Sweet cherry is always good: despite the fact that it is considered one of the early fruits, its taste will never get bored, and therefore late varieties are also in demand. One of them, created specifically for the middle lane, is Bryanskaya pink. Due to its unpretentiousness, this variety has gained great popularity among amateur gardeners.
Description of Bryansk pink cherry
Gone are the days when cherries in the middle zone of our country were considered an exotic fruit. For several decades now, both very early and, conversely, late varieties of this beloved delicacy have been grown here.
Origin, region of cultivation
When you hear that a cherry variety was bred at the lupine institute, at first you are a little surprised. But it was there, in the All-Union Research Institute of Lupine, which is located in Bryansk, that not only several wonderful varieties of this fruit were born, but also new cherries, currants ... The fruit-growing department has long been conducting selection work in the field of fruit trees and berry bushes.
Sweet cherry Bryanskaya rosovaya was bred on the basis of the Muscatnaya black variety by employees of the Institute M.V. Kanshina and A.I. Astakhov about 30 years ago. The variety was sent for state trials in 1987, and since 1993 it has received an official place in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation. Recommended for the Central region and, in particular, the Bryansk region.
The climate of the Bryansk region is relatively mild, similar to that in the south of the Moscow region, in other areas of the south of Central Russia. The weather is about the same in the north of Ukraine and the south of Belarus. In all these areas, Bryanskaya rozovaya feels great and is popular with gardeners.
Description of the plant
Bryansk pink sweet cherry tree of medium height (no more than 3 meters), has a wide-pyramidal crown, medium thickening. Shoots are smooth, almost without bends, brown. The branches of the 1st order are directed upwards at small angles. The leaves are large, usually green in color. Cold resistance is very high. This applies to both the tree itself, which almost does not freeze in severe frosts, and flower buds, which can withstand slight frosts, often during the flowering period.
Bryansk pink grows in a lightly thickened tree, which helps to air the crown and reduces the risk of fungal diseases
The variety tolerates prolonged drought normally, which, fortunately, is not very common in Central Russia. It is characterized by increased resistance to most fungal diseases and fruit rot, but requires protection from a complex of pests: cherry flies, aphids and leafworms... Forms fruits both on bouquet branches and on young shoots.
Flowering and fruiting times
Sweet cherry Bryanskaya pink is considered a very late ripening variety. It blooms from mid-May, for the first time - in the fifth year after planting the seedling. In the inflorescence there are usually 3 rather small pure white saucer-shaped flowers. The variety is self-fertile: without the presence of pollinators planted nearby, only single fruits are formed on the tree.
The optimal distance to neighboring cherry trees is about 4 meters, it can be almost any varieties bred in the Bryansk region, for example, Tyutchevka, Ovstuzhenka, Iput.
Fruits ripen not earlier than the last days of July, the massive harvest is in August. Average yield: about 20 kg of fruit is harvested from an adult tree, the registered maximum is 30 kg... To increase the duration of storage of fruits, they are removed with stalks, which are of medium length, they are torn off both from the branches and from the pulp easily, without loss of juice. If the cherry is not overripe, it can be stored in a refrigerator for up to 10-15 days.
The cherry fruits of the considered variety are round, with a diameter of about 2 cm, weighing about 5 g. The skin is dense, has a pink color of various shades, there are specks. The pulp is juicy, light yellow in color. The juice is practically not colored. The stone is small, it is not quite easy to separate from the pulp. The taste is sweet, it is considered good, the tasters give the fresh fruit a score of 4.1 points.
The color of the fruits, of course, is not for everybody, but they look quite original
Fruits on branches do not crack in normal weather, they have good transportability. The purpose of the fruits is universal: they are good both fresh and for various processing options: for jam, compotes, making juice. They tolerate freezing well.
Advantages and disadvantages
For almost three decades of its existence, the variety has managed to clearly show its positive and negative sides; in general, it is characterized very highly. Among the main advantages, experts and amateurs name:
- compactness of the tree;
- resistance to adverse conditions, ease of maintenance;
- lack of cracking of fruits and their good transportability;
- high disease resistance;
- good taste of the fruit.
As disadvantages are most often noted:
- the need to plant pollinators;
- insufficiently large fruits;
- presence, in some seasons, in the taste of a bitter hue.
