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Cabbage is one of the obligatory crops grown in the garden or in the summer cottage. The vegetable has earned such love for its taste characteristics, use in a huge number of dishes and undeniable usefulness. The gardener's dream: to collect strong and healthy heads of cabbage in the fall, grown with a minimum of effort and without the use of chemicals. The variety that meets all the parameters is the Valentina F1 cabbage.
Brief history of the variety
Cabbage hybrid Valentine F1 was bred in Moscow at the N.N. Timiryazev Selection Station. Three breeders are considered the ancestors of the variety - A.V. Kryuchkov, D.V. Patsuria. and Monachos G.F. The first years of trial tests showed the productivity of Valentina, her suitability for growing in many climatic zones.
In 2004, Valentina F1 cabbage was included in the state register of ten regions of Russia. This includes quite favorable climatic zones:
- Central black earth;
- North Caucasian.
As well as areas of risky farming:
- Far Eastern;
- West Siberian;
- East Siberian;
Description of the variety
Valentina F1 cabbage is easy to distinguish from other varieties. The hybrid has advantages and disadvantages.
Ripening terms and yield of the variety
Valentina F1 is a late-ripening variety. From germination to maturation of heads of cabbage, it takes 5-6 months (an average of 170 days). When sowing seeds for seedlings in mid-April - early May, harvesting is carried out in the first or second decade of October. The yield is stable and quite high: about 80 tons per hectare (under favorable weather conditions, up to 100 tons). On smaller areas, this equals approximately 6-8 centners per hundred square meters (up to 10 kilograms per square meter).
Variety characteristics of Valentina F1
The leaves are wavy along the edge, medium, with a grayish-green tint. The socket is slightly raised. Heads of cabbage stand out in a flattened shape, which is also called obovate. Each fork is white and dense, slightly covered with green leaflets. Varietal uniqueness - clearly expressed wax coating. The head of cabbage is located on the middle outer stump, passing inward for a short distance. When cutting the forks, a whitish shade remains.
Valentina's heads of cabbage are distinguished by a wax bloom
The weight of each head of cabbage is small, only from three to four kilograms. True, specimens can grow twice as large.
The taste of Valentine's cabbage is sweetish. With long-term storage, it does not deteriorate, on the contrary, after 5-7 months, saturation appears. The heads of cabbage are very juicy.
Valentine cabbage has a small stalk and white flesh
Advantages and disadvantages of Valentine's cabbage
To create a hybrid without any flaws, breeders have not yet succeeded. Valentina F1 has a wide range of advantages over other varieties of late cabbage, but at the same time retains some disadvantages.
Table: the advantages and disadvantages of Valentine's cabbage F1
|Benefits of the variety||Disadvantages of the variety|
|Frost resistance (can withstand frost up to -8aboutFROM)||Only grows on the sunny side|
|High yield||Demanding on soil, prefers loam and peat soil|
|Long shelf life (up to 8 months)||Does not tolerate excessive soil moisture|
|As a result of storage, the taste only gets better.||Requires a lot of water during the curling stage|
|Fruits do not crack, withstand transportation||"Leaves" at 30aboutFrom and above|
|Cabbage diseases pose no threat|
|Used fresh, fermented, pickled, salted|
|Due to the low leg, the head of cabbage is stable|
Cabbage of any late varieties is grown by the seedling method. For the Valentine variety, the beginning of field activities is determined based on the timing of work in the open-air garden. After sowing the seeds, the seedlings should not remain in containers for more than a month.
For sowing seedlings, you need a loose and highly nutritious soil substrate. You can use ready-made mixtures of proven brands, ideally, special for cabbage or universal with an acidity index of pH no more than 6. If you wish, you can prepare a suitable composition yourself. To do this, you need to choose one of two options:
- Take humus and sod land in equal proportions. Add a glass of river sand to 5–6 kg of the mixture.
- Sod land to mix with peat in a ratio of 1: 3. Pour in 1.5 cups of sand for every 3-4 kg.
