The easiest way to dig a well: a comparative overview of digging methods

The easiest way to dig a well: a comparative overview of digging methods

If the home ownership is located on the shore of a lake or river, there are no big problems with water supply. The situation is much more complicated when the site is located far from natural water sources. It remains to extract water from the ground, and for this it is necessary to find natural reserves that would be clean, suitable for drinking. The owners of the site make the choice between drilling a well and digging a well, based on the characteristics of the area. If the aquifer is located deeper than 15 meters, then the upcoming arrangement of the well must be entrusted to specialists, and if the water is closer to the surface, then read this article about how to dig a well with your own hands. The process may not seem too complicated to you.

Preparatory work

Making a well yourself is not as difficult as it seems, although you will have to work hard. It is important in the process of performing work to follow the rules regarding the construction of wells. Of course, no one will control whether you have done everything that is necessary or treated the work formally. But you are making a well for yourself and your family members, so you yourself must show an interest in ensuring that the water you receive is fresh and clean.

Living and dead water. Which one will be in the well that you build? It all depends on how seriously you take the rules for its construction.

Groundwater: availability and suitability

No old-fashioned methods will give an unambiguous answer to the question of whether there is water on your site and, if it does exist, what is its quality. Geological exploration of the site is the only reliable source of such information. If there are already capital structures on the site, then there is also intelligence data. Otherwise, it remains only to get to know the closest neighbors whose wells are already in operation. Ask them what the depth of their mines is, ask for a water sample. Have the local SES check the water quality.

You can learn how to properly analyze and purify water from the material:

Dowsers are looking for water in the same ways that our grandfathers used to use. But even a successful search for a source does not guarantee water quality.

Choosing a place for a well

The choice of a place for a well must also be approached with all responsibility.

If the area is polluted with waste or there is a large source of pollution nearby, then it makes no sense to hope to get clean water from the well.

Pay attention to the following significant factors:

  • The geological situation in your area. For example, if the surroundings are swampy, then it will not be possible to dig a well with drinking water, because the top water, which will inevitably end up in an underground source, will bring with it all the dirt on the surface.
  • The presence of significant sources of pollution in the vicinity. For many pollutants, the surface waterproofing layer is not an obstacle. They penetrate underground waters and poison them, making them unusable.
  • Ground characteristics and terrain. Rocky terrain is the hardest to handle. It is problematic to make a well on the side of the mountain. Flat terrain is best suited for a well.
  • The remoteness of the place of consumption. On the one hand, I want to place the well closer to the house in order to avoid the construction of long communications through which water will flow into the house. On the other hand, a well cannot be placed closer than 5 meters from buildings. Such a neighborhood can adversely affect the foundation of the structure. The accumulated water can wash away the soil under the building, partially destroy the sole. Eliminating such consequences is not so easy.

There is another limitation, according to which sewage drains, gutters or landfills cannot be placed around the well in the 50-meter sanitary zone. Otherwise, the extracted water will have specifics that you do not need.

Read more about the rules for the sewerage system in the country:

Well digging technology

To find out how to properly dig a well, you first need to figure out what kind of digging techniques generally exist. Professionals practice open and closed way of digging wells. Since the differences in these techniques are fundamental, each of them deserves a separate consideration.

Option # 1 - digging in an open way

Manual installation of aquifers on a site with dense soil is carried out in an open way.

The walls of such a shaft will not collapse unless it is left without rings for a long time. Smooth surface indicates the presence of clay in the soil

Open technology for digging a well consists of simple and straightforward steps:

  • digging of a mine of a certain depth (to the aquifer) is carried out immediately from beginning to end, its diameter is 10-15 cm larger than that of prepared reinforced concrete rings;
  • reinforced concrete rings that form the walls of the well are lowered into the formed shaft using a winch;
  • the rings are carefully fastened to each other;
  • between the walls of the mine and the reinforced concrete structure assembled inside it, a gap is formed, which must be covered with coarse sand;
  • the seams between each pair of rings are carefully sealed with a special sealing compound.

