40 cm long bream with a weight of 1-2 kg - it is not uncommon to have more solid specimens - up to 5 kg or more, and undergrowths (young bream) weighing 400-700 g on the hook of an amateur angler and quite a common occurrence. Catching bream less often than, say, hunting for chub or asp is ineffective.
It is possible to determine the habitat of the bream by a characteristic game: first, it sticks its head out of the water, then the dorsal fin and, finally, the tail, then, hitting the water with its tail, goes down.
The most characteristic bite of a bream is that a vertically standing float lies on its side. This means - the bream bent over the nozzle took it into his mouth and took a horizontal position. At this time, a short but sharp sweep is needed, since the lips of this fish are weak.
The caught bream does not resist strongly. And if you give him a breath of air, then he completely lies on his side and does not move. But it is necessary to pull it out of the water quickly and with a net.
A fat, clumsy fish. The tench is found in river bays, in channels with weak currents, in lakes, old quarries and large ponds overgrown with reeds, reeds and sedges along the banks. Leads a sedentary lifestyle, choosing quiet grassy places for permanent habitation.
The usual dimensions of tench are 25-30 cm in length with a weight of 400-600 g. Only some champions reach a weight of 5-6 kg. In our reservoirs, 8-10-year-old lines weighing 1.2-2 kg sometimes fall into the fishing nets.
Tench is caught both from the shore and from the boat only with a float rod.
The tench caught on the hook resists vigorously, which could not be expected from a sloth. Sometimes he stands upright in the water and rests his nose against the silt. Then it is difficult to move it. But here patience helps the angler again: it is necessary, without weakening the fishing line too much, to wait until the line gets tired of this position. This will immediately be felt on the line - it will weaken. However, even after this, one must be careful, since the tench usually rushes into the thickets of grass.
They begin to catch tench in early spring, after a little warming up of the water. Hungry for the winter, it bites well on a worm in coastal water thickets. Fishing is more successful in a welded place. The best baits are chopped worms (so that they cannot crawl into the mud) and squeezed cottage cheese. But you can use oilcakes, cereals, and steamed grain, etc. However, it is not recommended to bait the hook with vegetable baits - the tench does not pay attention to them, preferring worms. A tassel of small red dung worms is more attractive to him.
Tench is usually caught with two rods, each with one hook.
The best time to fish is early morning. Fishing can also be successful in the evening hours.
Tench meat is very tasty, although it smells of mud, so it is better to eat it fried with spices.
Burbot is the only member of the cod family that lives in fresh water. It lives in clean rivers with a weak current, as well as in deep flowing lakes with a clayey and fine-stony bottom. This is a cold-water fish. In summer, it leads a sedentary lifestyle, and in the hot season it generally falls into a daze and stays at the bottom of deep pits, whirlpools, under cliffs, snags and stones, in crustacean holes, especially where cold springs beat.
Only in early October, burbot leaves their summer shelters and begins to fatten.
In the northern rivers of Russia, where conditions are more favorable for them, burbots sometimes reach a meter in length and weigh 15–20 kg. We have the usual sizes - 25-30 cm in length with a weight of 0.8-1.2 kg.
In autumn, burbot is caught with bottom fishing rods both from boats and from the shore. Live baits, crawlings, brushes of red worms, frogs and dead fish on a tackle are used as baits. Since they fish, as a rule, at night and do not often check the tackle, a metal leash should be placed on the fishing rod - the fishing line (even thick) is rubbed by the burbot with its teeth-brush.
The burbot bites "in good faith" - it swallows the nozzle far away, so at night it is not always possible to remove the hook from its mouth. Therefore, it is better to put removable leashes on the fishing rod and free the tackle from prey along with the leash. On a full moon, biting temporarily stops.
It is not difficult to fish out a burbot: it has very weak resistance, the main thing is to prevent it from hiding under a stone.
The spring fishing begins about a week after the ice has passed. At this time, burbot is caught with short bottom fishing rods, as it keeps under steep slopes near the coast.The main nozzle is worms (creepers, earthen and dung), sometimes it goes well for canned fish. As the water warms, the burbot bite becomes unstable. And then it stops altogether. At the end of April, burbot goes into shelters to hide from enemies and heat.
In May - August, it is possible to catch burbot with a fishing rod only by accident, during periods of prolonged inclement weather and cold snap. But you can try to catch with your hands! This exotic method of fishing has been known since ancient times in Russia and is called “groping”.
In terms of size, the perch cannot be classified as large fish. In most of our reservoirs, its usual length is 15–20 cm with a weight of 80–150 g. In reservoirs, perch is larger, there are often "humpbacks" weighing 500–700 grams or more. The record holders reach a length of 40-50 cm and a weight of 1.5-2 kg. Scientists and practitioners are inclined to believe that we have two breeds of perch: common perch and dwarf, which until old age does not gain weight more than 250 g. -lovers.
During the open-water season, small and medium-sized perch are favored by sedge, reed and other vegetation backwaters, where they ambush small fish. Large ones prefer deep pools, pits and come out from there to fattening only in the mornings and evenings.
The most suitable tackle is a float rod. They are fished from the shore, from dams, marinas, rafts, as well as from boats. The optimal number of rods is two.
In spring and summer, mainly worms, bloodworms and barnacles are used as baits in the fall, the best bait is a fry in winter - bloodworms and worms. They are mainly caught from the bottom. But sometimes it is useful to raise the nozzle.
The perch bites vigorously - the float, as a rule, immediately goes to the bottom, so you shouldn't be late with the sweep. On the hook, he is stubborn and strong. But you need to be careful when pulling out the perch, as it has weak lips.
Fishing for perch with small spinning lures is of considerable interest.
The usual sizes of minnows are 12-15 cm in length with a weight of 50-80 g. Rare specimens reach a length of 20-22 cm.
Favorite habitats are shallow rifts and pits in the cartilaginous bottom.
Gudgeon is caught with the lightest float rod, baiting the hook with a piece of red worm or two or three bloodworms. Fishing "in the wading" in turbid water is especially catchy. This is done like this: above the roll, where the minnows stay, they enter the water and stir it up with their feet. On this mud, the gudgeon, without fear, rises up and sometimes even pokes his nose into the boots of the fisherman.
They fish gudgeon immediately after the ice drift and before the first frost. It bites especially actively in early spring.
In terms of size, roach can be attributed to our average fish. Its usual length is 14-18 cm with a weight of 120-200 g. Specimens weighing 800-900 grams and more are caught in reservoirs.
When fishing roach, bait is needed, and bait is needed on permanent fishing grounds. In stagnant or low-flowing water, the bait is periodically thrown in handfuls into the area of the hooks with a nozzle. On the course - they are lowered to the bottom in a thread net. Various cereals, rusks, cakes, chopped worms, cereal grains are used as bait.
The podust is of the same age as the dace - it is larger in size. However, it cannot be attributed to the number of large fish, although some individuals are also weighing a kilogram. The usual length of podust is 20-30 cm with a weight of 200-300 g.
Podust is found only in large and medium-sized rivers. Its favorite places are rocky or clayey rifts, rapids and uneven bottom with a moderate current. It also stays on sandy-gravel ground in front of the islands, where the stream of water begins to divide into two streams.
They fish podust from boats in the wiring and only in the channel part of the rivers, since this fish does not exist near the banks. The optimum fishing depth is 1.5-2.5 m.
