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The fast-growing and high-yielding cherry variety Lyubskaya has been known to gardeners for a long time and is still popular. Despite the sour taste of bright red berries and susceptibility to certain diseases, this stone fruit crop can be found in almost any garden plot, since Lyubskaya has many advantages.
A brief history and description of Lyubskaya cherries
Cherry varieties Lyubskaya grew on personal plots and gardens in the 19th century. The first official mention of it dates back to 1892. During his trip to the Korochansky district of the Kursk province, the gardener-scientist Nikolai Ivanovich Kichunov, examining the famous at that time Korochansky gardens, also described the Lyubskaya cherry.
In 1947, the variety was included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation. Lyubskaya can be grown in the North-West, Central, Central Black Earth, North Caucasus, Middle Volga and Lower Volga regions.
This dwarf tree reaches only 2–2.5 m in height, which is one of the advantages: it is convenient to harvest. Cherry crown - large diameter, exceeding height. Branches from the trunk grow at an angle of about 45 °. Cracked bark.
Cherries of the Lyubskaya variety grow no higher than 2-2.5 m
Cherry Lyubskaya is fast-growing: the first harvest can be counted on already in the 2-3rd year. By the fifth year, it reaches 5-6 kg, at a more mature age you can get up to 25 kg. In some cases, a harvest of up to 50 kg was noted. The period of active fruiting is 15–20 years.
The berries ripen quite late - at the end of July and even in August, but amicably. After ripening, they can hang on a tree for 2-3 weeks without loss of quality, on the contrary, they become even more juicy and increase sugar content. The size of the berries is medium - 4–5 g, the color is dark, the skin is smooth, shiny, thin, but strong. The seeds are small, weighing 6–8% of the berry mass, easily separated. The taste is sour, while cherries growing closer to the south are sweet and sour.
Cherry berries of the Lyubskaya variety - dark red, with a smooth, shiny skin
This self-fertile variety bears fruit well without additional pollinators. But the number of ovaries, and hence the yield, will increase significantly if cherries of the following varieties grow nearby:
- Fertile Michurina,
- Early spanking,
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Advantages of the variety (except for those already mentioned):
- early maturity;
- amicable maturation;
- transportability of berries;
- easy separation of the bone and its small size;
- easy harvesting - ideal for industrial gardens;
- the possibility of using in parks for landscaping.
The disadvantages include:
- sour taste, limiting fresh consumption;
- susceptibility to moniliosis and coccomycosis.
Planting cherries Lyubskoy
Planting a Lyubskaya cherry seedling is not difficult.
The crop can be planted in autumn or spring:
- spring planting is the best option, since the plant takes root better and the possibility of freezing is excluded. It is necessary to plant before bud break;
- autumn planting is also possible, but it is better to avoid it, since there is no guarantee that the seedling will not freeze. If, for some reason, you need to plant it in the fall, it should be the end of October - the beginning of November.
Selecting and preserving a seedling
It is better to purchase a seedling (saplings) in the fall, even if the planting is planned for the spring. In this case, by the time of planting, you are guaranteed to have high-quality planting material, while in the spring, before the budding begins, it is not always possible to acquire the desired seedling.
It is better to buy cherry seedlings in the fall, and plant in the spring.
The seedling must be one year old or maximum two years old... Older adults take root less well and develop poorly; a good harvest should not be expected from them. An annual seedling usually has a height of 70–80 cm, a two-year old - 100–110 cm. The bark should be silky brown without greenish blotches, the root system should be well expressed.
If you bought a seedling in the fall, and will plant it in the spring, then, in order to preserve it, you need:
- Dig a trench 30–40 cm wide and deep and about a meter long.
- Place the seedling horizontally in the trench so that its crown is above the ground.
When laying a cherry seedling in a trench, its crown should be above the ground
- Cover the roots and trunk with earth, and cover the crown well from freezing and rodents.
Thus, the seedling will be well preserved until the moment of planting.
Planting pit preparation
Cherry Lyubskaya loves light, well-drained soil. It grows best on small (8-10 °) slopes, preferably western or northwestern. It feels better on the northern slopes than on the southern ones. The place should be well ventilated, without flooding. Cannot be planted in lowlands, ravines. For group plantings, the distance between rows is 3 m, between trees in a row - 2.5–3 m.
It is better to prepare a planting site in the fall. For this you need:
- Dig holes 40–60 cm deep and 60–70 cm wide (diameter).
- Pour the top fertile layer into the pit, adding to it 10 kg of humus, a liter of ash, 150-200 g of superphosphate and stirring.
Humus is an organic fertilizer that enriches the soil with all the necessary elements
Planting cherries step by step
The planting process consists of several steps:
- A mound is formed in the pit.
- A seedling is placed on it, the roots are straightened and covered with the remains of the earth. At the same time, the root collar should remain at a distance of 5 cm above the ground level.
When planting a cherry seedling, straighten the roots, the root collar should be 3-5 cm above the ground
- A peg is driven in nearby, to which the plant is tied.
- The earth is well tamped, filled with three buckets of water.
- The trunk circle is mulched with a humus layer of 3-4 cm.
