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Who does not have this wonderful berry in the garden or in the garden. Raspberry is a tasty and healthy berry, characterized by medicinal properties, is grown on trellises (wooden supports between which a wire is stretched or a rail is nailed).
Breeders highlight four types of raspberries:
- Common raspberry.
Standard (tree) raspberry appeared at the end of the twentieth century in Russia. The first Tarusa variety was registered in 1993. This type of raspberry has become popular and in demand among gardeners.
Characteristics of standard raspberries
Standard raspberry is popularly called the raspberry tree, has a thickened strong stem, which allows you to grow it without the use of trellises.
The raspberry tree grows to a height of 2 meters and, with proper care, looks like a young tree with several shoots.
On each side shoot, shoots are formed, on which berries of a round or elongated shape grow, weighing from 4-5 g to 12-18 g, depending on the variety.
Where can you buy these cuttings
In nurseries, fruit and berry stations, and specialized farmswhere seedlings of zoned varieties of fruit and berry crops are grown.
It should not be taken from random sellers, since an ignorant person does not distinguish between raspberry varieties.
Preparing the soil for planting seedlings
Raspberries can be planted in spring and autumn.... When planting planting material in the fall, the place is prepared two months before planting and it is advisable to plant either legumes, or mustard, or alfalfa on this site.
Herbs will enrich the soil with organic matter, and legumes with nitrogen and other microelements.
The place should be chosen sunny, where the occurrence of groundwater is below 1.5 m in the ground so that the roots do not rot.
Raspberries need watering at the time when they are blooming and when the fruits are tied.
When choosing a planting time in spring, the place is prepared in autumn... In the spring, the seedlings must be planted before the buds open, and in the fall, the time is calculated so that the plants can harden before the frost begins.
When planting raspberries in the fall, they spud 12-15 centimeters, close the lower buds so that they do not freeze.
Plants are planted in two ways:
- By the belt method, a trench is prepared in advance and organic and mineral fertilizers are introduced into it.
- Kustov, pits are made at a distance of 50-70 cm from each other.
The distance between the rows is left 1.5 - 2.0 m for the cultivator to plow the row spacings, and each bush will receive more light.
Fertilizers are applied in a trench or in holes for planting and covered with a layer of earth.
The roots of the seedlings are cut, are freed from the damaged ones, then they are lowered into a chatterbox (infusion of mullein or chicken droppings filled with clay) and straightened on the ground.
The plant is covered with prepared earth and mulched around with finely chopped manure straw.
Standard raspberries, like ordinary raspberries, are unpretentious plants, but if the purpose of planting was to obtain a large harvest, then caring for raspberry bushes is certainly necessary.
After planting, two weeks later, the bushes will already harden, and the formation of the bush will begin. The tip of the shoot is pinched (trimmed by 10-15 cm). After that, the lateral buds wake up and by the fall a bush of several shoots is formed.
In the fall, all fruiting shoots are cut out and young are left. They are pruned in the spring in the same way as the first ones, and the branching of the secondary branches takes place. Such a bush can produce from 4 to 12 kg of berries.
After trimming it is necessary to treat the bushes with Bordeaux liquid... Although the standard raspberry varieties are resistant to diseases, prevention will not harm, remove last year's foliage, plow row spacings and mulch the soil around the plants with humus.
Weeding loosens the soil and keeps it from overheating.
Watering, with dry spring, is carried out once a week, 10 liters for each bush. During flowering and fruiting, plants are demanding for watering, otherwise the raspberry drops the ovary and the resulting berries dry out.
At the time of the formation of ovaries, a second feeding is carried out, with organic and inorganic fertilizers.
In the fall, the second treatment of plants from pests is carried out... After such care, raspberries will delight you with an excellent harvest, large, juicy with a pleasant smell, berries.
Advantages and disadvantages of raspberry tree varieties
Saplings resembling young trees have the qualities:
- Disease resistance.
- Frost resistance, tolerate frosts down to -30, but short-term.