The undercut podust strongly resists. Feeling the hook, immediately rushes to the side.If at this time he fails to free himself from the hook, he begins to shake his head (fishermen say - "pulls like a dog on a chain") and zigzags at the very bottom, while making sharp movements and sharp turns. True, such violent resistance does not last long.
New fish for our reservoirs. Legends are made about the simplicity of this fish. However, they are not far from the truth. So, in a dry barrel, rotan, buried in silt, can live until the next flood. He comes to life and extracted from the ice.
The largest rotan rarely reaches a length of 25 cm and a weight of 500 g. However, in our reservoirs, apparently, the conditions for this gluttony turned out to be more than suitable. In the catches of amateurs, specimens weighing 200-300 g are no longer uncommon.
Favorite habitats are the boundaries of water thickets, where the hiding rotan awaits its prey.
The rotan bites greedily, confidently - the float immediately goes to the side or under the water. The jog should be quick and sharp enough for the sting of the hook to penetrate the cartilaginous tissue of the mouth.
They usually do not stand on ceremony with the game of rotan - it almost does not offer resistance. Drawn out of the water, he behaves at ease.
Rotan meat is white, tasty, suitable for fish soup, frying, for filling pies.
In terms of size, blue bream belongs to our average fish: its usual length is 25-30 cm with a weight of 300-500 g. Only some individuals living in reservoirs reach a weight of 1-1.5 kg.
By way of life, it is a typical river fish, does not like even large stagnant reservoirs, which is why its acclimatization in reservoirs is greatly delayed.
Favorite habitats are deep pits with a weak current. It also readily keeps under rafts, coastal structures and marinas. But everywhere his flocks are small.
Giant fish, the largest freshwater predator. Catching catfish is a great pleasure. In the history of fishing on the Volga, there are facts of catching catfish up to 5 m long and weighing more than 300 kg. Today fishermen only occasionally deal with catfish weighing 8-10 kg. And usually even less.
Adult catfish live settled in the riverbed. They love whirlpools, deep encircled pits, dam zones. They eat mainly at night, in the early morning and late evening dawns. In search of food, they roam the reservoir not far from the main camp, often go to shoals and rifts.
The best baits are medium sized roach, frogs, or fried sparrows (catfish love the smell of burnt feathers or wool).
The catfish bites "in good faith" - it swallows the bait entirely, so there are no problems with hooking. He also slightly resists playing - mostly only by the weight of his body.
Catfish should be tired while playing, of course, not allowing him to get under the snag. And after the subdued catfish approaches the boat, it must be stunned with a blow of a beater or oar on the head. A small catfish can be dragged into the boat by hand, fingers slipping under the gills. A large one must be taken with a hook, bringing it from the tail under the lower jaw. Nets are almost never used when catching catfish - prey jumps out of them.
One of the most coveted prey of the hobby angler. Pike perch fishing is a highly sporting activity, the meat of this fish is considered a delicacy.
Of the spiny fish, pike perch is the largest predator. The record holders reach a length of 120-130 cm and a weight of 18-20 kg. Commercial catches are dominated by pike-perch up to 60 cm long and weighing 2-3 kg.
Pike perch live in small flocks, grouping after spawning. Large individuals prefer solitude. Favorite habitats are pits, whirlpools, deep depressions, among stones, writhing and fractures of the bottom. They go out to fatten at dawn, combing neighboring stony or sandy shoals, rifts, areas with a reverse flow. In its gluttony, pike perch surpasses perch and is not inferior to pike. Water pollution does not tolerate. At the first signs of deterioration, the water goes into the upper tributaries or rolls down. Volley discharges of dirty industrial drains usually lead to the death of a pike perch that did not have time to leave.
Pike perch are caught in various ways and almost all year round: it does not take it only in the muddy hollow water and in the hottest season of summer. In the open water season, fishing with live bait tackle with a gudgeon, dace or bleak hook is the most efficient. They fish both from an anchored boat and from a moving one.
Pike perch bites in a peculiar way. Grabbing the bait across with his lips, he immediately goes with it to the side. Then for a moment he releases it from his mouth, turns it over and begins to swallow it from the head. The float captures all these manipulations: at first it quickly goes to the side, drowning slightly, then, jumping out of the water, it freezes for a moment and only after that it goes under the water. From the angler, a lot of endurance is required so as not to pull the line ahead of time. As soon as the float begins to move along the surface of the water (the fish has captured the bait), it is necessary to immediately release the tension of the fishing line, that is, hand over part of it from the reel. This is necessary in order for the fish to take all the live bait without hindrance. And you need to bleed the line until the float rushes under the water. It should be hooked with a fast, narrow sweep. They also catch pike perch using artificial lures: spinning and with a mouth for vertical lure. Spoons are narrow, long, silvery (at least on one side) color. Spinning is used mainly on shallows and rifts. Deep pits are fished with a sheer hanging spoon, playing with it in the lower and middle layers of the water.
Small (only 12-15 cm long), very mobile and beautiful fish.
For permanent habitation, it chooses quiet and deep places, but it stays there in the upper layers or half-water. He loves to herd by rafts, baths, bridge supports, in the zones of various weirs, under the branches of trees hanging over the water. In bays, ponds and lakes, it avoids grassy areas and avoids fast rifts.
Bleak is caught with a light float rod and fly-fishing on top or in half-water. The main nozzle is a housefly. In autumn (September - October), when the bleak goes deep, you can plant bloodworms or a small red worm and keep the bait closer to the bottom.
It is necessary to cut the bleak quickly, as soon as the float starts to move: the bobber shaking in place only indicates that the bleak is interested in the nozzle. But you cannot make a strong hook - it is enough to move only the tip of the rod, otherwise the lips of the bleak will certainly be torn.
Fish of large and fast rivers. In the middle zone of Russia, it is found mainly in the Volga and Oka. Almost never occurs in small rivers. There is no it in any lakes. Favorite habitats are spacious sandbanks with rapidly flowing water, areas below the rifts, mouths of rivers and rivers flowing into the main body of water. In summer, sabrefish almost always stays near the surface of the water or in its middle layers.
In terms of size, sabrefish belongs to our average fish. Its usual length is 25-30 cm with a weight of 150-200 g. Rare specimens reach a length of 40-50 cm and a weight of 500-700 g.
Leads a gregarious lifestyle. Especially large shoals gather during spawning, which is noisy (with jumping out) on the rapids with a gristly bottom at a water temperature of 15-18 ° C (late May - early June).
Catching sabrefish is a fun, highly sporting and very effective activity. Under favorable conditions, you can catch several dozen fish in one place. They fish in three ways: in the wiring with bait, on the "rubber band" and fly fishing.
Immediately after the opening of the rivers, the pre-spawning gorge of sabrefish begins. The fish, starving during the winter, greedily pecks at the worm and bloodworms at this time. However, the period of spring activity is not long.
Maggot becomes the main attachment for both the wire rod and the “rubber band”. Natural or artificial flies, small grasshoppers and dragonflies are planted on the fly fishing hook.
It bites sabrefish in the same way as bleak: with a running start, but rarely when it spits out the nozzle back (it always swallows it deeply). The float usually sinks immediately or swiftly goes to the side.Undercutting, if not so strong that it tears the lips, is rarely empty. Moreover, when fishing with a "rubber band" by the method of periodic twitching, self-hooking of sabrefish is frequent.