Obviously, it is precisely the soil features that have made it possible to preserve the shape of the walls of the shaft throughout the entire time that are decisive for the choice of an open digging method.

Option # 2 - closed digging method

If the composition of the soil is loose (gravel or sand), then it is problematic to carry out work by an open method. The walls of the shaft will inevitably shift, crumble, etc. The work will have to be interrupted, the process itself will be delayed, it will become impermissibly labor-intensive. We'll have to dig a well in a closed way, which experts call it a ring.

For the closed method of digging, it is important to get started correctly. The rings will have to slide along the walls of the shaft under their own weight, so the size of the pit must be accurate

Schematically closed technology of digging wells can be represented in the form of the following stages:

  • It is necessary to outline the location of the well, the diameter of which will correspond to the outer diameter of the reinforced concrete ring, and remove the top layer of earth. You need to deepen as much as the soil will allow. Typically, the depth of the pit ranges from 20 cm to 2 meters.
  • A pit has formed, inside which the first ring is placed. Further work will take place inside this ring, and subsequently in the resulting reinforced concrete structure.
  • The ring, under its own weight, sinks lower and lower, and the next ring, placed on the first, increases the weight of the structure and is mounted with the previous one.
  • After the digger reaches the aquifer, the last ring of the well is installed. It is not completely buried.
  • Insulation and sealing of the seams between the rings is carried out in exactly the same way both in the open and in the closed method.

At the final stage, all the equipment necessary for the functioning of the well is mounted.

You can learn how to arrange a well in the country from the material:

Care must be taken when handling rings. Manufacturers often indicate that work must be carried out using a winch or crane. Otherwise, claims for cracks and chips will not be accepted.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Digging Methods

The open method is attractive, first of all, for its simplicity. Digging is much more convenient not surrounded by reinforced concrete. However, each of the digging methods has disadvantages and advantages. It is not uncommon for a boulder to be encountered while driving. If this happened with an open penetration, then it is easy to expand the mine, dig in the obstacle and pull it to the surface, tying it with ropes. Now imagine how much more difficult the task becomes when the excavator is in the closed space of the ring. The problem may be insurmountable.

A boulder is one of the easily removable obstacles if the excavation is carried out in an open way, but try to cope with it while inside a reinforced concrete ring

Another nuisance that can happen during work is quicksand. Quicksand is a soil saturated with water that can spread. While in an open shaft, an excavator can make an attempt to stop quicksand by making an elementary caisson out of grooved boards. Subsequently, it is possible, by filling the space between the reinforced concrete structure and the mine with soil, to completely isolate the quicksand.

The closed penetration has one more disadvantage. It manifests itself when a breeder appears in the mine. It goes down together with the rings to be installed, after which it mixes with groundwater and spoils it. Nobody needs a polluted well. Moreover, it turns out that it is very problematic to get rid of the top water in this case. You can dig another hole along the outer surface of the rings to reveal the source of the upper water. But even in this case, it is not always possible to identify it and isolate it.

The material on methods of cleaning a drinking well will also be useful:

This is what the water looks like in a well if the top water seeps into it. To identify the source of the trouble, you need, in fact, to dig another well nearby.

It would seem that doubts have dissipated, and we know exactly how to dig a well in the country. Indeed, the advantages of the open method are obvious, and now let's turn to its disadvantages.

With an open digging method, the mine has to be dug with a larger diameter than the well being built. The natural solidity of the soil is inevitably violated. Between the walls of the structure of the well and the shaft, we place soil, which differs in structure and density from what was originally here. New soil can be deformed, and rings can be displaced relative to each other. Such movements can cause the destruction of the well.

You can learn how to repair a well from the material:

An open mine must never be left without rings for a long time. The dried walls begin to crumble, with each new hour bringing the moment of collapse closer

In addition, with the open method, the volume of earthworks is significantly increased. And one more thing: you have to acquire special equipment to install reinforced concrete rings. You will need a rope, hook, block, tripod and winch. The process of lowering the ring is not only difficult, but also dangerous. When using a crane, it will be easier to install and align the rings correctly, but attracting special equipment is always expensive.