- They also bear fruit at an air temperature of +30 in the shade, retaining all the taste qualities of the berries, while they need abundant watering.
- They are distinguished by high productivity.
- The stems differ from ordinary raspberries in that there are no thorns on them, it is easy and pleasant to pick the berry.
- The berries are large from 4 cm to 18-20 cm and are well separated from the stalk.
- They do not require a garter, which greatly simplifies the care of raspberry bushes of standard varieties.
Raspberry trees give 10-12 branches of replacement per season and do not creep over the site, which makes it easier to agricultural technology in areas with standard raspberry varieties.
Raspberry tree seedlings are relatively expensive, this is due to the fact that standard raspberry varieties are difficult to propagate, since they give few replacement shoots.
And the standard raspberry varieties have remontability, they begin to bear fruit in late July, early June, because of this, in central Russia, in Siberia, there is always a chance not to get a third of the harvest, the berries will not have time to ripen and fall under frost.
To varieties of non-renovated raspberries, which bears fruit from June to July in central Russia and in the south:
- Galaxy, etc.
To remontant varieties raspberry trees include varieties that bear fruit from July to the very frost, these are:
- Eurasia, etc.
Description of varieties of tree raspberries
Tarusa is the first domestic variety of standard raspberries... It is most common among gardeners. The berries of this variety are large, conical, elongated, 4 - 12 g. By weight, they have a bright red color with a pleasant smell.
The variety does not require pruning after the formation of the crown of the seedling, the roots do not spread over the site. The trees are resistant to diseases and have a high yield.
This variety can be grown practically throughout Russia., although it is characterized by less frost resistance and requires bending the bushes to the ground and covering them with snow.
The berries are large up to 10 cm, very tasty, aromatic. The strong man bears fruit steadily regardless of fluctuations in external conditions. Gives many replacement stems, prone to overgrowth.
This variety reproduces well by cuttings. High-yielding, up to 4 kg of berries are obtained from the bush.
The disadvantages of the variety include its poor response to strong temperature changes, rather low adaptive qualities.
The variety is frost-resistant, immune to diseases, and high yielding. Up to 12 kg of berries are harvested from the bush, they tolerate transportation well, do not crumple.
Penguin and Eurasia
Penguin and Eurasia cultivars are annual cultivars.... After fruiting, their shoots are cut almost to the ground. In this way, these varieties are preserved in winter and in spring they give new shoots from the root.
They have large berries that bear fruit from late July to September, tasty and aromatic berries weighing 4-5 g.
Today, there are quite a few varieties of standard raspberries, which can satisfy the tastes of most gardeners.
Raspberry trees with yellow and black berries appeared, this is for gourmets, and they become a decoration of garden plots.
Useful properties of berries
Raspberries are rich:
- glucose, sucrose and fructose;
- malic, citric and salicylic acids;
- vitamins A, C and B;
- minerals and salts;
- contain iron, zinc, copper, calcium;
- provitamin A.
Berries of yellow varieties contain a lot of carotene.
Raspberries together with medicines indicated for diseases:
- these are colds, including flu;
- used for gastritis;
- relieves severe cough with angina;
- used for atherosclerosis;
- scurvy is defeated by vitamin C, which is abundant in raspberries;
- with anemia, there is a lack of iron, which is contained in raspberries in sufficient quantities;
- It is used as an excellent antipyretic and diaphoretic drink.
At the end, let's note some interesting facts:
- One handful of raspberries improves mood and restores the nervous system after trouble.
- Pliny began to cultivate raspberries on the site, back in the days of Ancient Rome. He tasted a wild-growing berry on Crete and brought out a raspberry bush for his garden.
- The most useful of the types of raspberries is considered to be black.... It has the unique ability to strengthen the walls of blood vessels.
What kind of wild plant is it - standard raspberry. The stem is the trunk, from the roots to the top, of the tree. The raspberry tree is not called a specific variety of berry bush, but the peculiarity of its cultivation. The length of the shoots of this bush reaches two meters.