When playing, sabrefish vigorously resists, and when pulled out of the water beats in the hands for a long time, so it should not be removed from the hook inside the boat, but on the shore - away from the water's edge.
In October, the biting of sabrefish stops, it gathers in large shoals and all winter stands in deep pits, from which it begins to emerge only before the opening of the reservoir.
The sabrefish meat is quite bony, but fatty and tasty, has a pleasant aroma. This fish is especially good when dried.
The second (after the catfish) in size and gluttony predator in our reservoirs. The history of fishing knows the cases of catching pikes 2 m long and weighing 40 kg! But such giants are rare. Today in the network of fishermen only occasionally come across specimens weighing 10-15 kg. And the usual sizes of pikes, which are caught with amateur tackle, are 60-80 cm in length and 2-4 kg in weight.
Pike is found almost everywhere, perhaps it is easier to say where it is not, and it does not like only small silted ponds, where usually there is a very poor oxygen regime.
Lives secluded and sedentary, does not make long journeys. Favorite habitats are coastal areas overgrown with grass, shallow pits, areas below rapids and dams. Only very large individuals stay at depth.
They catch pike all year round: with spinning, live bait tackle, track, mugs, plumb baubles, girders and a float rod. But in her bite there are peaks of activity that the angler must take into account.
Usually pike is caught during the whole daylight hours. But for each reservoir there is a clock of the best bite. In one - this is early morning (large pikes, by the way, are taken everywhere more actively in the morning), in the other - before dusk. In windy weather, the pike bite well in the middle of the day.
Pike hunting is not distinguished by a wide variety of lures: mainly live bait and bait.
There are several methods of guidance: fast, slow, near the surface, near the bottom, half-water, monotonous, intermittent, stepped, etc.
The pike biting on live bait and float tackle is not much different from the biting of other predators: grabbing the bait, it slowly swims to the side (most often to the shore), turning it over with its head to its throat on the move, then stops and swallows. At this moment, and it is necessary to hook. The jog should be as strong as the strength of the tackle allows, and wide.
The caught pike, trying to free itself from the hook, violently resists: it rushes from side to side, sometimes jumps high out of the water (makes a "candle") and shakes its head, mouth wide open.
Carefully remove the hook from the pike mouth. To do this, you need to use a yawner and an extractor or, at worst, a small stick that can be placed across the mouth of the predator. Pike teeth pricks are very painful, do not heal for a long time and can cause serious complications.
Yazi 40-50 cm long and weighing 2-3 kg - not so uncommon in our reservoirs. The record holders reach a length of 70 cm and a weight of 6-8 kg. True, the hooks of amateurs usually come across ulcers weighing 0.5-0.8 kg, and more often - roaches (as young ides are called) weighing 300-400 g.
Ide hunt is fraught with a number of difficulties, overcoming of which causes excitement. For example, it is not so easy to find an ide, and even more difficult to catch. Although he is not as fearful as bream, he is reputed to be a "smart" and cautious fish: from a running start, the bait almost never takes it at all, if it hangs on a rough tackle.
This fish is found in almost all our rivers and streams. But he prefers deeper ones with a weak current. Not afraid of the muddy bottom. The ide is abundant in reservoirs and large lakes. Sometimes he also lives in flowing ponds.
Favorite habitats are pits below rapids and dams, depths under steep banks, ledges and uneven bottom.He likes to stay near the piles of bridges, under rafts, piers and piers, near baths and cattle camps, under the branches of trees that have fallen into the water. Roaches are often herded among thickets of aquatic grass along with roach.
The float rod is used mainly from the shore in stagnant water. The fishing line is set with a diameter of 0.3-0.35 mm, a leash - 0.2-0.25 mm, hooks No. 5-7. The hungry ide bites decisively - the float immediately goes deep into the water, and in this case, you should not hesitate with the hooking. The well-fed man tries to pull off the nozzle with the tips of his lips, while the float sways in place, giving the angler a signal to get ready. But the ide does not play with the nozzle for a long time - it either moves away if it does not suit him in any way, or swallows it and immediately goes to the side, dragging the float into the water.
In the wiring, ides are caught from a boat in a moderate current, at a depth of no more than three meters. Groundbait is a must. Since the ide, unlike the burbot, never lies on the ground, the bait should be launched 5-10 cm from the bottom. The best wiring attachment is maggot. The ide takes a swimming bait more boldly than one hanging motionless in the water column. At the same time, the float either floats slightly, or quickly moves to the side. The sweep should follow at the slightest change in the nature of the movement of the float.
Potato variety: Timo hankkiyan
Included in the State Register for the Northern (1), Northwest (2) and Central (3) regions. Early maturing, for dining purposes. The plant is spreading. Large to very large leaf, closed to intermediate silhouette, light green to green. The leaf is large, from narrow to medium in width, with a medium glossiness on the upper side.
The inflorescence is small. Corolla very small to small, bluish-violet. Marketable yield in the Northern region - 150-233 kg / ha, at the level of Isora, Pushkinets standards. The maximum yield in the region is 282 c / ha, 42 c / ha higher than the Isora standard (Republic of Karelia). 50 days after full germination, the yield in the Arkhangelsk region. - 218 c / ha, 36 c / ha higher than the Pushkinets standard.
Marketable yield in the North-West region is 234-382 c / ha, 70-89 c / ha higher than Pushkinets and Izora standards. In the Leningrad region. after the 1st digging - 237 c / ha, 79 c / ha higher than the Pushkinets standard, after the 2nd digging - 286 c / ha, 82 c / ha higher than the standard. The maximum yield in this region is 382 c / ha, 89 c / ha higher than the Isora standard (Kostroma region).
Marketable yield in the Central region 170-211 c / ha, 55-125 c / ha higher than the standards Bryansk early and Zhukovsky early, in the Bryansk region. after the first digging, the yield is 88 c / ha, at the level of the Bryansk early standard, after the 2nd digging - 298 c / ha, 60 c / ha higher than the standard. The maximum yield is 303 c / ha, 69 c / ha higher than the standard Bryansk early (Bryansk region).
The tuber is oval-rounded, the eyes are of medium depth. The peel is smooth, yellow. The pulp is light yellow. The mass of the commercial tuber is 65-120 g. The starch content is 13.4-14.2%, at the level of Isora standards, Bryansk early. The taste is good. Marketability 69-91%, at the level and 13% higher than the Zhukovsky early standard.
Keeping quality 96%. Resistant to the causative agent of potato cancer, susceptible to golden potato cyst nematode. According to the originator, it has low to medium resistance to the causative agent of late blight, has an average resistance to damage by a complex of viruses. Variety value: amicable return of early production, good taste of tubers, yield formation before late blight appears.
Helminthiasis from the group of trematodes, which is manifested by inflammation in the small intestine.
Pathogen: North American and Russian troglotremtoid trematodes: Nanophyetus salmincola and Nanophyetus schikhobalowi.
Nanofietosis is often sick in Russia, China, Japan, both Korean states, North America.
The helminth is pear-shaped, yellow-gray in color, 0.5-5 mm long, 0.3-0.8 mm wide.The life cycle includes 3 hosts: 2 intermediate (mollusks, fish) and 1 main (raccoons, spotted skunks, foxes, bears, minks, fish-eating birds, dogs and humans).