The F1 marking means that you will not be able to grow seeds with varietal characteristics on your own. It remains to buy planting material. We should dwell on well-known firms.
It is important to choose quality seeds from trusted producers.
Usually store seeds do not need preliminary preparation: hardening, disinfection, heating, soaking. They are often colored differently with an explanation of the markings. Such seed can be safely sown into prepared soil.
If, nevertheless, it is decided to buy untested seeds, then they must be disinfected - placed overnight in a saturated solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate). The next required procedure: hardening at an air temperature of about 0aboutC. The tests stimulate rapid germination and enhance frost resistance.
Sowing for seedlings
Our ancestors had a well-defined schedule of field work, depending on religious holidays. So, sowing cabbage was recommended to be done on St. Egor's Day (May 6). The deadline is May 21 (on the eve of St. Nicholas Day).
Cabbage seedlings should not stretch out
You can sow cabbage in April, preferably in the second half of the month.
- The seeds are evenly distributed over the surface of the moistened soil.
- Pour a centimeter of the prepared mixture on top.
- Water carefully, preferably from a spray bottle.
- They cover and put in a dark but warm place.
It is important not to miss the emergence of seedlings, which usually hatch after 3-7 days.
- The container is taken out to a bright place to prevent the seedlings from pulling out. You can sow cabbage in a greenhouse if it is heated, or in a greenhouse.
Video: sowing cabbage for seedlings
After the appearance of two true leaves (usually after 15 days), the seedlings dive. Picking is the transplanting of seedlings into separate containers with pinching of the roots to enhance their growth. For this:
- The seedlings are watered abundantly, they are waiting for moisture to be absorbed and the seedling is pulled out along with a lump of earth.
- A third of the system is removed from the roots.
- Then the root is placed in cotyledonous leaves in a depression and covered with earth mixture.
The soil is used the same as when sowing seeds.
You can skip the pick. To do this, it is enough to sow cabbage seeds initially more spaciously, avoiding crowding.
Planting seedlings in the ground
Valentine cabbage is partial to loamy soil that can retain moisture for a long time. The garden bed should be on the sunny side, Valentina does not tolerate excessive shading. A place for a late-ripening hybrid is best prepared in the fall. The bed is first simply loosened, after the appearance of weeds, they are dug to the maximum depth. Be sure to fertilize the land. In the fall, humus or compost is introduced (in a bucket per square meter). In spring, they sometimes supplement with superphosphate (two tablespoons) or nitrophosphate, as well as ash (glass) and urea (teaspoon).
When planting cabbage seedlings, a mixture of nitrophoska, ash and humus in a ratio of 1: 4: 16 can be poured into each cabbage hole. Then spill it thoroughly with warm water (0.5 l for each plant).
It is necessary to determine the time for planting seedlings according to weather conditions in a specific climatic zone. Usually this is the first or second decade of June.
Important: so that night frosts do not destroy the seedlings, the temperature should not fall below 3aboutFROM.
The seedlings should be strong and have five to six true leaves and reach 13-16 cm in height. The layout of Valentine's cabbage sprouts is 70 cm between rows, and 40 cm between plants in a row. The maximum amount per square meter is four roots. When the planting is thickened, the heads of cabbage may not curl or lose weight.
Seedlings are placed in a hole and covered with earth until true leaves.
Important: avoid covering the growth point with earth - the middle from which the leaves grow.
It is recommended to plant cabbage in the evening, after sunset, or you can choose a cloudy day.
Another nuance: crop rotation. Cabbage grows poorly after cruciferous vegetables. The closest "relatives" (radish, turnip, radish, rutabaga) choose from the ground the same nutrients that cabbage requires. She lacks them and grows and bears poorly. In addition, the soil can accumulate pest larvae and viruses of various diseases. Valentina grows well after legumes and cereals, carrots, tomatoes and onions.