The raspberry tree has some advantages over other berries:
- Since it is erect and tall, its berries ripen well. It is very convenient to remove them.
- Bushes require minimal attention and care.
- They tolerate cold weather well, so fruiting continues until autumn
- The stem, that is, the trunk of the raspberry is thick and strong. He does not need additional supports. During fruiting, it tolerates well the entire weight of the berries on it
- The shrub consists of several branches that yield a crop, respectively, there are more of them than on ordinary raspberries. The fruits ripen large and sweet. They are not watery, so they are well stored and transported.
Naturally, not all representatives of standard varieties can boast of super-productivity. Among them there are also plants that have different yields. Therefore, if you want to get a really bountiful harvest, you need to give preference to promising varieties of standard raspberries. These include those forms that have a fruiting period lasting from June to August. The exact ripening period of berries for each species will be different, but it will still be within the agreed range. It should be remembered that the timing of the ripening of the crop may vary depending on climate conditions, soil characteristics and weather characteristics of the summer.
The best standard varieties are those that, in addition to high fertility, are also characterized by good resistance to insects and diseases. In winter, they are capable of tolerating negative temperatures of flesh to -20-24 ° C without shelter.
The most promising and profitable varieties of standard raspberries include:
- Tarusa. Medium late and high yielding variety. The plant is a bush consisting of powerful stems that grow up to 2 meters. There are no thorns on the shoots, which makes picking berries easier. The fruits weigh up to 15 g and are elongated. Their color is bright crimson. They are also covered with a waxy coating. Tarusa is a winter-hardy plant. The bushes are able to withstand temperatures down to -30 ° C. The good resistance of raspberries to various diseases has been described.
- Story. Very productive species. More than 12 kg of berries can be harvested from one bush. The weight of one raspberry is about 20 g. The fruits have good transportability and taste. At the same time, the plant has excellent resistance to diseases and negative temperatures. The bush forms shoots and a sufficiently powerful root system, which makes it easier to grow in the garden.
- Galaxy. The bush is characterized by an average growth rate. It is medium spreading and does not form thorns. On the shoots, large berries develop with a mass of about 10-18 g. The variety is distinguished by good winter hardiness.
- Strong guy. The plant forms upright bushes, consisting of thornless shoots. Dark crimson berries are formed on them, which have a conical shape. Their weight is 4-5 g.
- Bogatyr. The bush forms well-developed shoots with no thorns. Dessert-type fruits. They are tapered and large in size. Good winter hardiness of the variety, its transportability and resistance to various pathogenic microorganisms were noted.
Also, the following varieties can be attributed to the promising forms of the standard type:
- Penguin. This plant forms medium-sized and straight shoots, the height of which does not exceed 1.3 m. The berries are reddish-pink in color. Their pulp gives off a slight sourness.
- Giant. The bush consists of upright thornless shoots. In height, it can grow up to 1.8 m. Large berries with a weight of about 8-12 g are formed on the stems. They have a sweet taste and a bright red color. They also tolerate transportation well.
- Glen Ample. The plant is characterized by strong growth and erect shoots. They form bright red berries, which have an elongated and rounded shape. The variety is characterized by excellent adaptation to various climatic and soil growing conditions in Russia.
All of these varieties, in addition to the characteristics described above, are high-yielding. For this, they are appreciated by gardeners. But in order to achieve abundant fruiting, you need to know how their planting and care is carried out.
Reasons for pruning a raspberry tree in the fall
Pruning a raspberry tree in the fall is carried out regardless of the type of shrub. If you do not carry out a regular "haircut", then as a result the shrubs will produce fewer berries and the quality of the fruit will deteriorate. They can crumble prematurely, or dry out.
Gardeners talk about the following reasons for doing edging:
- Thinning shrubs to increase productivity. If there are too many shoots, the berries will be sour and very small.