- All branches are shortened by one third, including the central conductor (trunk).
The order of planting a cherry seedling is the same as for other stone fruits.
Caring for Lyubka (as Lyubskaya is popularly called) does not cause much trouble, which explains her great popularity. In the first year after planting, there is no need to fertilize: there is enough nutrition introduced during planting. All that remains is watering 3-4 times per season.
- before flowering;
- during the formation of ovaries;
- immediately after harvest;
- at the end of autumn in order to recharge with moisture for the winter.
The watering rate is 20–30 liters per square meter of the trunk circle. After watering, you need to loosen the soil well and mulch the planting.
Do not water during the ripening period of the berries, as they can burst.
Top dressing will be required starting from the second year. In the spring, at the beginning of April, organic matter is introduced (10 kg of humus or 1 liter of chicken droppings dissolved in 10 liters of water). If there is no organic matter, you can add 30 g of ammonium nitrate, having previously dissolved it in 10 liters of water. Foliar top dressing with a 0.2% urea solution is effective.
If the fertilized soils are acidic, lime flour should be added to the ammonium nitrate in a 1: 1 ratio
For the second time in the season, cherries need to be fed after harvest. At this time, nitrogen fertilizers are not applied. It is better to fertilize with an infusion of ash (1 liter per 10 liters of water) or a solution of 2 tablespoons of potassium chloride and 3 tablespoons of superphosphate in 10 liters of water. Due to the fact that superphosphate is difficult to dissolve in cold water, it is better to pre-mix it with a small amount of hot water and only then add it to the general solution.
Crown formation and pruning
The crown should be formed in such a way that the tree develops in width (this greatly facilitates harvesting), and the bole at a height of 35–45 cm. Skeletal branches should be left in an amount of 7–10 pieces at a distance of 10–15 cm, branches more than half a meter long - cut to the side branch.
Pruning is done annually in spring - before the start of sap flow - or in October. First of all, dry and diseased branches are cut. Then the crown is thinned out, removing the branches growing inward. And also cut bare shoots by one third. You cannot cut out annual growths, since it is on them that the ovaries are formed.
Pests: how to fight
It should be noted that this variety has few diseases and pests. Consider control and prevention measures.
Cherry elephant (weevil)
It is a golden crimson beetle 5–10 mm in size. It hibernates in the upper soil layer, rises to the surface with the onset of warmth. It feeds on buds, young leaves, buds, flowers, ovaries. If you do not fight with it, it can destroy the entire crop.
Cherry weevil can destroy the entire cherry crop
An effective preventive measure is late autumn digging of near-trunk circles to a depth of 10-15 cm and (or) early spring digging. And it is also good to use lime whitewashing of boles with the preliminary removal of the old, dried bark.
In early spring, when the air temperature in the morning still does not exceed 5–10 ° C, you can simply shake off the beetles on a spread cloth or film. As a last resort, pesticides (such as metaphos) can be used, strictly following the manufacturer's instructions.
This less dangerous pest is widespread in the non-chernozem zone.
The larvae overwinter under a thin (2–3 cm) layer of soil, pupate in June. A small black insect (5–6 mm) with four transparent wings emerges from a pupated cocoon in July. The female lays eggs on the underside of the leaf, of which larvae appear in 1–2 weeks. They eat away the juicy pulp of the leaves, leaving the veins intact. The leaves turn yellow, dry up and crumble. If severely damaged, the tree can be severely weakened.
The cherry sawfly larva gnaws at the tender pulp of the leaf, leaving streaks
In September, the larvae hibernate.
Digging and loosening the topsoil, as in the case of the cherry weevil, significantly reduces the number of the pest.
During the period of mass appearance of larvae, plants are treated with one of the following means:
- infusion of tobacco or makhorka;
- infusion of wormwood;
- 0.7% soda ash solution;
- 10-30% solution of karbofos.
Diseases of cherry varieties Lyubskaya
Cherry Lyubskaya can be affected by moniliosis and coccomycosis. In advanced cases, this leads to the death of leaves, flowers, wood.
Cherry moniliosis, or gray fruit rot, is widespread today in many temperate regions.
Timely prevention is almost guaranteed to get rid of diseases. This is a case where prevention is easier than cure. For preventive purposes, autumn (after harvesting) and spring (before leafing) spraying with Bordeaux liquid is carried out.
In the case of the first signs of the disease, the trees are immediately treated with fungicides (agents for combating fungal diseases). Nowadays, there are many effective biological preparations of systemic action.
Systemic action means that the drug, getting on the surface of the plant, is transferred to other parts from the inside.
After 2–4 hours, the rain will not be able to wash off the drug, it will act for 2-3 weeks. Such preparations are harmless to people, some allow processing 5-7 days before harvest (Quadris, Horus, etc.).
Leaves and branches affected by the fungus must be removed from the site or burned.
What do we do with the harvest
Lubka berries are used mainly for processing. Since the stone is easily separated, and the intact pulp keeps its shape and does not drain out of juice, this cherry is good for:
- cherries in their own juice;
- candied fruit;
- jams, preserves;
- compotes, juice;
- blanks for dumplings, pies, pies.