Fish through which a person becomes infected: chum salmon, kundzha, Dolly Varden char, Amur whitefish and grayling, taimen, molins, minnow and Amur broadlobe. Infection occurs when eating raw or semi-raw fish containing helminth larvae. The larvae are resistant to various physical factors, at a temperature of 4 ° C they die after 14-16 days, when boiled - after 2 minutes. Cases of parasitizing up to 1500 helminths in one patient have been described.
Patients with nanofietosis complain of diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, nausea and vomiting, weight loss, and fatigue. It is believed that symptomatic manifestations develop when there are at least 500 helminths in the human intestine.
Diagnose disease by analyzing feces for the presence of helminth eggs and a blood test for eosinophils. Fortunately, there have been no recorded deaths from nanofietosis among humans. All patients who received anthelmintic therapy recovered successfully.
Fishermen have revealed the secrets of the most fishy places in Mari El
Fishermen have their own world, which is not always clear to the common man in the street. Is it possible, seemingly, from the standpoint of common sense, to justify the actions of people who, in winter and in summer, in any weather, walk along the coastal thickets, when in summer you have to fight off hordes of mosquitoes, and in winter it is so cold that you can catch a cold rather than fish? But it is not for nothing that there is a proverb: "A fisherman sees a fisherman from afar." Folk wisdom speaks of special knowledge, the state of people who are fishermen.
Fisherman fisherman ...
Fans of fishing in Mari El do not have to complain - numerous reservoirs, rivers and lakes give the opportunity to enjoy all the delights of fishing. The republic is rich in rivers, lakes, ponds, reservoirs. The Vyatka river basin is located in the region, the Volga flows, into which numerous tributaries flow, such large rivers as Vetluga, Nemda, Ilet flow. In each reservoir you can fish, the amount of trophies depends on the fisherman, his experience and skill.
Of course, each fisherman has his own reserved places for fishing, where he walks alone or in secret with the same "conspirators" who will never reveal which coast you need to walk on all day to bring home a solid catch of pike perch, roach or several meter pikes. But there are also “common” fish-rich places, which are known not only by the fishermen of Mari El, but also by the neighboring regions. Inveterate fishing enthusiasts say that on the way to some of these places with a good bite, especially during the spring thaw and off-road, there are whole traffic jams.
In high esteem among fishermen - Vetluga and Volga
People who know fishing say that you can catch fish in our region in almost any body of water. But those who need a big catch and large fish prefer the shores of the Vetluga and Volga in the Zvenigovsky, Kilemarsky, Gornomariysky, Volzhsky regions.
- There are many places for fishing in the republic. These are rivers, lakes and ponds. But fishermen often prefer to cast their tackle in the area of the Vetluga River (near the village of Yurkino, at the mouth of the Bolshaya Shita River, near the old tract Borovskoye) and the Volga (the village of Dubovsky, Kokshaisk). There are also predators - pike, pike perch, perch - and herbivores - carp, bream and others, '' said Aleksey Zemskov, senior state inspector of the department for state control, supervision and protection of aquatic biological resources of the Federal Middle Volga Territorial Administration of the Federal Agency for Fisheries.
Some residents of Mari El travel outside the republic, exploring the shores of Vyatka, Volga, Kama there in search of fish.
- Since we spent the summer with my family in the Zvenigovsky district, I fished there, not far from the village of Shulgino, in Chuvashia. I didn't have my own fishing spots: I stayed in those places where my soul prompted.Sometimes my intuition didn't fail, and I brought so many fish home that you couldn't take it away in one sitting. Basically, and sometimes you catch a couple of fish for the whole day - that's all. Mostly I fished from a boat, but on the shores of the islands we caught sabrefish with an elastic band: just have time to shoot fish! - Evgeny Rymovich shares his experience.
- Personally, I mainly go in for sport fishing, but I know that fishermen who need a good bite and trophies spend their time on the Volga and Vetluga. You can fish there, regardless of the season: both in summer and in winter. Fishing places are, for example, the shores in the area of Zvenigovo, Volzhsk, Arda (near the village of Dubovsky), - said Vladislav Grigoriev.
It all depends on the season
Fishing success depends on many factors. One of the most important is the weather conditions, because not only the amount of fish caught, but also the method of fishing depends on the season of the year. Experienced fisherman Sergei Ovchinnikov shared his observations of where to fish at what time.
- I fish on large rivers, Vetluga or Volga, sometimes I go outside the region - to Kirov, Nizhny Novgorod regions, Tatarstan. In spring, when the ice melts from the rivers, there is a lot of water everywhere. But according to the law, from about the end of April to mid-June, restrictions are imposed on fishing: you can only fish with a rod and only from the shore. No boats. A good bite at this time in the area of the village of Yurkino, on the Rutka River along its entire length - from the headwaters to the confluence with the Volga. In the spring I also go fishing in Kokshaisk and Shalangush. Here you can catch sabrefish on the "rubber band", as well as bream, silver bream, path, crucian carp on the feeder.
In the summer, Sergey spends time with fishing tackle on Vetluga in the Dubovsky, Borovskaya area and on the Volga near Korotnyaya, the villages of Pingedyr and Alataikino.
- Each of these places is attractive in its own way. Somewhere there are spills up to 10 kilometers with channel holes, shallows, thickets of grass, impassable snag, dumps. Here they catch white fish, and a predator along the grass, and pike perch in the pits, and catfish for a quok.
In autumn, fishermen wander along the banks of the same rivers, but they already prefer to catch predators - pike, asp, perch, zander.
Winter fishing rules
Sergey Ovchinnikov, as an experienced fisherman, advises to adhere to several rules.
- It is important to look at the color of the ice so that it is transparent. Ice covered with snow is dangerous - nothing is visible under it.
- It is worth avoiding the Koryaks visible above the water and the grass frozen into the ice, which is clearly visible in the sunlight.
- ... In the breast pockets, just in case, you should carry two awls with you, so that, in case the ice falls through under the weight of the body, with the help of them you can catch on.
- Do not forget about the ice pick - a special stick with a sharp end, which is used to check the thickness of the ice, and also, going to the river bank through the forest, it is better to cut down a long sledge just in case.
- Do not crowd around one hole, but do not lose sight of each other.
Rivers and lakes
But not only on large rivers, the Volga and Vetluga, you can fish in Mari El. The Ilet River flows through the Morkinsky, Volzhsky, Mari-Tureksky regions, where pike, perch, path, crucian carp and other fish are found. In the Volga region, fishermen can be found on the banks of the Yushut River. Residents of Novtoryalskiy and Sernurskiy districts are quite close to the Nemda coast. True, in our republic it is shallow, but after leaving the region, to the Kirov region, its breadth and depth increase significantly.
Hundreds of lakes and ponds located in the settlements of the republic did not go unnoticed by the fishing eye. Fans of fishing roam along the shores of the lakes Yalchik, Karas, Shalangush, Palenoe, Tabashino and others in search of roach, chub, crucian carp, paths and pikes. A lot of crucians and other fish species are found in numerous ponds located on the territory of the republic - in Paranga, Paganur, Mikhailovka, Velikopolye (Medvedevsky district), Kozhlazol, Marisol, Chuksha (Sernur district), Orshanka, near the village of Vidyakino (Orsha district) and others ...
The fishermen of Yoshkar-Ola, who do not want or do not have the opportunity to go fishing far away, have long mastered the shores of Malaya Kokshaga within the city limits. They cast their fishing rods in the area of the bridge at the roundabout of the Sernur tract (at the "woman with a loaf"), near the bridge in Shiryaykovo. Some fish on the shore behind the old Puppet Theater building.
