A very popular garden culture of grapes, grown in the middle latitudes, as well as in the southern regions, needs special preparation for wintering, as well as proper shelter. If you do not know the basic rules, then next year you may not only lose the grape harvest or get sick bushes after wintering, but also completely ruin the plants. Below we will talk about both the basic rules for preparing bushes for winter, and about the mistakes often made by novice winegrowers.
Preparing grapes for wintering
What time do they hide
If winters in your area are mild and warm, then the grapes will be able to overwinter without shelter. But in the Volga region, in the Urals and in the middle latitudes, it is imperative to cover it. The hiding time of grapes is influenced by both the peculiarities of the climatic conditions in the region and the weather in the current autumn. There are several indicators that are recommended to be guided by:
- The bushes are not afraid of frosts down to minus 15 degrees. But if it is colder than minus 20 degrees outside, then not a single living eye will remain on the vine.
- The root system of this plant is less resistant to frost than the eyes and stems. With prolonged freezing of the soil to minus 6 degrees, the fibrous parts are severely injured at the roots, and they can no longer fully recover. As a result, this leads to the death of the plant.
That is why in regions with severe frosts (below minus 15-20 degrees) in winter, the bushes are covered without fail. If the winters are rather mild (frosts not lower than minus 15 degrees), then the grapes can do without shelter, but it is still better to cover the surface of the root area with a thick layer of mulch.
Basic rules for preparing for winter
When the crop is harvested, the bushes should be trimmed for sanitary purposes. All the same, diseased or damaged stems will have to be cut, if not in the fall, then in the spring. In addition, if you do not prune in the fall, then healthy shoots may suffer in winter. You will also need to cut out all the young shoots that did not have time to ripen, since they will still die in the winter.
Cut bushes must be treated as a preventive measure against various diseases. As a rule, a solution of iron or copper sulfate (3-5%) is used for this. For the processing of grapes, a calm, fine day is chosen, while it should not be colder than 5 degrees, otherwise there will be no proper effect from spraying the bushes with pesticides.
After pruning and processing, the bushes are fed with a nutrient mixture consisting of wood ash and potassium sulfate. Remember, this does not have to be the only top dressing for the grapes. They are held regularly throughout the season. Please note that chlorine-containing fertilizers are not suitable for such a plant.
Clear the area of all plant residues that can be sent to the compost pit, burned or disposed of in another convenient way.
HOW TO HIDE GRAPES IN THE WINTER! VERY GOOD WAY !!!
Shelter for grapes
There are three methods of protecting grapes from frost, depending on the climatic characteristics of your region: full cover, partial cover and hilling.
As a rule, grape varieties with low frost resistance, which are cultivated in southern regions with mild winters, are hilled. This helps to protect them from light frost. There is nothing difficult in hilling bushes: first they are cut off, then preventive treatment is carried out, they are fed, and only then a special earthen embankment is made around the plant, the height of which can vary from 10 to 25 centimeters. A similar mound must be made near each bush. After that, it must be carefully spilled with water, trying not to destroy it.
Also, young seedlings that were planted in the soil in the current season are subjected to hilling. The bushes are gently bent to the soil surface, securely fix them in this position. Then an earthen mound is poured onto the base of each bush, the height of which should be about 20 centimeters.
To huddle grapes, you need a lot of soil. It is recommended to take it from the grooves that are made in the aisles, and at least one and a half to two meters should be retreated from the bushes. Otherwise, you risk exposing or injuring the plant's root system. When the snow begins to melt in spring, water will drain into these grooves, which will save the root system from moisture stagnation.
If in mid-latitudes weather forecasters promise not too frosty winter, then you can resort to partial shelter of the vineyard. In this case, only sleeves, trunks and the base of fruiting stems should be sheltered from frost. As a result, all the lower parts of the bush must be protected from freezing. For shelter, a non-woven material is used, which is wrapped around the trunk and shoots. Please note that the covering layer must be at least 40 millimeters thick. This method is good because it is easy and simple, but if a severe frost suddenly hits, the bushes may suffer and even die.
