Houseplants Published: 04 August 2012 Reprinted: Last edits:
Indoor plants are not only an island of nature in our house, but also an interior decoration. However, so that the plants do not look like a worn out decoration, it is necessary that they are healthy and well-groomed, and for this it is necessary to timely and correctly apply fertilizers, both organic and mineral, to the soil. This article will focus on mineral fertilizers.
Types of mineral fertilizers
In nature, plants obtain all the necessary mineral substances from the soil in which they are formed as a result of natural processes. And a flower pot with a very small amount of soil is a limited space in which your plant simply has nowhere to get the trace elements necessary for life, therefore, the soil is enriched by introducing mineral fertilizers. There is a huge selection of mineral fertilizers on sale today, but, in my opinion, the most effective at the moment are complex mineral supplements of the "Rainbow" series and the "Effect" and "Ideal" complexes. They are convenient to use at home because they are sold as a liquid concentrate that can be easily diluted in water. The composition of such mineral fertilizers usually includes all the necessary trace elements: phosphorus, potassium, boron, nitrogen, magnesium, zinc and others.
Lack or excess of mineral fertilizers
I strongly advise you to dilute the concentrate strictly in accordance with the instructions. Do not try to increase the concentration, believing that you are doing the plant a favor, because excessive application of mineral fertilizers can lead to the opposite effect and even to the death of the plant. Evidence that you have applied too much mineral fertilizers may be the following signs: root death (with an excess of nitrogen), yellowing of the leaves (with an excess of potassium), phosphate poisoning manifests itself in premature aging of plants and leaf fall. Excess calcium affects the plant in the same way as excess phosphorus. Brown spots on the leaves indicate an increased boron content. Moreover, an excess of some substances, respectively, entails a lack of others. If you managed to determine which substance the plant suffers from, you need to treat it by temporarily canceling the complex feeding and using the missing mineral fertilizers.
As already mentioned, with an excess of some substances, a deficiency of others develops, and this problem can also be identified by certain signs. So, for example, a lack of nitrogen in the soil manifests itself in the fact that the leaves become faded, but if you see that the leaves turn white and their edges turn yellow, most likely this is chlorosis caused by a lack of iron.
The dying off of young foliage and the slow development of the root system indicate that the plant lacks calcium, potassium and phosphorus. Actually, it is phosphorus that affects the formation of new leaves. The dark green color of the leaves and their slow growth is another sign of phosphorus deficiency.
A small amount of potassium in the soil very often becomes the reason for the lack of flowering in both domestic and ground plants. Therefore, immediately before flowering, additives containing potassium are added to the soil.
Application of mineral fertilizers
You can use "Rainbow" for indoor plants as follows: feed the roots from March to the end of September 1 time in 2 weeks, in the cold season, you should reduce the number of dressings to 1 time per month. It is enough to dilute one cap in half a liter of water. You can spray indoor plants once a month with a solution of 1 cap in 2 liters of water. The bottle is enough for 5 uses. There are no time limits for application. Complex fertilizing such as "Rainbows" can be used throughout the life of plants. In addition, of course, plants need proper watering and thoughtful organic feeding, but such a mineral base should be enough to create the prerequisites for the correct development of a houseplant and to avoid many diseases in the future.
Be attentive to your indoor plants, remember that the correct application of mineral fertilizers will provide them with all the necessary trace elements for life and health, and healthy plants are always beautiful.
Mineral fertilizers for the garden and vegetable garden: what are they and how to use them correctly?
The formation of fertile soils is a long and gradual process. It will take several years to achieve the desired result. But plants need nutrition. Therefore, it will not be possible to do without mineral fertilizers at all.
Mineral fertilizers are divided into simple and complex - according to their chemical composition, and acidic, alkaline or neutral - according to their physiological reaction. They can also be solid or liquid.
Fertilizers and their classification
Fertilizer is a substance that is used to feed any types of plants, improve the quality of chernozem and quantitatively and qualitatively increase the yield. Effect the use of these substances is that thanks to them, plants receive various useful chemical elements that contribute to the full development of their system.