In the water bodies of the republic there are such fish as pike, carp, crucian carp, asp, sabrefish, perch, silver bream, bream, burbot, pike perch, tench, white-eyed, ruff, path, carp, catfish, path, white-eye and some others. Occasionally you can see sturgeon, stellate sturgeon and sterlet. The latter is listed in the Red Book of the Mari El Republic. Sterlet in our region was in the price before, and some time ago it became a rarity at all.
- Sterlet was found in our rivers before the construction of dams. The Sursk sterlet was especially appreciated, it was sold not even by kilograms, but by the piece, - said Tatyana Zhdanova, head of the department of nature of the National Museum named after Evseeva. - Before the construction of dams, fish in our rivers were divided into two types - anadromous, which arrived here from the Caspian reservoir. It was lamprey, white fish, sturgeon, including sterlet. With the appearance of the Cheboksary reservoir, the aquatic environment has changed. Therefore, now it is very rare to see a sturgeon or sterlet in our rivers.
Fishing in the region has its own prohibitions - there must be some boundaries.
According to the order "On approval of the Fishing Rules for the Volga-Caspian fishery basin, in the Republic of Mari El
- It is forbidden to fish on the Volga River below the dam of the Cheboksary Hydroelectric Power Station for 4 kilometers.
- During the spawning period of fish, it is prohibited to catch it from April 15 to June 15 - with all fishing gear, with the exception of one float or bottom fishing rod from the shore with a total number of hooks no more than 2 pieces on fishing gear from one citizen
- From January 1 to July 15 and from August 10 to September 10 - restrictions on catching crayfish.
- It is impossible to catch sturgeon species of fish, white fish, grayling, lamprey, bitterness, podust in our region.
- It is forbidden to harvest (catch) aquatic biological resources that have fresh length (in centimeters) less than those indicated below:
Pike perch - 40 centimeters
Bream - 25 centimeters
Pike - 32 centimeters
Freshwater catfish - 90 centimeters
Carp - 40 centimeters
Cancers - 10 centimeters
Fish / Pike
It is interesting that the North American Indians did not stay away from the folklore pike boom. In their legends live talking, and magic, and evil, and wise pikes. Everything is exactly the same as ours, with minor specific variations and deviations. And with the dimensions of the local pikes, everything is in perfect order: the length is three meters, the weight is one and a half to two centners. Almost world standard! What is it for?
Now huge and even just large pikes are a rarity. Where there are many fishermen, the pike, with all its desire, will not live up to record sizes. The Norwegians, for example (as well as the Don Cossacks), do not like pike. And among the British, pike meat has long been valued as an expensive delicacy. But not because of delicious dietary meat, there is no rest for pike. People do not allow fish to grow to a record size, their ineradicable hunting passion, the excitement of the struggle, the desire of fishermen to measure their strength with a worthy rival.
Toothy robber. Freshwater predator
Within the Russian Federation, the most common pike is Esox lucius: its range covers almost all of Europe, northern Asia and North America, where, in addition to European pike, there are three more species of pike (Red-finned pike Esox americanus, Striped pike Esox niger, Maskinong (Esox masquinongy) it is found in the basins of the Baltic, Black, Caspian and Aral Seas in the north, from the Kola Peninsula to Anadyr, a special species lives in the Amur basin - the Amur pike.In the Leningrad region, it is found in many rivers and lakes.
Along the Upper Ob, its range includes the flat and foothill parts of the basin.Pike is absent in crucian lakes with a constant winter oxygen deficiency and high-mountain water bodies. It is most abundant in the floodplain reservoirs of the Ob, in reservoirs (Novosibirsk, Gilevskoe, Sklyuikhinskoe), less often in foothill lakes (Beloe, Kolyvanskoe) and Lake Teletskoe.
The structure of the pike is adapted for fast movements. The shape of its body is elongated-squared (arrow-shaped) with far protruding flat jaws that cut the water well.
The dorsal and anal fins are close to the tail. The wide and powerful tail fin, together with the dorsal and anal fin, gives the pike the opportunity to make instant and strong forward throws when waving the back of the body and when hitting with the tail. Its body is covered with small scales and a large amount of mucus, which also contributes to the speed of movement.
The color of the pike is related to the environment. The adaptability of the color to the environment serves as a means of protecting it from enemies and attacking prey. Therefore, the color of the pike is unstable: in shallow rivers and lakes with a sandy bottom, it is golden in deep water bodies, lakes and ponds with a muddy bottom - darker in ponds heavily overgrown with sedges and water lilies - greenish-golden. The color of large pikes is usually darker than the color of small ones.
Fishermen divide pikes according to their appearance: into the bottom - short, thick, with a dark golden-greenish coloration, which lives mainly in the pits, and into the grassy grass - run-down, brightly colored, with lighter golden shades, caught most often from snags, etc. However, this fishing division of pikes does not mean that the bottom and grass are individuals of different species.
Lake and pond pikes are shorter and thicker than river ones. Male pikes are lighter in weight than females (at the same age). It is very difficult to distinguish the male from the female by shape or color (except for the spawning time).
SMART AND BOLD?
The pike has a well-developed nervous system. Nerve cells quickly perceive changes in the environment (for example, water temperature, current strength, etc.)
Many anglers consider pike to be a smart and brave fish. The pike's brain is very poorly developed. The pike cannot make, albeit small, but independent and “meaningful” decisions. All "decisions" to external and internal stimuli are made by the pike on the basis of reflex actions characteristic of it from the day of birth, and conditioned reflexes acquired through life experience. The expressions found in the fishing literature that the pike is "smart", "cunning", etc., must be considered conventional.
The pike has well-developed eyes. At close range, she sees them perfectly, and not only in the water, but also outside the water. Vision and lateral organ provide the pike with accurate direction to the target when it moves quickly in pursuit of prey. The lateral line is located on the scales in the form of black dots-holes and stretches from head to tail; the pike also has them on the head - on the upper and lower jaws.
The role of the lateral line in pike swimming is enormous. With the lateral line, the pike senses the direction of the water flow and its strength according to changes in the water flow - the proximity of obstacles in its path: stones, snags, blockages, etc. According to the weakest fluctuations of the surrounding water, it senses the approaching prey and directs its body accordingly.
FEATURES OF TEETH
The teeth of the pike are interestingly constructed. The lower jaw is dotted with canine-like teeth of various sizes, rarely standing in one row. The canines are large in the middle (on the sides) of the jaw, and smaller towards the ends. In front, the teeth are small, stand more often and are bent with their tip into the inside of the mouth. The teeth (fangs) of a pike are white, they are shiny, sharp and durable.
In addition to canines in the mouth of a pike, there are three "brushes" of small and very sharp teeth. Their tips are somewhat bent. The brushes are located on the upper jaw (along the palate), they are constructed so that when stroking them with fingers towards the pharynx, the teeth fit (bend), and when stroking in the direction from the pharynx, they rise and stick their tips into the fingers. Another small brush of very small and sharp teeth is on the tongue.
The teeth of a pike are not a chewing apparatus, but serve only to hold on to prey, which it swallows whole, turning its head towards the throat.
The pike has the amazing ability to change its lower jaw canine teeth.As a result of the observations carried out by scientists, it can be assumed that the change of canines occurs as follows: a tooth (canine) that has stood its due date, tarnished and yellowed, dies, lags behind the jaw, disconnects from the surrounding tissue and falls out. Its place (or next to it) is occupied by one of the new white-transparent teeth lying in rows under the tissue, along the jaw from its inner side.