If, due to inexperience, the excavator underestimated the degree of soil density, the walls of the mine can crumble, nullifying all efforts. If the mine has stood ready-made without rings for more than three days, the probability of its collapse increases significantly. Naturally, when digging into the ring, such a danger does not threaten. When the rings are immersed in the mine under their own weight, the integrity of the soil is practically not affected. No additional equipment is required to install them, and the likelihood of injury is reduced.

You can organize water supply at home from the well, read about this:

A few words about safety

You can't dig a well alone. It's not even that it's physically difficult. There are dangers of a different kind. The bowels of the earth are rich in surprises. Along with water reserves, you can stumble upon an underground accumulation of gas. This can be fatal in a confined mine space. An invisible danger can be identified with a burning torch. A quickly extinguished fire indicates unacceptable gas pollution.

This digger would benefit from listening to a briefing before putting on a helmet. He clearly does not know what exactly he needs this remedy for

Dropping a load onto the head of an excavator is another obvious danger. Is it necessary in such a situation to talk about the relevance of the use of a protective helmet?

Therefore, a well-organized digging of wells does not imply the heroic work of a lone enthusiast, but a properly planned work of a group of like-minded people. For example, they organize forced ventilation of the mine, using at least fans and vacuum cleaners for this purpose. It is easier to alternately dig a mine and jointly install rings, and it is much more fun to celebrate the ceremonial commissioning of an object with friends.

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How is the digging of a well from concrete rings - the principle of operation and useful tips

Even if the house is equipped with a centralized water supply system, a well will not become an excess, since watering flower beds or a vegetable garden with tap water is quite expensive, and in case of a shutdown it will be a good help.

In the country, he is generally the only source of water. Digging wells is not easy, but feasible. Even if you decide to involve a special team in this case, you still have to control them.

You need to know how to dig a well with your own hands in a suburban area.

How to choose a place and time for digging?

The most reliable way is to apply for a hydrogeological survey. You will be shown the exact place where it is best to dig a well from concrete rings plus analysis of the water that will be in the future well.

But this service is not cheap and can only pay for itself if the water in the well is used as drinking water, that is, near a house where people are constantly living in it.

At the summer cottage, its need is intended mainly for technical needs, and for drinking it is possible to clean only the one going into the house.

If you are going to do without research, then you need to focus on some signs:

  • be guided by the position of the wells in the neighborhood - the rock layers are usually uneven, the situation is also the same with the aquifers. If the water in the neighboring well is at a depth of 6 meters, this does not mean that your water will be at the same level. It can be both higher and lower, or even go abruptly somewhere to the side. So this is only an approximate "markup" of the project, where well water may be located
  • observation of the behavior of animals and insects. Small midges can serve as the most accurate reference point. In a warm period, with calm in the evening before sunset, inspect the site. If there are places on it where midges "hang" with pillars, this indicates that aquifers are located close enough in this place. In order to make sure of this, observe the marked area in the morning. If fog swirls over it in the morning, then the water is really close enough
  • folk way. We take the earthenware. Best not glazed. You can also use a regular pan, as long as it is wide. Oven-dried silica gel is poured into the selected dish. If it is not there and it is not known where it can be obtained, then you need to take ceramic bricks, break them until only small crumbs remain of them, and dry them in the oven for several hours. Then you need to fill it in a bowl to the top and tie it with a dry cotton cloth. Only in such a way that it does not come loose. Weigh and record this value.After that, on the site of the alleged well, you dig a hole 1-1.5 meters deep, after which it is necessary to put a vessel in the dug layer and sprinkle it with earth. Wait a day. Then dig up and weigh again. The more the mass has changed, the greater the concentration of water in this place.
  • analyze the grass growing on the site - this method is well applicable only when the site has not yet been plowed. When examining vegetation, try to identify the most overgrown islets. You do not need to pay special attention to single plants, since they can be brought here in a random way, for this method you need precisely clearings, islands of vegetation.