- The development period of standard raspberries is 2 years, therefore, in the third year of its life, it is necessary to remove overgrown branches that will no longer bear fruit.
- In the fall, remove all dry, diseased or mechanically damaged stems.
- Formation of walkable paths in the raspberry forest, facilitating watering, weeding and other care of it.
Note! As you can see, the reasons for the "haircut" are very serious and therefore its implementation cannot be neglected.
There are no special requirements for the agricultural technology of planting standard raspberry varieties. Planting is carried out in the spring (April) or in the fall (September-October), but, according to experts, spring planting is more preferable. If we manage to plant before bud break, then we will get excellent survival rate and fruiting of raspberries the next year. The planting site has a significant impact on the further development and fruiting of the variety. For crimson Tale trees, they choose sunny, windless areas, with loose, nutritious soil.
Perhaps you will be interested! The most popular yellow raspberry variety is the Yellow Giant.
- into the hole. For each plant, a separate hole is dug with the size of 0.5 x 0.5 m and a depth of 0.4 m, the distance between the plants is about 1 m, between the rows is 1.7-2.0 m.
- into the trench. A single trench is dug for a row of raspberries. The width of the trench is 0.5 m, the distance between plants in a row is 0.5-0.7 m, the distance between the trenches is 2.0 m. The depth of the trench is 0.4 - 0.5 m.
Any of the presented methods is selected only based on the preferences of the gardener, there are no significant differences in the results between them, but from the point of view of the amount of necessary fertilizers, feeding into the hole is more economical, because in the case of a trench, it is necessary to fertilize the soil along its entire length, and in the hole only directly in the zone of the root system of the bush.
It is advisable to add rotted manure or compost to the bottom of the hole or trench, add peat, ash, sand to the upper layers of the soil.
Standard raspberry varieties are demanding on the air permeability of the soil, therefore it is very important to carry out periodic loosening and weeding. Loose soil will allow the root system of the bush to actively absorb oxygen from the air, which will positively affect the development of the plant and its yield. Also, an important component of the future bountiful harvest is regular watering, which for raspberries of the Fairy Tale variety is carried out according to the following scheme:
- before the rooting of seedlings and the appearance of the first new shoots, watering is carried out daily
- after rooting and before flowering - moderate watering as the soil dries out
- during flowering and fruiting - abundant watering with an interval of 4-5 days. Once during flowering and about 2 times during fruiting, watering is accompanied by top dressing. Mineral complexes, liquid organic matter based on chicken manure or fresh manure are perfect for feeding.
- after fruiting, watering is not necessary, however, if the weather is dry in October, then it is necessary to carry out the so-called moisture-charging watering for the winter, which is abundant watering with the simultaneous introduction of organic fertilizers (up to 3 buckets of manure for each bush), but from the introduction mineral complexes with a high nitrogen content, it is better to abstain. Nitrogen fertilization will lead to active growth of unnecessary shoots.
Variety selection, planting and caring for a raspberry tree?
Raspberries are the real queen of the garden. Raspberries are delicious, everyone's favorite and irreplaceable for colds. Almost every summer cottage has a small bed with this valuable shrub. Recently, the cultivation of a raspberry tree has become popular among gardeners.
What is a raspberry tree? The fashion for growing standard plants prompted Russian breeders to develop special varieties of raspberries with thick shoots, which, upon further pruning, are formed in the form of a standard tree.
In fact, the raspberry tree as such does not exist in nature. The raspberry tree is called the standard raspberry. This is due to the external similarity of the formed bush, resembling a tree in appearance. An ordinary raspberry bush is pinched, as a result of which the active growth of lateral shoots begins. The number of lateral processes is on average 6-7 pieces, depending on the variety, it can reach 10.