Video: planting seedlings in the ground
Growing cabbage Valentine F1
Getting the most out of Valentina isn't hard. You should regularly inspect cabbage beds for weeds. They quickly deprive seedlings of sunlight and become a habitat for pests and the spread of diseases. Frequent loosening will rid the garden of excess vegetation. Weeds are afraid of loosening, but cabbage adores it.
Daily watering immediately after planting cabbage seedlings is a must. The second period of increased water consumption occurs during the setting and growth of heads of cabbage. Lack of moisture at this stage of development can completely deprive the crop, since the cabbage can all go into the leaves. Lack of moisture will lead to the ripening of loose and juicy fruits.
Watering is carried out in the early morning or late evening hours. You will need at least two buckets of water per square meter, that is, five liters per plant. After absorbing moisture, to preserve it, the soil under the bushes must be loosened to a shallow depth (up to 6 cm). Surplus water for the Valentine variety is an ordeal. When the water stagnates for 10 hours, the roots rot and the plant dies.
Modern gardeners in hot weather, which persists for a long time, successfully use sprinkling. This is done to increase the humidity of the air. To do this, place a hose with a spray in the middle of the garden bed. Sprinkling can also be carried out through drip irrigation systems.
Watering is completely stopped twenty to thirty days before heading out. If this condition is met, the heads of cabbage acquire sugar content, retain their marketable form and are subsequently better stored.
Hilling helps the stump to hold its heavy "head". It is usually produced twice a season.
- The first time after rooting the seedlings in a permanent place, about 7-10 days after planting. Hilling is necessary to maintain a still weak stem.
- The second time - after about a month and a half (during the formation of the head of cabbage). At this time, hilling protects against excess moisture and protects against falling on its side in strong winds.
Hilling is recommended with a medium-sized hoe after the soil dries out after rain or abundant watering. The depth of hilling is no more than 6 cm, the diameter of the soil raking around one plant is up to 30 cm. Some gardeners prefer to stop watering after re-hilling the cabbage.
Video: caring for cabbage in the open field
Traditionally, it is customary to fertilize cabbage four times per season. Variety Valentine is no exception. When applying organic fertilizers, so beloved by cabbage, mineral additives can be omitted.
If fertilizer gets on the leaves, they should be rinsed with clean water to prevent burns.
In the absence of natural organic matter or unwillingness to tinker with it, you can purchase fertilizer for cabbage in specialized stores. Instead of mullein - Biud, instead of other fertilizers Agricola, Cabbage and others. The mineral fertilizer Aelita has proven itself quite well. They should be used according to the instructions.
Table: top dressing
|Terms of feeding||Fertilizer composition||Application rules|
|After rooting the seedlings, about 10-12 days after transplanting into the ground||Poultry droppings or cow cake, 0.5 liters per 10-liter bucket of water. Can be replaced with mineral composition: urea and potassium monophosphate 10 g each + 20 g superphosphate per 10 liters of water.||Pour 0.5 liters of solution under each plant. Water at the root, protecting the leaves.|
|15 days after the first application||A solution of poultry, cow or horse droppings at the rate of 0.5 liters per 10 liter bucket of water.||Pour 1 liter under the root for each plant.|
|After the same period of time (after 14 days)||Mix 0.5 liters of mullein in a 10-liter bucket of water with 15 g of potassium monophosphate.||Water each bush with a solution of 0.5 liters.|
|21 days after the third application||Repeat the same as for the third application.||For Valentina, the last addition affects the formation of a high-quality head of cabbage.|
Diseases and pests
Valentine's cabbage was created as a variety resistant to many cabbage diseases. She does not get sick with white or gray rot, black leg or Alternaria. Resists fusarium wilting well. Can get sick with apical rot or punctate necrosis, sometimes keel.