These methods are only an approximate determination of the location of the aquifers, where it is possible to dig wells from concrete rings. None of them give a 100% guarantee, but in the case of using several methods, you can determine a more or less exact location and it is worth trying to dig a well in this place.

It is most favorable to dig a well twice a year: either in the second half of August, or in the middle of winter - after two weeks of frost.

During these two periods, the lowest level of groundwater and upper water practically does not occur.

This will greatly facilitate the work, in addition, it will be much easier to determine the flow rate - during these periods it is at a minimum and in the future you will not experience a shortage of water.

If you decide to dig a well or dig a well with your own hands, there may not be enough time in August, as it is a "border zone" before the rainy season. In this case, you need to start work early.

Maybe even at the beginning of the month. In general, you need to calculate the time of work in such a way that the exit to the aquifer falls on the most "waterless" period.

Ideally, it is also desirable to deal with the waterproofing of the walls.

Two ways to dig a well from concrete rings

The most popular is the construction of a well made of concrete rings. Its popularity is due to its simplicity. But at the same time, it has rather serious drawbacks: its joints with concrete rings are characterized by a rather weak tightness and through them rain and melt water can enter the well, and together with them, what is dissolved in it, and what has drowned.

You can try to seal the joints of the rings, but you cannot apply the most effective methods: the water must be suitable at least for irrigation. And puttying the joints with a solution is rather ineffective and short-lived. Over time, the cracks widen and through them not only melt or rain water can enter, but also insects, worms, animals, and so on.

There are special rings with a lock. Between them, you can install rubber gaskets to ensure tightness. Rings with locks are on sale. Although their price is much higher, it is almost impossible to find gaskets for them, as well as wells equipped with them.

How to properly dig a well in the country with your own hands? There are two methods of digging a well from concrete rings: placing the rings one at a time and installing them after the aquifer has been reached. Both methods are applied, just at different depths, and both have their drawbacks.

Alternate installation of rings. In this case, the first ring is set on the ground, which is slowly removed from the inside and under the side. The ring gradually descends. A very important point: you need to be very careful to ensure that it goes straight down, without distortions.

Otherwise, the shaft will come out inclined and, over time, the rings will stop settling. To avoid skewing, you need to monitor the verticality of the walls. To do this, you just need to tie a plumb line to the bar, after which the bar is placed on the ring.

Use the building level for additional control.

As soon as the top edge of the ring is level with the ground, set the following. It is installed strictly from above. Work continues.

If on the first ring the ground can be thrown over the side using a shovel with a short handle, then on the next one the soil will have to be removed using a gate or a block and a tripod.

Based on this, we can conclude that the work should be carried out in a composition of at least two people, and in order to turn the rings, at least 3-4 people are required. Thus, independent digging (one person) is impossible. Unless for this business you need to adapt the winch.

By this method, the depth of the well is gradually increased. As soon as the ring reaches the same level with the ground, a new one is installed on it. For descent, hammered brackets or ladders are used (the safest and most correct way is to use brackets).

The advantages of this method of digging a well:

  1. It is possible to control how smoothly and how tight the ring is.
  2. It is possible to install rubber gaskets to ensure tightness or to plant them in a solution.
  3. The walls do not crumble.

These were the benefits. Let's talk about the disadvantages. Working inside the ring is quite inconvenient and physically difficult. This method is used, as a rule, for shallow depths - 7-8 meters. The work in the mine must be carried out in turn.

Another point: while digging a well with rings, you can use a knife to speed up the process of subsidence and facilitate the passage of the soil. It is made of concrete, it is poured into the ground at the very beginning.

In order to make it, a groove is dug in a circle, which has a triangular cross-section (see figure). Its inner diameter should coincide with the inner diameter of the rings that will be used in the process, the outer one is slightly larger.