New teeth appear and become stronger in their place (on the jaw), coming out from under the tissue (and not from the jaw), which swells at the place where the tooth exits, forming a tubercle, in the center of which appears as if an artificially made slot for the exit of the tooth.
The emerging (erupted) tooth at first takes an arbitrary position, leaning with its tip (top) wherever it is. A tooth that has fallen into place (on the jaw) is held only by squeezing it with a tubercle of the surrounding tissue, as a result of which, when pressed with a finger, it freely moves in any direction.
Then the tooth gradually strengthens (the tubercle of tissue decreases), a small layer forms between the tooth and the jaw, connecting the tooth to the jaw. When you press on the tooth, some resistance is already felt, the tooth, slightly pressed to the side, immediately takes its original position if the pressure is stopped.
Finally, the base of the tooth thickens, becoming covered with an additional mass (similar to bone), which, growing at the base of the tooth and under it, tightly and firmly connects the tooth to the jaw. The tooth yields only to efforts, breaking from the jaw or breaking in half.
The process of changing teeth occurs gradually, and not all at once, and it is painful. Pike teeth change continuously.
The diet of the pike is varied depending on the circumstances. She usually consumes the most abundant fish.
In lakes and reservoirs, they will be roach, perch, ruff, bream.
In rivers, the food of pike increases the importance of typical river fish - gudgeon, dace, roach, char, minnow, pinched goby, sculpin goby, etc.
In the spring, she willingly eats frogs. There are cases when a pike dragged mice, rats, waders and even squirrels across rivers into the depths of the river. Large individuals are capable of attacking a floating duck, in this case they are called "ducklings".
This predator is capable of capturing large fish, the length and weight of which are about half of the length and weight of the predator, and sometimes even reach 61-63%. Once, when a 53.5 cm pike was dissected, a 27 cm pike was swallowed in its stomach, and this, in turn, had a 17 cm pike in its stomach.
The diet of medium-sized pikes, about half a meter, is dominated by numerous and low-value fish, therefore pike is a necessary object of rational fish farming in lakes.
DEPENDENCE ON TEMPERATURE AND OXYGEN
The intensity of pike feeding depends on many reasons, among which the water temperature plays an important role. The best water temperature at which the pike actively feeds is + 15 ° С. When the temperature drops, the digestion process slows down.
In this regard, the intensity of nutrition also decreases. But, apparently, lowering the water temperature to a certain limit does not slow down the digestion process so much in order to noticeably affect the intensity of pike feeding. This is confirmed by a good bite of pike when fishing it in spring and autumn, when the water temperature does not exceed + 6 ... + 8 ° С.
A significant increase in water temperature also decreases the intensity of feeding. It is noticed that on hot days the pike stands in one place for hours and, as it were, “dozes”.
Pike nutrition also depends on the amount of oxygen in the water. For normal nutrition and development of pike, its amount should be at least 4-5 cm3 in a liter of water.
AGE AND GROWTH
The pike is the only (apart from the catfish) freshwater predator that grows to a large size and weight. Her weight reaches 35-40 kg, and her age - up to 30 years.
The growth rate of pike in the Upper Ob basin: in the first year of life, the average gain is 150-200 g, in the second - 250, in the third - 850. Under favorable conditions, by the age of 10, the pike reaches a weight of eight kg and a length of 100 cm.
She reaches sexual maturity at the age of 2 - 3 years with a body length of 35-40 cm and a weight of 500-800 grams. Males partially mature a year earlier than females with a body length of 25 cm.
The spawning time for pike depends on the geographic location of the given reservoir. Usually, the farther north, the later spawning occurs. A sure indicator of its onset is the temperature of the water. Pike spawns at a water temperature of + 3 ... + 7 ° С, immediately after the ice melts, near the coast at a depth of 0.5-1 meters. In Altai Krai, spawning of pike usually occurs at the end of April.
During spawning, pikes go out into shallow water and splash noisily. Usually the smallest pike is suitable first, then the medium and large pike. During the spawning period, the pike is very accessible and is often beaten with a spear, silenced with an ax, shot from a gun, its extermination at this time causes irreparable harm to the pike population.
The pike at this time usually keeps in groups: 2-4 males about one female, and about large females - up to 8 males. Males are always smaller than females. Sometimes the pike spawns in pairs, and the large male zealously drives away weaker rivals, in which the female also helps him.
The female swims in front, the males follow her, lagging half the length of her body. They either nestle from the sides to the female, or try to keep directly above her back. Dorsal fins and part of the back of the fish emerge from the water all the time. The pike rubs against bushes, tree stumps, cattail stalks and other objects.
At this time, caviar is spawned. At the end of spawning, all individuals of the spawning nest rush in different directions, causing a strong splash, while the males sometimes jump out to the surface of the water.
One female pike, depending on its size, lays from 17.5 to 215 thousand eggs. The eggs are large, about 3 mm in diameter, slightly sticky, scattered by the female strongly and adhered to vegetation, but easily falls off when shaken.
After 2-3 days, the stickiness disappears completely, the eggs crumble and lie on the bottom until the end of development. Perhaps, sometimes the eggs can be deposited immediately to the bottom.
The normal development of pike eggs at the bottom in shallow stagnant water is possible only because in spring, at low water temperatures, the oxygen regime there is relatively favorable. If, after spawning of pike, a rapid decline of water follows, then this leads to the fact that the deposited eggs die. A similar phenomenon often occurs in reservoirs, the level regime of which is very unstable.
In spring, in rivers, pikes, together with flooding, enter floodplain lakes. After some time, the connection of these reservoirs with the river is interrupted. The life of juveniles hatched from laid eggs proceeds differently under such conditions than in the river. Depending on the temperature, the development of eggs lasts 8-14 days. A sudden drop in temperature can cause death.
Each type of fish has its own habits. It is common for the pike to hide in snags, near piles, among water plants and the like, from where it quickly rushes to prey that is carelessly swimming by it.
Of all freshwater predators, only one pike, in case of an unsuccessful pursuit of prey, returns to the place from which it began the pursuit. When fishing with a spinning rod, I had to watch how the pike, having missed the lure, turned around and returned under its cover.
The movements of the pike are peculiar and almost always measuredly accurate, but they manifest themselves in different ways when attacking prey and when defending. Slow in normal movements, when thrown at prey, it transforms for short seconds, becoming impetuous and formidable. Having caught prey, the pike does not immediately turn to the side and does not stop abruptly in place, but calmly swims a certain distance without changing its original direction.
The pike is considered a sedentary fish. She chooses a small area for her stay and hunting. In any body of water, her favorite places are in pits, near steep slopes, heaps of snags, sunken trees lying at the bottom of stones, near thickets of sedges, reeds, where she could hide from danger and hide, watching for her prey.
In rivers, the pike keeps in places with a quiet current or without it at all, along its riverbed, it also enters small bays. In search of food, the pike enters places with a fast current and sometimes aground. Forcing her to leave her parking lot, either the lack of oxygen in the water, or the unexpected gain of water. With a decline, her pike often returns to its original place. Only spawning breaks this habit of the pike, forcing it sometimes to go very far from its "home" place.
Pikes usually congregate near small fish sites. It has been repeatedly noticed that pikes always follow flocks of bleak or other small fish. In hot weather, when a lot of small fish appear among the water lilies and reeds, the pike immediately migrates there.
ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF PIKE
Pike is a commercial fish, an object of sport fishing. Fish catches in the Altai Territory in the mid-50s of the last century reached 50-100 tons, in the late 90s they decreased to 5-10 tons.
Since the 80s of the last century, a decrease in numbers in all water bodies is characteristic, which is due to an unfavorable hydrological regime and the catch of spawners in the pre-spawning period.
Pike is widely bred in pond farms. For example, in France, out of a total pond area of 100 thousand hectares, more than half of the area is given for pike breeding. Pike meat contains 2-3% fat, it is a dietary product, especially if the fish is supplied fresh for consumption.
There were also fables
About this toothy robber has been written as many stories and fables as about any other fish in Russia. And by the number of tales dedicated to the pike, it confidently takes the first place, and in the foreseeable future no other fish is going to concede it.
She appears in proverbs ("That's why the pike, so that the crucian does not sleep", "The pike died, but the teeth remain"), fairy tales ("At the command of the pike"), fables (I. A. Krylov "Swan, cancer and pike" ), stories (ME Saltykov-Shchedrin "The Wise Gudgeon"). Her image is endowed with the features of a predator and, as can be seen from the tale, magical power.
Russian people have always had respect and reverence for the pike. The pike, which feeds all year round, helped people survive in times of hardship and famine. She was an indispensable aid and supplement to the meager diet of a Russian peasant who was leading a subsistence economy.
The maximum age of a pike in our time does not exceed 30 years.
It is quite possible that under favorable habitat conditions and a sufficient food supply, pikes can reach impressive sizes. The references to the amazing durability of pikes found in popular science literature should be classified as legends. Particularly popular is the story of the "Halbron pike", which was personally caught, marked and released by Emperor Frederick II in 1230 to Lake Böckingen, located near Halbron. And only 267 years later, having reached by that time a length of 570 cm and a mass of 140 kg, was it caught by fishermen. The spine of this pike is still in the cathedral of Mannheim.
The examination, however, showed that the skeleton of this giant pike was skillfully composed of the vertebrae of several pikes and is, according to experts, just a banal falsification.
Here's another interesting episode. L.P. Sabaneev in his book "Life and Catching Freshwater Fish", in particular, writes: "Near Moscow, when cleaning the Tsaritsyn ponds (cleaning was carried out in the 18th century), a three-articulated pike with a gold ring in a gill cover was caught" with the inscription: "Tsar Boris Fyodorovich planted ". That is, she lived for about 300 years! But most likely, despite the author's authority and external credibility, this story is also a fishing tale.Although, if you look at these historical facts from a different angle, you can believe in the veracity of these incredible pike legends.
From a different angle
In 1979, the Giant Pike Cadastral Book was published in the UK with many photographs. The book contains all the reports on the capture of giant pikes weighing 14 kilograms or more. Each of the pike listed in the register has been assigned its own name.
The "Russian record holder" included in this book weighed 34 kilograms and was caught in Lake Ilmen in 1930. Getting acquainted with the materials of this book, you come to a disappointing conclusion: the weight of the caught record pikes is steadily decreasing.
At the beginning of the 19th century, pikes weighing 36-38 kg and a length of 172 cm were caught in the lakes and rivers of Ireland.In the first half of the 20th century, the maximum length of the caught pikes was already 135-150 cm, the mass was 27-29 kg, and at the end of the 20th century the mass was completely dropped to the level of 21 kg.
The data of the "Cadastral Book of Giant Pikes" of a curious reader may suggest that the "legends" about the "Halbron pike" and Sabaneev's mention of the "royal" pike are not fishing tales at all. In just two centuries, the pike has lost almost half of its weight!
And if we logically follow the evolution of the pike in reverse order up to the 13th century, then the mention of the "Halbron" and "royal" pike will no longer seem like fishing tales and fairy tales to us. And if we assume that the pike is losing weight due to the fact that the ecological habitat is deteriorating, and this leads to a decrease in the life span of the pike?
The Halbron pike is an order of magnitude heavier than its current relative, who, in turn, is an order of magnitude younger than her great ... great ... - the great-great-grandmother-long-lived.
Do you notice how interesting arithmetic is? Thus, it is quite possible to assume that in ancient times such giant pikes were found in our rivers and lakes. This means that both the "Halbron" pike and the "pike of Tsar Boris Fedorovich" were quite acceptable for that time.
The maskinong pike, the closest relative of the common pike, lives in North America. Muskinong is the largest, tougher than pike, and grows faster, and apparently lives longer. In 1660, French explorer Pierre Espiritu Radisson witnessed the capture of a specimen 2 meters long and 75 kg in weight. Although no evidence of this event remains, the information can be considered truthful. Even nowadays, there are maskinongs weighing 25-30 kg and even 40-45 kg.
Rating of the most dangerous fish on the planet
|Rating of the most dangerous fish on the planet||1||Electric eel||5.0|
|2||Bull shark (blunt shark)||4.9|
|8||Sea dragon ("scorpion", snake fish)||4.3|
|9||Payara ("water wolf")||4.2|
Habitat - rivers of the northeast of South America. The basis of the diet is invertebrates, fish and small mammals. At first glance, an eel may seem completely harmless, because it does not bite. But he doesn't need it: an electric eel generates a powerful discharge of current, reaching 650 V (the average is 350 V). This is enough for a person to lose consciousness or even die. The radius of electric shock reaches 3 m.
This freshwater predator uses its deadly weapon to stun prey, but it can attack humans, large mammals and even a crocodile, since it has an aggressive disposition. In case of electric shock, temporary paralysis of the body occurs, disruptions in the work of breathing and heart muscle. All this can lead to drowning.
The electric eel reaches 3 m in length, has a slightly flattened, serpentine body, its weight ranges from 20 to 40 kg. A notable external feature is the complete absence of scales on the body, which covers a layer of mucus. The fish prefers stagnant, cloudy water, but comes up to the surface every few minutes to take a breath of air.
Advice.The electric eel always attacks suddenly, and it is not at all frightened by large prey: the fish confidently attacks opponents whose size is 10 times larger than its own. Therefore, in case of an unexpected encounter with an eel, it is better to sail away as soon as possible, and if possible, swim ashore.
Bull shark (blunt shark)
Although most people are terrified by the great white shark, the blunt-nosed shark is to blame for the majority of reported shark attacks on humans. The males of this fish are considered the most aggressive animals on the planet. A similar feature is associated with the production of excessive amounts of the male hormone, which causes sudden and powerful outbursts of rage. When attacked by a bull shark, the probability of rescue is close to zero.
The fish are not distinguished by their pickiness in the food they catch: the bull shark, as a rule, absorbs everything that comes in its way (molluscs, crustaceans, any fish, even carrion) and often attacks large marine animals. Among them are even dolphins and white sharks.
The blunt shark has a strong constitution and impressive size: it reaches 4 m in length. And this applies to females. Males, as a rule, are not so large and rarely grow longer than 2.5 m. The weight of the fish reaches a bovine - about 300 kg. The large body ends in a massive head with a blunt snout and a powerful jaw, studded with razor-sharp, triangular teeth, curved inward and capable of gnawing even a tortoise shell.
Interesting fact: the blunt shark is the only one of its kind that feels great in fresh water, which makes it even more dangerous. An unusual feature of the fish is due to the low salt content in its blood (about 50%).