Table: Valentine's cabbage diseases, their prevention and methods of struggle
|Disease||Top rot||Pinpoint necrosis||Keela|
|The main signs||The edges of cabbage leaves die for no reason. The disease is infectious, spread by the cabbage fly.||Dark spots affect the outer and inner leaves. The disease is non-infectious, infection from a sick head of cabbage to healthy ones does not occur either during growth or during storage.||A tumor-growth appears on the roots. Difficult to notice. The surface part of the plant slows down growth, becomes lethargic due to the cessation of the access of water and nutrients from the soil. The ripping of the keel infects the soil with spores.|
|Preventive measures||Protect from pests, do not add excessive nitrogen.||Stop applying nitrogen, stop over-watering.||It is applied by manure, seeds or seedlings. Development begins due to excessive moisture and an increased level of acidity (pH more than 7). Annual destruction (better burning) of cabbage stumps and cruciferous weeds (shepherd's purse, rape).|
|Ways to fight||Treat the soil near the roots with tobacco, add 300 g of phosphate rock per square meter (about 70–90 g per plant).|
Photo gallery: valentine's cabbage diseases
Table: valentine cabbage pests
|White butterfly||Cruciferous flea||Cabbage fly||Scoop (cabbage moth)|
|Signs for detection||It lays the larvae, from which motley voracious caterpillars emerge.||An inconspicuous insect that gnaws holes in the leaves and can destroy the cabbage.||The fly lays eggs at the base of the stem; the hatched white worms eat the roots.||The butterfly lays larvae at night, from which voracious green caterpillars emerge.|
|Ways to fight|
Photo gallery: valentine cabbage pests
Harvesting and storage
Valentine's cabbage should be harvested from the field with the onset of cold weather (0-6aboutFROM). Usually this is the middle or third decade of October. Night frosts below 8aboutC can reduce the keeping quality of heads of cabbage. Early harvesting is undesirable, since the cabbage will not have time to gain frosty sugar content and sufficient juiciness. It is recommended to harvest the cabbage on a clear day.
Heads of cabbage of technical maturity are cut with a cleaver knife or cut down with a hatchet. The stalk should be neat (up to 5 cm) with a straight cut so as not to damage the neighboring fruits during transportation. A few superficial leaves are left. You can pull out the plant along with the roots and shake off the soil from them. The heads of cabbage are kept for 2-3 days, after which they are sorted out. Defective forks are recycled or eaten.
Healthy, without mechanical damage, fruits are placed on racks in the cellar in two or three rows. Can be stored in drawers with ventilation holes. For safety net, each head of cabbage is wrapped in paper.
It is important to observe the storage regime: the temperature in the room is about zero (not lower than -2aboutC), air humidity not less than 90%.
Valentine cabbage can be stored for up to 8 months
Valentine does not need special storage devices. With its ability to preserve flavor and quality, it can easily endure the winter and spring months.
Reviews of gardeners
Cabbage with the beautiful name Valentine is gaining popularity. Growing this variety is easy, and the results are pleasing during the long winter months. Of course, Valentina needs to take care of her, but after all, only weeds grow without care. A few preventative measures to prevent the influx of pests or cabbage diseases will help you get over the trouble. But in the fall, heads of cabbage will delight you with their appearance and provide vitamins before summer.
This hybrid was bred by Russian breeders from the State Agrarian University named after K. A. Timiryazev at the beginning of this century.
The hybrid Prestige was entered into the State Register of Russia in 2007 and is recommended for cultivation in the following regions:
The author and originator of the variety is the breeder GF Monakhos.
This variety of cabbage can be harvested not only by hand, but also by a mechanized method.
Description and characteristics of the cabbage variety Snow White
Cabbage Snow White is a late-ripening white-headed variety. Full ripening takes 130-150 days from the moment of emergence. If you sow seeds for seedlings in March, then the harvest can be harvested in early autumn.
Heads of cabbage Snow White are characterized by high density. The wax coating on the surface gives it a shine. The stumps are small, round in shape. Medium and transitional sockets. The lower leaves are slightly raised or lowered.
The cabbages of the Snow White cabbage are large. Average weight is 3-5 kg. The leaves are large, pale green in color. Their diameter is 8-16 cm. One of the distinguishing features of the variety is the smooth edges of the lyre-shaped leaves.