- 1 The virtues of culture
- 2 Forming a tree
- 3 Variety selection
- 3.1 Tarusa
- 3.2 Fairy tale
- 3.3 Gold
- 3.4 Sturdy
- 4 Choosing a landing site
- 5 Soil preparation
- 6 Landing
- 7 Tree care
- 8 Pest and disease control
- 9 Reproduction
- 10 Harvesting
How did the crimson tree win the love of gardeners? There are several reasons for its popularity:
- high yield
- large sweet berries weighing from 7 to 16 g
- unpretentious care
- thick stems without thorns
- stable shoots do not require tying
- good frost resistance
- drought tolerance.
With all the advantages of culture, certain efforts are required from the gardener, which in the future will ensure a decent harvest. And, first of all, this is the correct formation of a raspberry bush.
To form a raspberry tree, a number of manipulations are carried out:
- The young shoot is pinched in May-June, when its height is at least 0.6 m from the ground.
- Pinching the apex causes the development of several lateral shoots.
- The grown lateral shoots are pinched again when their length is 0.5 m.
- The next year, a mass of fruit twigs is formed on the branched lateral processes.
- Due to repeated branching, the bush becomes as leafy as possible and forms a large number of fruits.
- In subsequent years, pruning is reduced to the removal of dried branches.
The varieties of the raspberry tree cultivated on the territory of Russia were bred by domestic breeders, and therefore are suitable for growing not only in the southern regions, but also in the territory of the Moscow region and the middle zone. Experienced gardeners are advised to choose seedlings, focusing on the description of the variety. Let's consider the main characteristics of the most popular varieties.
The Tarusa raspberry tree is distinguished by good winter hardiness, calmly tolerates a cold snap to -30 ° C, and therefore is suitable for breeding not only in mid-latitudes, but also in more northern regions. The plant is resistant to many diseases typical of raspberries.
The Tarusa tree has a high yield - with proper pruning, two harvests per season ripen. Elongated berries have a shiny red color and reach 14-16 g. Fruits are characterized by excellent taste and pleasant aroma, suitable for harvesting for the winter and fresh consumption.
Thick and strong shoots have no thorns and do not require tying. The Tarusa raspberry tree grows up to 1.5-2.0 m in height, has a compact root system and practically does not grow overgrowth.
The Skazka raspberry tree, like the Tarusa raspberry, grows in height up to 1.5-2.0 m and tolerates frosts down to -23 ° C. The plant has thick erect stems without thorns, during the growing season it practically does not form young shoots, so the site is not threatened by an aggressive spread of culture.
The Skazka raspberry variety is characterized by a high density of decay-resistant berry pulp. Juicy sweet fruits with a light raspberry aroma retain their consumer qualities for a long time. This property of the berries allows them to be transported over long distances. The fruits are large enough, shiny, red in color.
Raspberry Fairy Tale bears fruit from mid-July to early August. Gardeners note a high yield - subject to agricultural technology, 4.5-5 kg of berries can be harvested from one bush. The berries are eaten raw, frozen and preserved, while the taste and aroma of the fruit are preserved.
Raspberry tree Gold refers to large-fruited dessert varieties. Fruit weight reaches 16 g. The name of the variety is due to the color of juicy berries - they are golden yellow with a rich sweet taste. Productivity does not depend on weather conditions and temperature fluctuations. Due to the fact that Raspberry Gold has small, practically imperceptible seeds on the tongue, this berry is great for preparing for the winter - jam or jam. And, of course, it is delicious fresh. The advantages of the variety include high winter hardiness - the bushes can withstand temperatures down to -30 ° C.
The Krepysh raspberry variety grows up to 1.8 m. Strong shoots without thorns and with dense wood do not bend either in the wind or under the weight of berries, fully justifying their name.
The blunt-conical berries are bright red in color. The weight of the fruits is on average 7-9 g, from one bush with proper care you can collect up to 3.5-4 kg. The berries do not crumble from the branches, are well transported, and retain their presentation and taste for a long time. Despite the modest size of the berries, in comparison with large-fruited varieties, the fruits have a pleasant taste and ripen gradually over a long time. For growing on farms, this variety may not be the most suitable, but for summer residents it is the most optimal option. Harvesting extended during the summer will allow you to enjoy the taste of ripe berries for a long time.