Long-term practice has shown that the use of fertilizers has a beneficial effect on the soil, increases productivity and improves the taste characteristics of fruits. In the old days there was only one method of fertilization - manure, which is widely used today. However, the modern world is full of new technological discoveries that have made it possible to develop many types of fertilizers with a wide spectrum of action. Let's consider their types and classifications.
Classification fertilization occurs on the following grounds:
- chemical composition - organic, mineral or bacterial
- physical form - liquid, solid, semi-liquid
- impact effect - direct or indirect
- groundbait method - root or stem
- soil fertilization method - basic, top dressing, before sowing, surface or deep
The classification of these substances into simple, complex and combined assumes method getting them:
- only one element is added to simple ones
- complex ones are obtained by carrying out chemical reactions
- mixed are obtained as a result of mechanical processes.
To improve storage and transportation conditions, concentrated and non-ballast forms of fertilizers are produced. And there are also those that are developed for a specific soil and a specific plant, they are classified as balanced.
Mineral fertilizers types
Mineral fertilizers are of two types:
The concept of a simple fertilizer is conditional, as a rule, the chemical formula of such a fertilizer suggests the presence of additional chemical elements in it, which are in very small quantities compared to the main one.
In the composition of complex fertilizers, not one, but two or three main chemical elements in high concentrations, as well as a lot of additional ones in small amounts.
Industrial mineral fertilizers are produced in special packaging, which indicates the name, chemical formula and content of the nutrient in it. As a rule, instructions for use for various crops are printed directly on the package.
Mineral fertilizers differ not only in composition, but also in other characteristics: solubility in water, hygroscopicity. If fertilizers absorb moisture from the air too quickly, the powder or granules will soon crumble, stick together into a lump. To prevent this from happening, you need to store mineral fertilizers in a closed container. Plastic bottles are ideal for storing fertilizers. Be sure to stick the name of the fertilizer and the label on the bottle (you can put it in a file and stick it with tape).
Differences between organic and mineral fertilizers
Each type of fertilizer has its own advantages that can increase yields. Distinctive features of organic fertilizers from mineral fertilizers are as follows:
- minerals contain artificial or chemical fertilizers, which can negatively affect the taste of the crop
- mineral fertilizers act faster, as upon contact with moisture they quickly disintegrate into small particles. However, the effect of such fertilization is not long lasting.
- mineral fertilizers must be used in a small amount of difference from organic matter
- mineral fertilizers do not improve the condition of the soil
- organic fertilizers contain a large amount of nutrients.
Most of the minerals contain only a few components. While all organic substances are suitable for complex fertilization.
Liquid and solid
According to the state of aggregation, complex fertilizers are divided into dry mixtures and liquid concentrated (or ready-to-use) solutions.
The first are homogeneous granules with a diameter of several millimeters. They gradually dissolve in the soil under the influence of moisture. Therefore, the effect of feeding lasts a long time. When introduced during the growing season, they are preliminarily dissolved in water in order to accelerate the process of assimilation of nutrients by plants.
Liquid solutions are concentrated solutions. They are used during the period of growth and development of crops. They act quickly, but the effect of the introduction is short-lived. Suitable for regular root (watering) and foliar (spraying) dressings.
Storage rules for mineral fertilizers
In order for the effect of using special dressings to be as effective as possible, it is necessary to follow the rules for storing mineral fertilizers. They are as follows:
- The moisture content in the storage should not exceed 40%.
- Outdoor storage and cold floor storage is prohibited.
- The air temperature should not fall below 0 and rise above 27 degrees.
- Fertilizer storage rooms should be waterproof and have solid walls.
- You need to store different types of fertilizers separately; for this, you can make special partitions.
- Ammonium nitrate is fire hazardous and cannot be stored in wooden warehouses.
Storage conditions directly depend on the chemical characteristics of agrochemicals. They are capable of reacting differently to external factors, so this moment should not be overlooked when preparing a room for storing mineral fertilizers.