PLANTS: HOW THEY LIVE AND HOW THEY ARE MADE
FLOWERThe flower is the reproductive organ of many plants and botanically it is defined as a defined growth bud containing the reproductive organisms. The function of the flower is therefore to perpetuate the species. Of the transformed leaves that make up the flower, the apical or internal ones are sporophylls and the most inferior or external are the antofilli. These last ones, brightly colored and perfumed, in addition to the function of protecting the reproductive organs, also have that of attracting those insects that can facilitate the reproduction of the plant.
Normally the flower is the most striking part of the plant and which therefore attracts attention and is the reason why so many species are cultivated. However, not all plants have flowers: some prokaryothiautotrophs (cyanobacteria or blue-green algae), mosses, green algae, ferns do not have such evident reproductive organs and for this reason they are called cryptogams (from the Greek cryptos "Hidden" e gamos "Wedding" that is "hidden wedding") and reproduce through other organs.
The flower instead it is the characteristic organ of the phanerogams (from the Greek phaneros"Manifest, evident" e gamos "Wedding" that is "evident wedding") is to use plants that have visible reproductive organs and between them we have the angiosperms and legymnosperms. In reality, however, in gymnosperms the flower is very simple erudimentary, different from the commonly known flower, which is typical of angiosperms. In fact it is reduced to the essentials: pollen sacs for the male part carried by branches with different positions in different groups and ovules for the female part, carried by enlarged axes or fertile scales. Everything leads to the fact that the gymnosperms are always unisexual, that is to say that the male and female flowers are always separated either on the same plant or on different plants. In fact, the term gymnosperms derives from the Greek semen "Seed" e gymnos "Naked" this is because the seeds are not enclosed in a carpel as in the angiosperms (angio it means "vase" and refers to the carpel that functions as a vase to receive the seeds) even if at maturity they can sometimes be closed between the scales of a cone or bracts, as happens for the juniper berries.
The flower is an organ formed by several leaves (called genericly antophylls) which have undergone numerous modifications in order to fulfill the reproductive function. They are also very important from a systematic point of view, that is to say of the classification of plants, because they always present constant characters and are therefore a fundamental element for their attribution to one botanical group or another.
A complete flower of the angiosperms is composed of:
- TALAMO or RECEPTACLE
- ANDROECIUM or STAMEN
- GINECEO or PISTIL
Stent: how is it made and what is it used for?
The stent is a device that has revolutionized cardiology, decisively improving the treatment of some pathologies. It is, for example, one of the most used techniques to resolve obstructions of the coronary arteries.
It consists of a small tube to be inserted inside the blood vessel, be it an artery or a vein. It's a self-expanding device: yours purpose is to dilate the blood vessel which for some reason is blocked or restricted.
The aim is to make the blood vessel recover its normal diameter, so that the blood can flow unhindered. When the coronary arteries, the arteries that carry blood to the heart, are blocked, inserting the stent means ensuring the blood supply necessary for the heart to beat.
The first stents date back to the 1970s, but researchers have never stopped studying ways to improve its effectiveness and reduce possible complications. Let's see how they work.
After puberty, theuterus has:
- pear shape, upside down, with the bottom facing up
- slightly flattened walls
- a weight of about 50 grams.
Its size can vary greatly in relation to pregnancy. In women who have never been pregnant, the uterus measures 7-8 cm in length, about 4 cm in width and 2.5 cm in thickness.
After the first gestation, in which there is an obvious increase in size, the uterus acquires a larger size than in the pre-pregnancy condition.
There shape of the uterus she is different:
- in the prepubertal period, it has an elongated shape, in which the cervix is relatively longer than the uterine body
- postmenopausal, it has an elliptical shape.
In the uterine anatomy, the following can be distinguished:
- body, the upper and more expanded part, which contains the uterine cavity and which rests on the bladder
- neck or cervix, the lower part that opens into the vagina
- isthmus, the narrowing that divides the regions of the body and the cervix
- bottom, the upper part of the uterine cavity, in connection, at the corners, with the fallopian tubes.
The insertion of the vagina into the cervix is characterized by the presence of the fornixes and there are:
Compared to the vagina, normally:
- the cervix is tilted forward by about 90-100 °
- the further inclined body of the uterus creates a flexion of the uterus itself, with an angle of 120-170 °.
L'uterus with the previous inclination and flexion is described as antiverse-anti-inflection or antiverse flexion uterus.
There uterine wall it's composed by:
- endometrium, the inner layer, which lines the uterine cavity
- myometrium, the middle layer, consisting of smooth muscle tissue arranged as a single very long spiral-shaped fiber, to facilitate childbirth and the closure of the uterine arterial vessels at the end of menstruation.
- perimeter, the outermost layer of lining, which is however absent in the supravaginal region of the uterine cervix.