The Krepysh raspberry tree is resistant to fungal and viral diseases, tolerates frosts down to -30 ° C. The plant forms a strong root system, due to which it adapts better and takes root in a new place. The sturdy one does not need special care - it does not require large areas and enhanced feeding, so it is suitable even for a novice gardener.
If you decide to grow a raspberry tree, planting and caring for it shouldn't be too difficult for those familiar with the cultivation of regular raspberries. Inexperienced gardeners should learn more about how to grow a raspberry tree.
For planting standard raspberries, it is very important to choose a suitable place - well-lit and protected from drafts and strong gusts of wind. If possible, it is better to plant the crop on the south side of the site.
Tip: Don't Plant standard raspberry varieties between mature fruit trees. A vast shadow from them will reduce getting raspberries the required amount of sunlight and will reduce yields. Also, avoid the neighborhood of the crop with tomatoes, pepper, strawberries and potatoes - common pests can harm culture.
When grown in close proximity to fences or walls of buildings, the distance from them to raspberries should be at least 1 m. When planting in rows, the distance between the holes depends on the variety. For example, the Tarusa raspberry variety is planted at a distance of 1 m between the seedlings, and the Krepysh raspberry variety is planted at a distance of 0.6-0.7 m.The recommended distance between the rows is 1.5 m, this distance is necessary for the normal development of a bush with thick and wide branches. Do not save space and plant raspberries closer than necessary. Otherwise, the side branches will shade each other, the amount of ovary will decrease and, accordingly, the yield will decrease.
As for the relief, lowlands are not suitable for raspberries, otherwise moisture stagnation will cause rotting of the root system. When planted on steep slopes or hills, the crop will suffer from a lack of moisture. Therefore, for a raspberry tree, smooth or slightly sloping areas are ideal.
The choice of location also depends on how close the groundwater is to the surface of the earth. If the depth is less than 1.5 m, it is not worth planting a plant in such a site, otherwise constant moisture will contribute to a decrease in yield and death of the crop.
Standard raspberries grow in one place for up to 10 years. During this time, the soil on the site is depleted, and the trees will need to be transplanted to another place. It is recommended to return the culture to its original place not earlier than in 5 - 7 years.
The plant takes root better on loose and moist soil with an acidity index of pH 5.7-6.5. Light fertile soils, loams or chernozems are suitable options for planting standard raspberries. It is advisable to enrich chernozems with coarse river sand before planting.
Before planting seedlings, you need to dig up the entire allotted area, and then water it moderately. If it is not possible to use a motor-cultivator, then the earth is dug up with a shovel to a depth of 0.2-0.3 m.
However, just digging up the site is not enough. Raspberries are demanding on soil fertility, so it is worth enriching the soil with complex fertilizer (per 1 sq. M):
- wood ash - 250 g
- nitroammofoska - 150 g
- humus - 20 liters (2 buckets).
If ordinary raspberries are planted in autumn and spring, then planting a standard crop is recommended only in spring. Autumn planting can lead to the death of the plant, which may not have time to get stronger before the first frost.
An exception is made by seedlings in special containers - the root system of plants is not disturbed during transplantation, therefore such raspberries can be planted in autumn (in October). An earlier planting can provoke the growth of seedlings, which will die with the onset of cold weather.
Landing is carried out with the onset of warm weather - when the air temperature stops dropping below + 15 ° C (early March - late April).
Advice: It is recommended to buy raspberry tree seedlings from garden centers or specialized nurseries. Buying from private traders or in the market threatens disappointment - often unscrupulous sellers for a raspberry tree give out completely unsuitable for this variety, and sometimes just wild growth, dug out in abandoned areas.
Raspberry trees are planted as follows:
- Dig the required number of holes at the distance recommended for each variety from each other.
- Fertilizers are added to each well. This can be bird droppings, wood ash, or compound fertilizers.