The most dangerous marine inhabitant of the fresh waters of South America and one of the most dangerous in the world. A powerful jaw, razor-sharp triangular teeth and the habit of "hunting" in a group - all this speaks of piranha as far from being the most friendly. There are about 60 species of piranha and all of them, without exception, live in the rivers of South America.
Piranha rarely exceeds 0.5 m in length and weighs no more than a couple of kilograms, but do not be fooled by the modest size of this fish. Gathering in a flock of 100 brothers or more, this small nibbler is able to practically destroy an animal weighing about 50 kg in a couple of minutes: only bones will remain. It is noteworthy that piranha shows aggression only when in a flock (one by one, these nibblers are very shy).
Piranha is a very voracious predator and, as a rule, prefers to see crustaceans, as well as other fish, in its diet. This bloodthirsty silver-colored toothy fish is happy to hunt even deadly fish and is capable of killing a whale. Do not disdain piranha and man. She tears off food in pieces, so the bite of this fish is considered the most painful in the world and causes severe bleeding.
Interesting fact: in order to wade the herd across the river, local shepherds usually sacrifice one of the animals. While the toothed flock devours it, the herd hastily distilled to the opposite bank.
A modest kid, it would seem, could only accidentally get into the rating of the most dangerous fish on the planet, but this is definitely deserved. A nondescript fish with a little body 2.5 to 15 cm long and about 3 mm wide lives in the Amazon basin and it is better not to meet with it "face to face". It's all about the peculiarities of the diet of this translucent fish: it prefers blood and urine. Therefore, sometimes Vandella is called "vampire fish".
Faced with a person, he can get to the coveted food only through his holes: it gets inside through the urogenital organs and the anus. And once in the body, it begins to eat the flesh. Long-term stay of Vandellia in the human body is fraught with severe tissue inflammation, internal bleeding, and even death. It is possible to remove the "pest" only by surgery.
This is the most dangerous aquatic inhabitant of the African continent. The gregarious predator is not distinguished by goodwill and may well attack a person. And the presence in its powerful mouth of 32 sharp 5-centimeter teeth, similar to a shark, will provide this meeting with a sad outcome.
The fish is distinguished by the finest hearing and excellent vision, which allows it to notice potential prey from a distance of several kilometers. In addition, tiger fish can swim even against a very powerful current. The weaker inhabitants of the river, unable to withstand the power of the water, automatically fall into the mouth of the predator.
Among the existing varieties of tiger fish, one can distinguish ordinary (weighs up to 15 kg and lives in the Zambezi and Lualaba rivers) and the famous goliath fish. The latter species reaches 2 m in length and weighs about 50 kg. This is an unusually fast and strong predator, capable of reaching speeds of up to 100 km / h in pursuit of prey (taking into account the fact that this chase is carried out under water, the strength of the fish can be assessed as a bull).
It is considered the most dangerous aquatic inhabitant of North America. In length, this unfriendly creature reaches 1.5 m, weight is 120 kg. The freshwater predator prefers to feed on other fish, loves mammals, waterfowl. Do not underestimate this fish because of its harmless appearance and cute name: it can attack humans as well.
The olive catfish is considered a commercial fish and is highly regarded for its excellent meat taste. But sometimes it happens that the fisherman himself turns out to be a delicious "dish" for catfish. Every year, a dozen fishermen who dare to catch an olive catfish die on North American rivers. Moreover, death from its teeth is terrible: this freshwater predator, attacking its prey, tears it to pieces with force.
Also known as the "wart", the stonefish is sometimes almost indistinguishable from the rocks of the coral reefs, among which it loves to live. Therefore, her surprise attack is always unexpected for the prey. This deadly poisonous sea creature is considered the most dangerous tropical fish in the Indian and Pacific oceans, living in shallow waters. It can also be found in the Red Sea (on the coast of Australia, the Philippines, Indonesia).
The wart could be called quite harmless outwardly, if not for the terrible thorn on the dorsal fin: piercing, it injects poison. Unfortunately, there is no antidote for it. Therefore, if the substance secreted by the stone fish enters the blood of a person, they will face several hours of terrible torment, after which death occurs.
However, in recent years, there have been several precedents when, with the provision of timely assistance, a person was saved. But at the same time, the atrophy of the local nerve occurred at the point of contact with the thorn: this led to the "failure" of a part of the muscle tissue.
Sea dragon ("scorpion", snake fish)
A small, inconspicuous predator with an unpredictable character - a sea dragon or a snakefish lives in the waters of the Mediterranean and Black Seas. It can be found in Turkey, Georgia, Greece, Bulgaria and Russia. A small body slightly flattened from the sides, rarely reaching a length of 40 cm, looks like a Black Sea goby, but this fish is far from harmless.
On its gills and dorsal fins, poisonous spines are located, which, when they enter human flesh, cause severe tissue edema, convulsions, if it is a limb - its paralysis (not always), and even heart failure.
The sea dragon prefers to live at a depth of about 15-20 meters, but it multiplies and gets its food mainly in shallow water, completely burying itself in silt. Therefore, from time to time there are unpleasant cases of a person meeting with a prickly fish, which he accidentally steps on.
And, although towards people, the "scorpion" is not aggressive, this does not make him less dangerous. It is important to know how to behave when pricked by a sea devil's thorn, as the consequence can be fatal.First of all, you need to suck out the poison from the wound (the duration of the manipulation is about 10 minutes). Do not be afraid that the poison will enter the bloodstream through the mouth: saliva can neutralize it. Then you need to treat the wound (for example, hydrogen peroxide or chlorhexidine). If this is not done, deep sores may remain on the skin that will take months to heal.
Advice. To avoid meeting the sea dragon, you should not intensively fumble with your feet on the seabed, try to catch a fish that is unfamiliar at first glance with your hands, and do not linger at the bottom of underwater crevices.
Payara ("water wolf")
Also known as the scamubrious hydrolic, payara is the only fish that can rival the more famous big-toothed "glutton" - the piranha and, as it prefers to exist in a flock. In length, this unpleasant creature reaches 1 m and weighs about 15 kg. Payara is not considered aggressive, therefore rarely attacks a person, but is potentially very dangerous.
A distinctive feature of the fish is two sharp 10-15 cm canines located on the lower jaw. Such a "weapon" can be considered incredibly formidable not only for freshwater fish, but also for marine life. Payara's fangs are so long that there are two special holes in the upper jaw so that the fish can close their jaws when biting a prey, which it then swallows whole. The favorite food of fish is other, smaller fish, including piranha. She was repeatedly caught eating relatives.
Interesting fact: in the case of severe fright, payard usually inflicts fatal injury on himself.
A ban on catching two types of fish is introduced from November 1
It will not be possible to catch Chud whitefish and European catfish.
To create conditions for the reproduction of the Chud whitefish, from November 1 to December 15, a ban on its catch is established in Belarus. During this period, whitefish spawns. The freshwater salmon family is not afraid of the cold and starts breeding in late autumn.
But the catfish, on the contrary, is very sensitive to cold snap, therefore, it hibernates earlier than other fish. At the same time, the catfish becomes practically immobile, which makes it easy prey. To preserve the European catfish from November 1 to March 31, its catch is generally prohibited.
The catch of these types of fish during the ban will cost violators a fine: 324 rubles (12 basic units) for each individual of the European catfish and 243 rubles (nine basic) for each individual of the Chud whitefish.
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