At the end of the season, gardeners put things in order on the site and lay the foundation for the next year's harvest: they sow greens and vegetables before winter. Sowing crops such as garlic and onions in the winter allows you to get greens rich in vitamins and other nutrients in spring two weeks earlier than when sowing in spring.
The method of growing onions with winter sowing is well known, but for novice gardeners it is important to know exactly when to sow and how to do it correctly.
When to plant onions in October 2020
The main task of winter sowing is so that the bulbs grow roots before the onset of frost, but do not have time to release the feather. It will take 2-3 weeks for rooting. Planting too early can lead to the death of onions from frost, therefore, in the northern regions, where winter comes early, onions are sown in September, in the middle lane - in October, and in Ukraine, Krasnodar Territory and the North Caucasus - from mid-October to mid-November ...
Wait for the air temperature to drop to 10-12 ⁰C and hold at this level for several days, choose a dry, fine day and start sowing onions.
The lunar calendar marks auspicious days for sowing this culture in October: 4, 5, 9, 10, 18, 21-23, 26 and 27. However, winter onions, like winter garlic, are best sown on the waning moon, during the period from the Full Moon to the new moon, that is, between October 2 and 15.
It is not recommended to sow on the days of the Full Moon (October 2 and 31) and New Moon (October 15-17).
Recommendations for planting winter onions
Under winter sowing, all varieties of yellow and many varieties of red onions are grown. As a rule, these are salad varieties that are not stored for a long time.
The best predecessors for winter onions are:
- green manure crops.
Never sow onions after onions, garlic and root vegetables.
The plot for the onion bed should be dry and sunny: a feather grows well in a shady place, but the bulbs are tied small, and in too wet soil they often get wet. The garden bed should be illuminated by the sun all day. The best place for bows is where the snow melts first in spring.
Prepare a bed for onions 2 weeks before planting. The dense soil is dug to a depth of one and a half bayonets of a shovel with sand (1-2 buckets per 1 m²), clay is introduced into the sandy soil to retain moisture. If the soil on the site is acidic, it must be limed with chalk, ash or lime. Well-rotted manure is added to the poor soil at the rate of 1 bucket per 1 m², as well as 20 g of superphosphate and chlorine-free potassium fertilizer for the same unit of area.
Preparation of planting material
Before winter, oatmeal is usually sown - onions up to 1 cm in diameter, since a large sevok is shooted in the spring.
To destroy the eggs of pests, 2 weeks before planting, soak the oatmeal for 3-4 hours in water at a temperature of 45-40 ⁰C, and then pickle the set for half an hour in a solution of Fitosporin-M or Maxim. If you decide to use a potassium permanganate solution for etching, then you need to keep the planting material in it for about an hour.
Winter planting of onions
If you grow onions on a turnip, plant the sets in a row every 10 cm.The distance between the rows should be 20-25 cm.If you mainly need greens, then you can sow more densely: with an interval between the bulbs of 2-3 cm with a row spacing of 8 -10 cm.
Make grooves 5-6 cm deep in the wet ground, pour a layer of sand 2-3 cm thick on the bottom for drainage, spread the wild oat in the grooves, sprinkle it with sand and seal the grooves with earth. If the fall is dry, water the planting. After 2 weeks, mulch the surface of the bed with hay, dry leaves or spruce branches. The thickness of the mulch layer depends on how frosty your winters are. In the southern regions, mulching can be dispensed with.
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Winter onion varieties
For each region, it is advisable to select certain winter onion varieties that are resistant to cold. Such species calmly tolerate temperatures down to -15 degrees, and covered and under a cap of snow can withstand even more severe frosts. These include onion sets grown for a turnip, nigella - black seeds of any kind of vegetable, Ashkelon onions (shallots). Experienced farmers often use onion for planting on a feather for winter planting.
Choosing from the varieties suitable for this, it is worth highlighting:
- a spicy and large Senshui vegetable that can be stored for a long time
- small, long-term stored Danilovsky onion
- Pungent Sturon
- small, spicy Arzamas onion
- Stuttgareter Riesen - medium bulb crop
- sharp bow Radar and Red Baron
- large with moderate pungent taste Shakespeare
- long-term storage onions with a sweetish taste - Ellan
- small grade Strigunovsky.
The listed types of vegetables have good keeping quality and sharpness, and differ only in size.
Regarding the nigella, the soil is not so important for the seeds, and it is allowed to sow it even with autumn frosts. What not to do is use the varieties used in the southern regions in cold areas. The well-known leeks are also not planted before winter.
The influence of the lunar cycle on onion planting
Of course, many factors affect the growth of onions, like other plants. An important place among them is occupied by the phase of the moon and its position relative to the zodiacal constellations. Onions are grown to produce underground bulbs, and green shoots, which in different species and varieties can be used as a salad or fragrant greenery. Accordingly, completely different days will often be favorable for the growth of the aboveground and underground parts of the vegetable crop.
- On the waning moon, onions should be sown or planted to form a bulb.
- On the growing moon, on the contrary, plant a plant for its upper aboveground part.
- Neither full moon nor new moon, as well as the day before and after them, should not be engaged in planting onions, and other vegetables too.
- According to verified data, conventionally, all signs of the zodiac are divided according to how they affect plants. The fertile constellations include Pisces, Taurus, Cancer and Scorpio.
- The constellations Gemini, Virgo and Sagittarius have long been ranked as infertile. The action of the rest is neutral or only affects certain cultures.
- For onions on greens, you need to wait until the Moon moves through Pisces, Cancer and Scorpio. To grow a vegetable per bulb, use the time when the Moon passes through the constellations Taurus, Virgo, Capricorn.
Onion Care Turbo
Onion Turbo does not need any special care. Basic rules of agricultural technology:
- Moderate watering - the soil surface should have time to dry out. In drought, watering should be increased (at least once a week). Three weeks before harvesting, they stop giving water, even if there is no rain.
- After each watering or heavy rain, the soil must be loosened. This will ensure that the roots receive enough oxygen.
- It is enough to apply top dressing twice a season. When the feathers grow up to 10 cm, they give organic matter (mullein, humates), and after another three weeks - complex fertilizer (30-40 g per 10 l of water per 1 m 2 plantings).
- Weed grass will appear in two weeks - from that moment on, they do regular weeding. To keep weeds as small as possible, plantings are mulched with straw, grass cuttings or sawdust.
- If necessary, onions are treated against fungal infections and pests.
Winter onion varieties for planting
Not all onion varieties are suitable for planting before winter, although local zoned varieties, as well as grown from seeds (nigella), are usually perfectly adapted to winter sowing.
However, it is still worth paying attention to the following proven varieties of winter onions:
- Stuttgarter Riesen (spicy taste, excellent storage, smallish)
- Shakespeare (not so spicy, stored a little worse, but the bulbs are larger)
- Senshui (spicy, large, for long-term storage)
- Arzamas (spicy, good lying, smallish)
- Bessonovsky (local)
- Danilovsky (spicy, well kept, too small)
- Radar or Raider (pointed, well kept)
- Red Baron (island, for long-term storage)
- Strigunovsky (spicy and excellent storage, but a bit small)
- Sturon (spicy, excellent storage)
- Ellan (sweet taste, well kept).
Note! For autumn sowing in northern regions, southern (thermophilic) varieties are definitely not suitable and vice versa.