Planting cherry varieties Bryanskaya pink
When planting sweet cherries of the Bryanskaya pink variety, one should take into account its varietal characteristics, in particular, late fruiting. Therefore, it is necessary to choose areas where in the second half of summer the illumination will not decrease due to the presence of any plants shading the sweet cherry. Otherwise, the planting of this sweet cherry does not differ significantly from other varieties.
As you know, stone fruits are generally not advised to be planted in autumn, at least this applies to the middle lane. True, recently, seedlings are often sold in containers (with a closed root system); it is believed that they can be planted at almost any time. Nevertheless, in the case of cherries, it is better not to risk such seedlings either: the tree should meet the onset of winter, having already fully mastered in a new place.
Therefore, regarding the timing of planting, we can say definitely: Bryansk pink should be planted only in spring. The specific dates depend on the weather: the soil on the site should completely thaw, serious frosts should be avoided, but the buds on the seedling should be at rest or - at most - just swell. Most often, in the Central region, this situation develops in the first half of April. But, of course, all preparatory work should be carried out in the fall. If you had to purchase a seedling in the fall, it must be properly dug in the garden until spring.
When choosing a place for planting cherries, it must be borne in mind that fruits will be able to fully reveal their bouquet only in full sunlight. Therefore, there should not be tall trees or a huge house standing nearby. But small fences or small buildings are a blessing, since the second requirement for location is protection from winds, especially from the north.
The best option for a landing site is a gentle southern slope, by no means a lowland or swampy area. If there is no way out, and the groundwater is close, you can build an artificial hill - a mound up to 50-70 cm high. The optimal soil for cherries is neutral sandy loam or loam with good air permeability and high nutrient content. About 3 meters are left to the neighboring trees; with mass planting, wide passages are made between the rows - up to 5 meters.
So that the trees are well illuminated by the sun, they try to plant them freely and in an open place.
Since the pit must be prepared in advance (so that a biological balance can be established in it), and it is impossible to work with the soil in early spring, it is dug in the fall. Even earlier, if necessary, they dig up the entire site: this is done if it is overgrown with weeds, undergrowth of trees and shrubs, etc. All rhizomes must be carefully removed, and the infertile soil must be fertilized at the same time: when digging, a bucket of humus is introduced for 1 m2.
The depth of the pit for the Bryansk pink sweet cherry is 50–60 cm, the length and width are 70–80 cm. The lower layer (20–25 cm) is thrown away, and the top, fertile one, is well mixed with fertilizers and returned back. As fertilizers, they take up to 2 buckets of humus, a couple of liters of wood ash, and on poor soils, about 100 g of superphosphate are also taken. In the case of clay soil, it is refined if possible: a little sand, peat is added, and the hole is dug deeper and a drainage layer is arranged at the bottom (10-15 cm of crushed stone or broken brick).
Usually, there is clay in the lower tiers, so it is immediately folded into a separate pile, so that later it can be removed from the site.
A landing stake up to a meter high above ground level can be driven in immediately, or you can wait until spring. It is not necessary to water the contents of the pit for the winter, but if the autumn is very dry, you can pour out a couple of buckets of water so that the nutrients quickly pass into the soil, and the microorganisms, without hesitation, set to work.
When buying a seedling, it is better to choose a two-year-old and carefully look at the condition of the roots so that they are developed and not overdried. Arriving with him in the spring at the site, proceed as follows.
- If there is damage to the roots, they are pruned to a healthy place, after which the seedling is placed in water for several hours. If there is no large capacity, at least the roots should be soaked, and before planting they are dipped in a clay chatterbox.
Clay talker is a wonderful invention that allows seedlings to take root faster
- Having taken out a part of the soil from the pit, a seedling is placed in it so that the roots fit freely and without tension. Distribute them evenly over the surface, previously, if not done earlier, by driving in a stake for a garter. Raise or lower the seedling so that the root collar protrudes several centimeters to the surface.
When planting, it is important to monitor the root collar so that at the end of the procedure it is not covered with earth.
- Gradually, the removed soil is poured into the pit so that it is evenly distributed between the roots, without forming voids. Periodically, the soil is compacted with your hand, and at the end of the procedure, with your foot. Loosely but firmly tie the stem to the stake with a soft rope.