The white color of the flesh can be seen in section. It is characterized by a high dry matter content of 8.5-11%. The pulp contains up to 6% sugars and 35-40 mg of ascorbic acid per 100 g. The leaves of this variety are crispy and juicy. Their surface is slightly wrinkled, the venation is insignificant.
Cabbage Snow White attracts many gardeners with high yields. Commodity indicators for 1 m² 4.7-7.5 kg. With the timely and competent introduction of organic matter and minerals, the yield is even higher.
Cabbage Snow White is versatile in use. It can be consumed fresh, heat treated. The variety is great for fermentation. The product can be stored in brine for up to five months.
Snow White cabbages are resistant to cracking. The harvested crop is stored in a cellar. With proper preparation and proper conditions, cabbage will lie without much loss for up to six months.
Snow White cabbage belongs to frost-resistant varieties. Its harvest is harvested in September or early October, but exceeding these dates is not a problem. The culture tolerates frosts well down to -5-10 ° C, while maintaining quality characteristics.
Cutting Snow White cabbage for long-term storage should be done only in sunny and clear weather. If the crop has been affected by frost, it is important to wait until the root is thawed before harvesting. If this rule is not followed, dark spots will quickly appear on the leaves.
Characteristics of valentine cabbage
When choosing a cabbage variety, its characteristics are taken into account. For gardeners, the ripening period, yield, area of use of heads of cabbage, resistance to diseases and pests are important.
Productivity and fruiting
Cabbage is harvested from mid-September to early October. Heads of cabbage do not lose marketability even after freezing. Productivity from 1 sq. m landings - from 6.7 to 10 kg. The maturation of the Valentine variety is positively affected by care: watering, feeding, loosening the soil.
According to its characteristics, the Valentine cabbage variety is suitable for long-term storage. The presentation and taste are preserved for 6-7 months. Cabbage is intended for fresh consumption, but it is also used for pickling and pickling.
Disease and pest resistance
Valentine cabbage is resistant to major crop diseases and pest attacks. Its immunity to fusarium wilt is especially noted. To prevent planting, they are regularly sprayed with chemical or natural agents. During storage, no signs of punctate necrosis appear on the heads of cabbage.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Positive features of the Valentina cabbage variety:
- amicable maturation
- stable yield
- presentation and good taste of heads of cabbage
- resistance to cracking and disease.
Disadvantages of the Valentina variety:
- exactingness to the composition of the soil
- the need for regular care.
Seedlings - a guarantee of the harvest
As a rule, the Nadezhda variety is grown through seedlings. To do this, prepare containers or a greenhouse on the street.
- The soil should be fertile, but not acidic. Most often, gardeners themselves prepare a soil composition from sod land, sand, peat. All components are taken equally.
- It is useful to add a small amount of wood ash to the soil, as in the photo below. It contains all the trace elements necessary for the plant. In addition, ash deacidifies the soil and prevents the development of blackleg.
- Then the soil is spilled with boiling water with dissolved potassium permanganate. This procedure helps to get rid of spores of diseases, pest larvae.
Seed preparation and sowing
Before sowing, seeds must be disinfected for 20 minutes in hot water (not higher than 50 degrees), if they are not coated. Then dip in cold water. If desired and the presence of growth activators, you can use them.
Seeds are sown into moist soil to a depth of 0.5 cm, water gently so as not to blur the surface. Then cover with glass or film, which is removed after the appearance of the first sprout.
In a greenhouse or nursery, the temperature should not be high, otherwise the seedlings will stretch out. But the lighting is maximized.
Seedlings can be dived, but this is not necessary. The main thing is that the seedlings do not grow densely: weak sprouts must be removed. Upon reaching 20 cm in height and the appearance of 5-6 true leaves, the seedlings are planted in a permanent place.
In the process of caring for seedlings, they monitor soil moisture. Drying should not be allowed, but it should not be poured either. Too moist soil can cause root rot.