- A seedling is placed in the middle of the hole. Planting level should be the same as before transplanting from the nursery. The root collar should not be buried. On light soils, a depth of 2-3 cm is possible.
- The hole with the plant is covered with soil and tamped around the trunk.
- The planted plants are watered. The approximate water consumption per 1 bush is 5 liters.
- The earth around the stem is mulched with humus.
If possible, in the first days after planting, young plants are given a slight shade from the sun's rays.
In the future, caring for a raspberry tree is reduced to watering, weeding, loosening and feeding.
Proper watering is very important for successful fruiting. Young seedlings must be watered without waiting for the surface layer of the soil to dry completely. But you don't need to flood the plants either - the main thing here is to maintain a balance, otherwise you can destroy the roots of raspberry trees. Further watering needs to be regulated taking into account the natural conditions, depending on how rainy the summer turned out to be. In the hot season, the soil under the bushes must be mulched around the trunk. This measure will save the soil from drying out quickly.
Weeding must be done regularly, otherwise the ubiquitous weeds will quickly drown out the raspberry tree and wither away. When caring for a plant, remember that raspberries have a superficial root system. Therefore, when loosening the soil, the processing depth should not exceed 8-10 cm. The soil is usually loosened after fertilization.
Any summer resident knows how important fertilizing is for abundant fruiting. If, when planting standard raspberries, potash-phosphorus fertilizers were introduced into the soil in the recommended amount, then the plants for the first few years after planting will not need such fertilizing. In this case, it is necessary to focus on the annual application of nitrogen to the soil. When using nitrogen fertilizers, the soil is fertilized at the rate of 20-25 g per 1 sq. m. Supporters of the use of organic matter can make a nutrient solution from 10 liters of water, 5 g of urea (or nitrate) and cow dung (1 shovel). A solution of urea is also suitable - 50 g per 10 liters of water - this amount is enough for 3-4 trees.
Insects are most dangerous for raspberry trees:
Eats the leaves and flowers of the plant. Beetle larvae can eat berries whole. For prevention, you need to dig up the ground during the pupation period. In this case, the cocoons of the larvae are damaged, and the insects have less chance of survival and reproduction. In the spring, before the raspberry bloom, the plants can be sprayed with insecticidal preparations.
Gnaws young plant buds. Therefore, before the buds swell, it is recommended to treat the plants with a mixture of anabasine sulfate, diluted according to the instructions. The pest can be in the bark of dried twigs, the timely removal of fruiting shoots is the best preventive measure against the insect.
- Raspberry-strawberry weevil.
The insect lays eggs in the buds and gnaws at the stalks, causing damage to the flowers. Pest control is reduced to treating the bushes with suitable insecticides.
Of the diseases, the raspberry tree is prone to chlorosis. If the cause of the development of the disease is not infectious, it is necessary to adjust the composition of the soil, add the missing fertilizers, and revise the irrigation schedule. With the infectious nature of chlorosis, soil and plants are treated with fungicidal preparations. As a preventive measure, in early spring, you can treat the bushes with a solution of copper or iron sulfate. In any case, diseased plants should be cut and destroyed.
If you already have a raspberry tree growing on your site, it can be propagated by root cuttings, green cuttings, root suckers and seeds. It should be said right away that seed reproduction is not popular with gardeners due to the high cost of time and labor. This method is used mainly by breeders.
Raspberries are best propagated by green cuttings.In this case, green branches are cut off near the root, the resulting cuttings are kept in a growth stimulator (15-17 hours), then planted under a film, creating high humidity and a warm climate (22-25 ° C) for the plants.
The most enjoyable part about growing a raspberry tree is harvesting. Experienced gardeners practice berry picking every two days. There is no need to delay the collection of fruits, otherwise they will overripe and may end up on the ground. Do not remove the berries after rain or dew - the collected fruits will quickly deteriorate.