After the concrete has hardened, a standard ring is installed on this ring and work is started.

Installing rings after reaching the aquifer... First, you need to dig a shaft without rings. In this case, it is necessary to follow the walls.

As soon as the first signs of shedding begin to appear, rings are immediately installed inside and continue to work according to the first method. With the help of a crane or manipulator, rings are placed in the shaft.

After that, it is deepened by a few more rings according to the first method, increasing the flow rate.

The soil is removed from the mine in the same way: while the depth is not very deep, it is simply thrown out with a shovel. Then the tripod and the gate are installed and lifted with the help of buckets.

As soon as the rings are installed, the gap between them and the walls of the shaft is filled up and compacted.

Several upper rings can be sealed from the outside (for this, a bitumen impregnation or other coating waterproofing can be used).

  1. The mine is wider, which means that it is much more convenient to work in it, which makes it possible to dig deeper wells.
  2. Several top rings can be sealed to reduce the chance of contaminated water entering the well.

There are much more cons:

  1. It is difficult to control the tightness of the joint of the rings: it is in the shaft during installation - it is strictly prohibited. It is impossible to turn the ring already installed in the shaft due to the large mass.
  2. You can gape and the mine will crumble.
  3. The density of filling the gap between the walls of the mine and the rings is less than the "native" soil. Because of this, it becomes possible for melt and rainwater to seep into the depths, where through the cracks they can get directly into the well. To prevent this, a protective circle is made around the well of a waterproof material (waterproofing membrane) with a slope from the walls of the well.

During work, you need to monitor the verticality of the walls, but up to a certain limit it can be corrected. The control method is the same - a bar with a plumb line attached to it and lowered into the mine.

How do you know when to stop digging?

According to the technology, the soil is removed inside the ring and under it. Because of what it sinks under its own weight. The soil that is removed and will be a reference point. Typically, the water is located between two waterproof layers. This is often clay or limestone.

The aquifer is usually sand. It can be either small, like a sea one, or large interspersed with small pebbles. Most often there are several such layers. As soon as the sand comes out, it means that water should be expected soon. As soon as it appears at the bottom, you need to dig for some more time, taking out the already wet soil.

In the event that there is a strong inflow of water, you can stop. The aquifer is not very large, since there is a chance to pass through it. In this case, you will have to dig until the next one. The deeper, the cleaner the water will be, but how much deeper, no one can say for sure.

After that, the well is pumped over - the submersible pump is thrown in and the water is pumped out. Thus, it is cleaned, deepening a little, and besides that, its flow rate is determined.

If you are satisfied with the speed with which the water arrives, you can stop there. If not, you need to quickly go through this layer. The soil continues to be flushed out with a running pump until this layer has passed.

Then they dig to the next aquifer.

If you are happy with the incoming water and its quality, you can build a bottom filter. It consists of three layers of stones of different fractions, which are stacked at the bottom. This is necessary so that as little silt and sand as possible gets into the water. For such a filter to work, you need to lay out the stones correctly:

  1. The largest stones are placed at the very bottom. These are large enough cobblestones. But in order not to select very much the height of the water column, it is better to use the flattest stones. They need to be laid out in two layers, while they do not need to be laid close to each other, but with small gaps.
  2. The middle fraction is poured in a layer of 10-20 cm. Their dimensions should be such that pebbles or stones do not fall into the gaps of the lower layer.
  3. The upper-most shallow layer. Small pebbles and stones in a layer of 10-15 cm. They are necessary for the sand to settle.

With such an embankment of fractions, the water will be cleaner: at first, the largest inclusions settle on large stones, and as they move up they get smaller.