It is best to use the eight technique when tying.
- 2-3 buckets of water are poured under the seedling, after which the surface is restored, adding soil, and a roller is formed along the edges of the planting pit.
If water is absorbed quickly, the amount should be increased.
- The trunk circle is mulched with peat, humus or dry soil with a layer of 4–5 cm.
When mulching the trunk circle, you need to step back a little from the trunk
- If the seedling is large, the first pruning is carried out: with a total height of up to 1 meter, the side branches should not be more than 50 cm long.
Even a one-year-old is recommended to be slightly shortened when planting, and in the next few years, pruning is important.
After the seedling takes root, caring for it is practically no different from caring for cherry trees of other varieties: it is even, perhaps, easier than in most cases. So, any sweet cherry requires systematic watering, but Bryansk pink has increased drought resistance, therefore, temporary drying of the soil in the near-trunk circle is not very scary for it. In general, trees need moderate watering all the time, especially in the first half of summer.
Usually, in normal weather, a monthly watering of 6–7 buckets of water per tree is sufficient, but in dry weather, watering may be required weekly, especially when the fruit is being poured. Watering is reduced 2-3 weeks before harvest, rarely watering in the fall, when excessive humidity can prevent the tree from preparing for winter. But podzimny generous watering of cherries is necessary.
Several years after planting, the tree is bypassed with fertilizers introduced into the pit, and then it needs to be fed.
Usually, cherries are not given organic matter, mainly mineral fertilizers are used.
So, in early spring, to stimulate the growth of young shoots, 100–120 g (for mature trees up to 200 g) of urea is scattered in the near-stem circle, embedding it shallowly into the soil. After harvesting in the same way, cherries are fertilized with phosphorus (200-300 g of superphosphate) and potassium (50-100 g of any potassium fertilizer). After top dressing, if the weather is dry, be sure to water and then loosen the soil to remove weeds.
Cherry is pruned very carefully. If in the first few years pruning performs the functions of forming a crown, then after entering fruiting, only sanitary procedures are performed (broken and dried branches are cut out). Since the variety is not prone to thickening the crown, brightening pruning is usually not required, but if intersecting branches that rub against each other grow inward, this situation is corrected by cutting out into a ring or shortening one of them. After pruning, even the smallest wounds are covered with garden pitch.
Since Bryanskaya rosea is not afraid of ordinary frosts, preparing a tree for winter is not difficult. After the leaves fall, the foliage is raked (burned or sent to the compost pit), and the trunk circle is shallowly dug up and mulched with a thin layer of any loose material. Before the onset of frost, the cherries are well watered and the trunk and bases of the main branches are whitened, thus protecting them from sunburn in February and March. It is advisable to protect the trunk from hares by tying it with coniferous spruce branches or roofing felt (for young trees - with nylon tights). As the snow falls, it is thrown into the trunk circle.
The whitewashing of trees should be carried out just before winter: from the spring whitewashing is only beauty
Diseases and pests, protection against them
The Bryanskaya rozovaya variety is characterized by high resistance to coccomycosis, a dangerous fungal disease. Other diseases can threaten the plant to one degree or another. The most common are moniliosis and clasterosporiosis.
With moniliosis, the shoots first darken, then wither, and grayish growths form on the fruits, spreading at a high speed. Both prevention and treatment are carried out by spraying with 1% Bordeaux liquid (before and after flowering, and immediately upon detection of a disease). Severely affected branches are cut and burned. With clotterosporia, brownish specks are formed on the leaves first, and then small holes in their place. In the spring, this disease is also treated with a Bordeaux mixture (before bud break, 3% is possible), and in the summer, other drugs are used: usually Skor or Horus, according to the instructions on the package.
Moniliosis (fruit rot) is a disease in which not only crops die, but trees also suffer
The most typical pests of Bryansk pink sweet cherry:
- leafworm (caterpillars first harm buds and buds, and then move to leaves and fruits);
- cherry fly (white larvae spoil fruits, which crumble and rot);
- cherry aphid (sucks juices from young leaves and shoots).
It is easy to fight against aphids as long as it is not enough. She is afraid of soapy water, infusions of ash, tansy, onion scales, etc. A cherry fly can be destroyed using baits (jars of kvass or compote). But with a significant number of any pests, it is difficult to do without chemical insecticides.