Berries intended for transportation over a distance are best removed with a stalk. This precaution will help preserve the raspberries and prevent the berries from juicing or wrinkling.
Unfortunately, no matter how much gardeners would like, but a real raspberry tree does not exist in nature. However, the fruitful efforts of breeders made it possible to create standard plant varieties, from which each gardener can form a tree to his taste. In the process of growing standard raspberries, the owners of summer cottages are trying new methods of pruning and pinching. Perhaps, by planting a raspberry tree, in the near future you will be able to boast of a rich harvest and share your experience in this noble cause.
Raspberry tree: cultivation features
Planting a raspberry tree involves setting aside a slightly larger piece of land in comparison to the usual bush. In the first case, the distance in the row between the plants should be about 1 meter, in the second - 0.25-0.5 m.This requirement is caused by the following features of the standard berry plant:
- A powerful root system, the lateral and adventitious parts of which can grow up to 0.5 m from the stem (depending on the variety). The spreading root absorbs more nutrients, due to which the bush grows powerful.
- The development of a pseudocrown, which has a spherical shape, presupposes the presence of free space for uniform illumination and aeration of the leaf mass.
Growing a raspberry tree requires more attention from the gardener, but the investment of time and effort is paid off by the size of the fruits and the plant's resistance to seasonal temperature changes. The berry on such a tree grows larger in comparison with the bush method of growing raspberries.
Standard raspberry tree: planting and care
Reproduction of standard raspberries is carried out by 2 methods:
- Cuttings: a cut of the root system with 2-3 buds is taken from the parent bush. It can be planted immediately in the ground or placed in a pot of peat mixture for the winter.
- Shoots: during the growing season, the plant is dug out together with the root from an already mature stem. The future standard bush can be immediately planted in a permanent place.
The best time to prepare a raspberry tree at home is in autumn. Since when buying a ready-made standard stem, you do not need to forcing the shoot, you can plant such raspberries both in spring and in autumn.
Raspberry tree - cultivation techniques
- Top dressing: there should be 3. When planting - nitrogen fertilizers to build up abundant leaf mass, which is the key to productive photosynthesis, as a result of which the plant develops and becomes stronger. The second top dressing is with phosphorus fertilizers during flowering, and the third - with potash during the formation and ripening of the berry.
- Watering: the raspberry crop as a whole is demanding on soil moisture recharge, but it does not tolerate waterlogging well. Therefore, the best watering frequency is as the land dries up. Depending on the climatic zone, this can be from 1 time in 5 days to 1 time in 10 days.
- Cultivation: regular loosening of the soil around the raspberry stem will not only help to retain moisture in the soil, but also prevent the raspberry beetle from breeding. He lays his eggs in the ground near the bush. When the soil is loosened, the shell of the eggs dries up and the future offspring of the raspberry beetle dies.
The raspberry pseudocrown is formed in 3 stages. In the spring, in the first year, an ordinary shoot is pinched at a height of 1-1.3 m. In the summer, all root shoots are removed so that the energy of the plant goes into the formation of a powerful stem. In the second year, in the spring, the tops of the shoots are pinched off, which allows them to grow and gain strength.
The best varieties for growing a raspberry tree
Raspberry tree varieties are selected, care and planting for which allows you to get a large berry yield, so that the stem grows powerful and with a thick layer of bark. This allows the plant to tolerate the winter well, as well as leave it without a garter. List and description of 4 popular varieties of standard raspberries:
- Tarusa is an early variety with a stem height of 2 m and a berry weight up to 15-18 g. The growth rate is low.
- Galaxy is a large-fruited variety with an average berry ripening period.
- Bogatyr is a remontant variety of standard raspberries, the harvest from which can be harvested the whole summer.
- The royal power is a semi-renovated raspberry, the fruiting of which begins in July and lasts until September.
The main feature of each of these varieties is the complete absence of thorns. Stamping raspberries is the best way to grow crops in Russia. Due to the strong stem, the plant tolerates temperatures down to -30C well.