What is the tastevin?
Who knows how many times you have wondered, seeing a sommerlier serving wine, what that bizarre pendant he wore around his neck was.
The technical term for this metal bowl is tastevin or tate-vin.
The first "cup" to taste the wine of which we know dates back to more than three thousand years ago.
Already in ancient Pompeii we find frescoes in which there is an ancestral version of the modern tastevin.
It was in 17th-century France that this instrument began to spread as we know it today.
In medieval times the tastevin was used by cupbearers to pour wine to diners during the banquets of royal families. Given the frequent movements of the cupbearers on horseback, this object had to be as resistant as possible, and was in fact made of wood or metal, and also had to be small in size. In addition, it was an indispensable object for all those who worked in direct contact with wine, allowing you to better appreciate the color of the wine and also favoring its oxygenation.
What is it for
The function of the tastevin to taste and appreciate wine is now completely replaced by the more common and versatile tasting glass.
However, the tastevin had its why and was studied in terms of shape and materials to obtain maximum functionality.
This object is made of silver, a material capable of dissolving the sulfur dioxide contained in young white wines.
The tastevin can be of two types: Bordeaux and Burgundy. The Bordeaux has a flat handle, unlike the Burgundian which is also equipped with a ring, which favors the grip.
The most used model is certainly the Borgognone, which is also a symbol of the Italian Sommelier Association.
Circular in shape, with a diameter of about 8 cm and 2 cm deep, with a small handle placed on the side, to allow you to grip it.
Due to the characteristics indicated above, in most cases this object is made of silver or silver plate.
At the center of the tastevin there is a large bubble curvature, which must never be exceeded, and therefore indicates the level of wine. Around this curvature we find 8 concave spheres, useful for the visual examination of red wine, while symmetrically opposite we find 17 or 18 concavities, of elongated shape, used for the visual analysis of white wine.
The 14 bubbles in relief have the purpose of oxygenating the wine that is rotated in the best possible way, allowing a better taste-olfactory analysis.
The only contraindication concerns sparkling wines: with the tastevin, in fact, it is not possible to evaluate the perlage.
To evaluate a white, the tastevin is held with the left hand and the wine is poured with the right.
On the contrary, to examine a red wine, you pour the wine with your left and hold the finger rest with your right hand.
From now on, we know that you will look at this object with different eyes -)
How the seam ripper is made and what is it for
The buttonhole cutter it consists of two main parts: the handle and a forked metal part that ends on both sides with a tip.
Along the fork, in the hollow, there is a small one sharp blade the tips, different from each other, appear from one pointed part and on the other with a small one red sphere.
The hook allows you to remove single or group stitches. The pointed tip cuts single stitches the ball, on the other hand, allows you to remove a series of stitches quickly as the blade slides between the two parts of a seam.
Another feature is to open the buttonholes on different items of clothing: jackets, shirts and skirts.
Red ball on the seam ripper
Fiore - How it is made and what it is used for
In recent years, collagen has gained popularity as a nutritional supplement and ingredient in many cosmetics and body products, but not everyone knows that it is the most abundant protein in the body. It has very important roles, including providing structure to the connective tissue, which is present everywhere and forms the support of the skin and bones, muscles, tendons and ligaments. We find it especially in animal products, first of all the bone broth and chicken skin, but egg white is also useful, so some vegetables such as wheat germs, asparagus and mushrooms contain useful precursors. But beware that excess sugars hinder proper collagen repair.
Collagen accounts for about a third of the body's proteins, it is found further in the parts already mentioned in the blood vessels, corneas and teeth. You can think of it as a "glue" that holds all these things together. In fact, its name derives from the Greek and means just glue as in Italian.
There are many types of collagen. There are four main types, indicated with the Roman letters I, II, III and IV.
Type I: constitutes 90% of the body's collagen and is made up of very dense and linked fibers. It forms the framework for the skin, bones, tendons, fibrous cartilage, connective tissue and teeth.
Type II: is made of fibers bonded less tightly together and has a more elastic characteristic, and acts as a shock absorber in the joints.
Type III: Supports the structure of muscles, organs and arteries.
Type IV: This type constitutes the gelatinous matrix of the connectives which acts as a vehicle and filter for the exchange of nourishment and is found in the deep layer of the skin.
As we age, the collagen that is formed is of less and less good quality. This fact is easily seen in the skin, which becomes the visible mirror of the quality of the colleague. As we get older, the skin becomes less firm and elastic. The cartilage also weakens with age and takes its consistency.