Observance of safety precautions during work

Digging a well, no matter with your own hands or a team, is quite dangerous and hard work, especially after the first three rings have been dug in. The buckets need to be pulled out with a winch, gate or pulley, and they are quite heavy. There is a risk that the rope may break or the handle may fail. Because of this, you must follow the safety rules:

  1. Those who work below must be wearing a helmet.
  2. The buckets should have a sufficiently powerful handle; for insurance it is better to weld it, making it from thick wire in several layers.
  3. The buckets should be tied to a strong rope, at the end of which a powerful carabiner with a secure fixation should be attached.
  4. Check the condition of the bucket handle, rope and carabiner from time to time.
  5. When lifting the buckets, the person working underneath should be on the opposite side.
  6. Downstairs to work in turn.

Precautions are not superfluous. Better to be safe.

After the groundwork is completed, the installation of the pump and the buildup lasting at least 2 weeks, you can begin finishing work, namely the decorative design of the head. Many people leave the top concrete ring unchanged.

In order to decorate the upper part, you can use natural stone bricks or ceramic tiles. Folk craftsmen build small wooden log cabins, set up "cranes" as decorative elements, erect carved canopies.

Based on the article, in order to independently build a well, first of all, you will need to make sure of the aquifers, choose the right place, decide on the design and observe safety precautions. The rest all depends on your free time and your skills.

Diy well: constructive components

Drilling equipment can be used if the ground is difficult to pass (rocky or semi-rocky). Arranging a well in the country with your own hands is possible if the soil on the site belongs to one of the following types:

  • sand
  • sandy loam
  • clay
  • loam.

Before you start equipping the well, you need to find out what type of soil on the site

Experts recommend to study in detail its design and individual components before installing the well. Consider what is included in the mine water intake development. The lower part, which carries out the intake of liquid, is called the water intake. If the supply of the aquifer is able to meet the needs of consumers, then water flows only through the bottom of the well. However, if the reservoir resource is not large enough, the walls are perforated, which increases the fluid flow.

The next component of any well is the trunk. This segment originates from the surface and ends at the bottom (at the water level in the well). Such a pipe is assembled from various materials. The most common for a well are reinforced concrete rings, monolithic concrete, and bricks. In some cases, wood is used for these purposes.

The wellbore must necessarily meet certain characteristics. For example, it is very important that it is airtight. Otherwise, it is possible to contaminate drinking water with precipitation and chemical compounds contained in the soil.

If you hire workers to dig a well, then the price will be 1000-2000 rubles. for 1 meter

Another part of the well is the head. This structure is located above the ground and resembles a small house. The function of this element is to protect the well from low temperatures in winter, and also protects it from atmospheric precipitation.

The optimal height for this structure is approximately 0.8-0.9 m, and the minimum is 60 cm. It simply does not make sense to build a house below the latter value, since it will cause inconvenience during operation. The head consists of a cover that protects the water in the well, and a lifting mechanism (for the bucket). The latter can be either manual or automatic, depending on the preferences of the site owners.

Helpful information! The price of digging a well by hand per meter ranges from 1000 to 2000 rubles.

The docking point of the head with the barrel requires the organization of a protective structure made of clay. It is called a clay castle. It is located around the perimeter and acts as a barrier for waste and melt water that may be on the soil surface. The depth of such a structure should be lower than the level of freezing of the soil, and the width should be approximately 0.5 m.

The head for the well or well is placed above the ground

Commissioning and maintenance

Before starting operation, the walls of the well are thoroughly cleaned with metal brushes and washed. The water is pumped out to absolute purity and transparency.

Maintenance consists of regular cleaning and repairs. If a deterioration in water quality is detected, its volume has decreased, mold or algae are present, and deposits have appeared on the walls of the mine, the well must be cleaned.

The event is carried out manually or using mechanical equipment. All the water is pumped out of the well, a ladder is installed and going down, the walls are cleaned with a metal scraper. Silt deposits are removed from the bottom, the stone filter is replaced partially or completely. If the barrel is shallow, dirt can be removed without immersion. Use a long-handled brush.

After cleaning, the concrete walls can be disinfected with a bleach solution. After 24 hours, the water must be completely pumped out.

Watch the video: Open well digging procedure How to dig an open well?Well excavation method.