Full cover of the vineyard will help protect the plants from the worst frost. An air-dry shelter method is used. After sanitary pruning, preventive treatment and feeding, the bushes are removed from the trellises and placed on the surface of the soil, which must be covered with mulch before this (flying leaves, boards, sawdust, spruce branches or other suitable material for this) so that the grapes do not come into contact with the soil surface ... The thickness of the mulch layer can vary from 20 to 40 millimeters (depending on the strength of the frost in the region).
After the lashes are laid on the surface of the soil, they are fixed in this position, and then they are thrown with a thick layer of thin brushwood, straw or spruce branches. Take a non-woven material (lutrasil, spunbond, agrospan, or plastic wrap) and cover the top of the grapes with it. Along the edges, the covering material is securely fixed with bricks or heavy stones, otherwise it can be disrupted by a gust of wind. If the vineyard is covered with a film, then additionally a layer of soil should be poured on top of it. A layer of snow that has fallen in winter will help protect plants from freezing.
Gardeners who have only recently started cultivating grapes, often preparing it for wintering, make various mistakes that can lead to sad consequences. The most common mistakes are:
- too much soil is poured over the shelter;
- without hilling the bottom of the trunk, they immediately begin to shelter the bushes for the winter;
- make a very thin layer of mulch, on which the vine removed from the trellis is then laid;
- they select a shelter method that is not suitable for a specific grape variety;
- too delayed with the shelter of the bushes;
- cover the plants without cutting, feeding or treating them with fungicidal preparations;
- during hilling, soil is taken near the trunk, which contributes to the exposure of the root system.
Due to such errors, the grapes can get sick, the root system or eyes can die, as a result the gardener will receive a meager harvest or there will be no fruit at all. And young seedlings, incorrectly sheltered for the winter, often die.
THE BEST WAY TO HIDE GRAPES FOR WINTER
Preparing grapes for winter - shelter and care
Cultivating plants that bring us nutritious and tasty fruits, one cannot but know at least the main points about their biology, needs, basic rules of care.
If some require attention to themselves only in the spring-autumn period of the year, then there are species, caring for which in the coldest period of the year is no less important.
Today we will consider what is the preparation of grapes for winter, we will talk about the main points of this issue.
And for those who realized too late, and the plant suffered, we will help to restore it. Therefore, do not rush to get rid of your vine, maybe all is not lost yet.
When to cover grapes for the winter how to choose the time
The timing of the shelter of the grapes for the winter plays an important role in the safety of the shrub.
If the work is carried out too early, then the bush will begin to grow out due to the formation of condensation, that is, it will become covered with mold. If you delay the procedure, then there is a risk of freezing of the root system and the death of the grapes.
It is necessary to cover the grapes until the temperature drops to -5 degrees. It is at these values that the root system of the plant begins to freeze.
The only exceptions are resistant varieties that can withstand cold temperatures down to -25 degrees.
In this case, it is desirable that the grapes "hit" a light frost. But you should not expose the shoots to extreme cold.
IMPORTANT! This rule is true only for mature bushes. Young plants may not be able to withstand even light frost.
Before proceeding with pruning vines, it is advisable to make sure that there is a set of suitable tools for this. They will help you carry out the procedure as quickly as possible. and efficiently, which will simplify the task of the gardener:
- Garden hacksaw. This tool, similar to a rounded regular saw, is typically used for rejuvenating pruning of mature shoots that are too thick to be easily cut off with a pruner.
- Pruner. One of the main tools in the gardener's arsenal, which allows you to easily cut thin branches and shoots. The main advantage of the pruner is the ability to leave even, smooth cuts, due to which the plant is less injured.
The method of sheltering grapes for the winter depends on various factors.
In this case, the variety of culture and the weather conditions of the region are of the greatest importance. But even for the same conditions, you can use different covering materials, it all depends on the observance of the technology of the shelter.
VIDEO: HOW TO HIDE GRAPES FOR THE WINTER! VERY GOOD WAY.
HOW TO HIDE GRAPES IN THE WINTER! VERY GOOD WAY.
How to properly cover grapes for the winter: measures and methods of shelter in the middle lane, Siberia, the Urals | (Photo & Video)
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