In order to help collagen and keep it young, let's see how it is made and how it is formed. The basic unit of collagen is tropocollagen, consisting of three linear chains of procollagen wound together in a helix like hemp cords are formed. The linear chain is made up of two amino acids: glycine and proline alternated with a third amino acid of a different type depending on the types of collagen. Thanks to vitamin C, proline is modified into hydroxyproline which makes it possible to bridge bonds with other amino acids of the other chains so as to hold the three helices tight together as if to form a single rope. Then numerous tropocollagen filaments join together to form fibrils.
So to have good collagen you need to provide the body in large quantities: vitamin C, glycine and proline and copper, which are found in the following foods:
Vitamin C is found in large quantities in citrus fruits, peppers and strawberries.
Proline is found in good quantities in egg white, wheat germ, dairy products, cabbage, asparagus and mushrooms.
Glycine is found in quantities in pork, chicken and gelatin skin, but also in various protein foods.
Copper exists in good quantities in organ meats, sesame seeds, cocoa powder, cashews and lentils.
Additionally, your body needs high biological value proteins that contain the amino acids needed to make new proteins. Therefore excellent sources of natural amino acids are: meat, poultry, fish, legumes.
Then we must take into account all those situations and behaviors that damage collagen which are also very important, indeed avoiding harmful situations is perhaps more important than increasing the favorable ones.
The first harmful situation is the excess of refined sugars and carbohydrates that interfere with the ability of collagen to repair itself. Therefore, the consumption of added sugars and refined carbohydrates must be minimized (Danby FW, 2010). The second is excess tanning: ultraviolet radiation can reduce the production of collagen and must therefore be reduced (Bosch R, et al, 2015) The third is smoking which, with its toxic and oxidizing substances, reduces the production of collagen , impairs wound healing and lead to wrinkles (Knuutinen A et al, 2002). Then there are also some autoimmune diseases, such as lupus, which can also damage collagen.
There are also natural food sources of collagen that are found in the connective tissues of foods of animal origin. There are large quantities of them in chicken and pork skin, but a particularly rich source is bone broth, which is made by boiling the bones of chicken and other meat animals. There is also food gelatin which is basically cooked collagen, so it contains many of the amino acids needed to produce it. You are not sure whether consuming collagen-rich foods actually increases the levels in your body and there is some debate. In fact, the proteins taken do not directly raise the protein levels in the body, because they must be broken down into amino acids to be absorbed and then they must be recomposed into protein chains. However, providing the elements to make collagen is certainly useful even if not sufficient.
There are various types of supplements that are proposed to help collagen: hydrolyzed collagen and gelatin. Gelatin is created when collagen is cooked. Cooking breaks down large proteins into small peptides, which are more easily absorbed into the body.
There aren't many studies on collagen supplementation, but the ones that exist show positive effects in the following areas:
Increase in muscle mass: A 2015 study in elderly men showed that a combination of collagen peptide supplements and power training increased muscle mass and strength more than a placebo (Zdzieblik D et al, 2015).
Help in Arthritis: Another double-blind study provided collagen supplements for 70 days to people suffering from osteoarthritis. At the end of the study, a significant decrease in pain was noted, compared to those who took a placebo (Schauss AG et al, 2012).
Increased skin elasticity: in a 2014 study, women who took the supplement showed improvements in skin elasticity. Collagen is also used in topical treatments to improve the appearance of the skin by minimizing lines and wrinkles (Proksch E et al 2014).
Collagen has many uses, from food to medicine to industrial manufacturing. For thousands of years, it has been used to create glue. Today, it is still used to make strings for musical instruments. In the medical field, it is used as a filler in plastic and cosmetic surgery and as a remedy for severe burns.
There is the possibility of using collagen as a food since it exists in hydrolyzed powder form that can be mixed in smoothies, soups or baked goods without compromising their consistency.
A high-quality source is marine collagen, also called isinglass, used for desserts and cold appetizers. In the kitchen it is heated to make jelly and used to make sausage wrappers.
In conclusion, collagen is an important protein that provides the structure for many parts of the body. It is interesting to note that foods and nutrients that contain collagen, once taken, can help the body to enrich itself with this protein. Alternatively, collagen supplements that have been shown to be helpful can be used. In fact, some preliminary studies show that they can improve skin quality, muscle function and reduce pain associated with osteoarthritis.
Fundus: are there any risks associated with the examination?
Fundus examination is not a vision-threatening investigation. In some cases, albeit rarely, there may be adverse reactions to the eye drops used for pupil dilation.
How long does the effect of the drops for the Fundus Exam last?
The instillation of mydriatic eye drops causes a temporary blurring of vision. For this reason, it is good practice to foresee the fact that you will not be able to get back to driving for a few hours.
Who cannot undergo the Fundus Exam?
Fundus examination has no contraindications, but some caution should be exercised in patients with glaucoma or who have a shallow anterior chamber of the eye (space between the iris and cornea). In these circumstances, the fundus examination is performed without resorting to pupil dilation.