The cherry fly is that insect, due to the larvae of which the fruits are wormy
Since Bryanskaya rosa ripens very late, the use of chemicals until the end of June is often justified, but the most harmless to people must be chosen. However, gardeners often use Fufanon or Actellik, respectively, belonging to the 3rd and 2nd hazard classes, even without the use of personal protective equipment. This is strictly prohibited: it is imperative to wear a respirator and protective clothing and observe basic safety measures. And before buying the drug, you should study the instructions in detail, including recommendations on how many days before harvesting the fruit, you can use it.
Sweet cherry Bryansk pink ripens very late, when there are already other fruits in the garden. However, it is often found in hobby gardens due to its simplicity in cultivation and the good taste of the fruit. The variety, known for a long time, found its admirers in the Central region and areas with a similar climate.
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Sweet cherry Bryansk pink
Sweet cherry Bryansk pink obtained at the All-Russian Research Institute of Lupine. Its authors were M.V. Kanshin and A.I. Astakhov. The variety was obtained by selecting seedlings of Black Muscat. Since 1993, information about the variety has been entered into the state register.
- Photo and description of the variety of sweet cherries Bryanskaya pink
- Adult tree height
- Flowering and ripening period
- Drought tolerance
- Frost resistance
- How to plant Bryansk pink cherries
- How to choose a seedling
- Landing time and scheme
- Pit preparation
- Cherry care Bryansk pink
- Top dressing and watering
- Weeding and loosening
- Crown formation
- Pollinators of sweet cherry Bryansk pink
- Diseases and pests of sweet cherry Bryansk pink
- Cherry processing Bryansk pink in spring
- Preparing for winter cherries Bryansk pink
- Sweet cherry Bryansk yellow
- Reviews of summer residents about Bryansk pink cherry
Proper care of cherries
Even if the planting of a seedling was carried out according to all technologies, this still does not guarantee the appearance of a crop. The quantity and quality of the formed cherry fruits is directly influenced by the care of the plant.
Principles of cherry formation and pruning
Immediately after planting the tree, you must cut off its top at a height of 60-70 centimeters.
As for the general principles of the formation of cherries, they are as follows:
- Immediately after the first buds appear, all dead leaves and branches must be removed from the tree.
- At the onset of summer, it is necessary to pinch the tops of the shoots that have reached a length of 50-60 centimeters. Due to the pinching, a significant acceleration of the ripening of the shoots is observed.
- After the tree reaches a height of 2-2.5 meters, it is required to cut the upper vertical shoot, placed above the weak side branch.
If there is such a possibility, it is not worth shortening the adult branches of the sweet cherry, since it is at their ends that the main number of flower buds is formed.
Cherries have a negative attitude towards raw environment, therefore, even in a dry summer, two watering a day is enough for her:
- immediately after flowering
- after harvesting the fruit.
For watering one cherry tree, 3-6 buckets of water will be enough.
As for watering the seedlings, it takes a little more effort - watering is carried out 1-2 times a month in the volume of two buckets of water.
It is strictly forbidden to overfeed cherries! With an excessive nitrogen content, the shoots do not have time to ripen by the onset of winter.
If the soil on which the tree grows is rather poor, then in the spring the plant can be fed with rotted compost or a number of special complex preparations.
The majority of the owners of this cherry variety are satisfied, since this plant not only does not require constant care, but also pleases with rather tasty fruits.
Below are a few reviews from cherry owners.
Such cherries have been growing in my yard for 10 years, while the taste of the fruit does not deteriorate, and the amount of the harvest does not decrease. The only drawback is that woodpeckers constantly attack it (we live not far from the forest), so if you don't drive them away in time, you can be left without berries.
Initially, she was afraid to plant cherries due to the fact that they are sterile. But I decided and chose Iput as a pollinator, which also pleases me with its taste properties. Due to the close location of these trees, there are never any problems with pollination of the Bryansk cherries.
I really like the taste of Bryansk cherries, but there is so much trouble with it that, most likely, I will refuse this tree. Not only does a pollinator tree need to be planted next to it, but it also constantly suffers from fungal diseases. Already tired of treating.