White cabbage varieties:
Bonus f1 cucumber: description, cultivation features
What is special about Bonus F1 cucumber? What kind is this in general? Who is entitled to this bonus, relatively speaking? In short, it is a parthenocarpic hybrid of a cucumber. It ripens early, The minimum time it takes for cucumbers to ripen is 39 days. The maximum is 43. Also a little more. In all cases, this is a very short period.
Cucumbers Bonus f1: description
As already mentioned, the variety is parthenocarpic. What does it mean? Not everyone knows the terms, in particular - agrotechnical. Just that it requires pollination by bees, and nothing else? Not quite so. The fact is that pollination is not required at all for fruit setting. Therefore, seeds are absent in such fruits:
- It is recommended to grow cucumbers in spring, summer and early autumn. This should be done in plastic greenhouses with or without heating. It all depends on the capabilities and desires of the gardener.
- The plants themselves are very powerful, of course, their color is dark green. As with the main part of other varieties. Of course, we are talking about sheets. They are medium and even large in size.
- The sheets are arranged semi-horizontally. This variety also has a very powerful root system. It is well branched and can perfectly adapt to different types of soils. These include compacted and even saline soils. Even to them, the variety perfectly adapts.
Like many other cucumbers, the type of flowering is female, 3-5 ovaries are formed in one node.
- Zelentsy are beautiful. There are few branches on the cucumber.
- Their average diameter is 4 cm. The average weight is about 120 grams.
Zelentov's shape is cylindrical. They are quite short in nature.
Experts estimate the overall yield of the cucumber Bonus f1 variety as high. Approximately 9kg / square meter. Really high enough.
In color, the fruits are intense green. The surface is provided with large tubercles and rather sparse white spines. If we talk about the pulp, then it is moderately dense, has a pleasant aroma. It crunches pleasantly when eaten.
Cucumbers f1 Bonus after harvesting for a long time does not wither. For this reason, their transportability characteristics are also at a good and high level. They can be transported over long distances, and the losses will be minimal, and you should also know:
- That the hybrid is resistant to many diseases of cucumbers. Which ones specifically will be described in the corresponding section.
- It is recommended to form this hybrid with the removal of lateral shoots.
- Its taste is excellent. Lowest human taste ratings: good. And during cultivation, it does not pose any particular problems for the gardener.
- These cucumbers sprout very quickly and in large quantities. The fruits are pretty pretty.
- How to eat cucumbers of this variety correctly? As you wish. It can be fresh, and in salads, and pickled, and in canned food, and all other types that have not been named.
- The variety was bred by experienced breeders. Therefore, there are practically only "pluses" in it: it is not afraid of low temperatures, and they are not afraid of drought either.
It can be planted both in open and protected ground. This should be done in March-April or July. Depending on the region.
Harvesting - from May to October. Recommendation: for it to be successful, you need to sow the seeds when even the threat of frost has passed. And the soil will warm up to at least 10-12 degrees Celsius.
Caring for these cucumbers is not very different from caring for other varieties. For parthenocarpic varieties, it is very desirable to plant in the most light, sun-lit area:
- Cucumbers are very fond of water. Therefore, they must be watered abundantly. Be sure to watering after the sun has gone down.
- It is advisable to loosen the earth from time to time, it is better not even to loosen, but to add earth.
Fertilizers are required. For example, apply calcium nitrate every week. This fertilizer improves the quality of fruit transportability and affects the severity of tubercles. Especially during hot months.
Diseases and pests
This variety is very resistant to various kinds of root rot, cladosporiosis, powdery mildew (real, but not false. To the latter it has average resistance).
He has no immunity to other "infections". As well as to all pests of cucumbers. Therefore, there is always a danger of getting sick with them.
Do you think that wood ash heals all ailments that afflict cucumbers?
Is there a universal way to protect and cure all diseases of cucumbers and other vegetables in general? Surprisingly, yes. This is wood ash.
It can be used to powder all vegetable plants, or apply it, thoroughly mixed with water. How exactly should you use it? Add to the root. How to prepare this mixture, this medicine? Dilute a glass of ash with 10 liters of water.