Excellent cherry liqueurs and cherry wine are very popular. In the southern regions, where there is a lot of sun, the berries grow sweeter and can be eaten fresh.
Review of Lyubskaya cherry
Summing up, it can be noted that the Lyubskaya cherry variety has much more advantages than disadvantages. Planting and growing are available even for beginners and busy people. Having planted several such trees on your site, after a few years you can provide your family with tasty and healthy preparations for the winter without much effort.
Hello! My name is Pyotr Vladimirovich. I am 63 years old. By education - a mechanical engineer.
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Cherry Lyubskaya - an old variety with progressive properties
Lyubskaya is the same cherry that will allow you to make many different preparations for the winter, as well as prepare delicious wines, liqueurs and liqueurs. It is a technical grade with many benefits. Among them are absolute self-fertility and high productivity against the background of a compact crown, which forms itself. Like any variety, Lyubskaya is not without drawbacks, it is important to take them into account when growing.
Features of growing and subtleties of care
Cherry care Chernokorka consists of:
- formative pruning
- regular watering
- timely feeding.
For normal fruiting, fertilizers are applied to the trunk circles 2-3 times per season.
In the spring, the tree is fed with nitrogen-containing products:
In autumn, organic fertilizers are applied to the site:
The trunks are loosened and mulched throughout the year. For the winter, they are covered with a layer of humus or foliage, and the trunk is insulated with improvised materials.
Cherry care activities:
- In the spring, before flowering, trees are fertilized with a solution of urea, superphosphate and potassium.
- Young plants are watered up to 4 times a month. Water consumption per tree is one bucket.
- By the beginning of autumn, young seedlings stop watering.
- The products used for autumn dressing should not contain nitrogen.
- The root growth is regularly removed, which takes nutrients from the young seedling.
- In autumn, trunks are mulched with humus and foliage.
- Ground limestone is introduced into the ground. Its amount depends on the type of soil.
Formative crown pruning is carried out annually. Regular removal of young branches helps to heal the tree and give the crown a well-groomed look.
Regular pruning allows for the formation of a cherry crown
Video: Chernokorka - early cherry, the basics of care
Cherry Lyubskaya: variety description, photos, reviews
Most fruit trees are self-fertile. This means that in the absence of nearby related crops that can pollinate the plant, the yield will reach only 5% of the possible.
Therefore, self-fertile varieties are highly valued, especially in small areas. If 2-3 apple trees in a private garden are always appropriate, then the second or third cherry may be superfluous.
Lyubskaya belongs to varieties with high self-fertility, that is, without pollinators, it can give more than 50% of the possible yield.
The origin of the Lyubskaya cherry (Lyubka) is not known for certain. This is a variety of folk selection, which has been cultivated in the Kursk region since the 19th century. From there, it spread throughout the Middle Belt, and in 1947, at the suggestion of the Moscow Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution VSTISP, it was adopted by the State Register. The first description of Lyubskaya cherry was given by Michurin's contemporary, scientist N.I.Kichunov.
It is interesting that the Lyubskaya cherry in the Moscow region behaves in a completely different way than, for example, in the North Caucasus. The variety is prone to arbitrary mutations, which is why, not only in different conditions, but also in neighboring gardens, trees can grow, differing in yield, habit, size and quality of fruits. Because of this, the name of the Lyubskaya cultivar is often added "fruitful", "bouquet", etc.
Description of culture
Usually, the Lyubskaya variety is grown as a shrub, although in the State Register the cherry is listed as ordinary, and not steppe.In the northern regions, the tree is shaped by pruning so that it hibernates better. In the south, Lyubskaya cherry can be grown on a trunk.
The variety is a small tree, not exceeding 2.5 m in height. The trunk is covered with grayish-brown bark, covered with cracks. The branches are approximately 45⁰ apart from the trunk and form a rare weeping crown. This can be seen in the photo of the Lyubskaya cherry tree.
Buds from shoots deviate slightly, oval dark green leaves are pointed at the base and at the end. Flowers of Lyubskaya are collected in 3-4 pieces, white, located on a leg up to 3 cm long.
Fruiting occurs at a later date, mostly on annual branches. Berries of uneven size, medium or large, up to 5 g in weight. Their shape is almost round, with a blunt top. The color of the fruit is dark red; a light strip runs along the clearly visible abdominal suture. Cherry pulp Lyubskaya is red, juicy, with a mediocre sour taste.
A round seed with a sharp tip separates well, its size in relation to the berry is 6-8%. Green fruits sit firmly on the stalk, as they ripen, the connection weakens, but the cherries do not crumble.
Variety Lyubskaya is recommended by the State Register for cultivation in the following regions:
- Central Black Earth
- North Caucasian
- Middle Volga
Brief characteristic of the variety
Despite its mediocre taste and instability to fungal diseases, Lyubskaya cherry is grown in private and industrial gardens wherever it can overwinter. This is mainly due to the high self-fertility of the variety.
Drought resistance, winter hardiness
Drought resistance of the cherry variety Lyubskaya average. This means that the bush must be watered in the absence of precipitation. Increased frost resistance, but insufficient, it is difficult to grow a crop in the North.
Reviews of gardeners about Lyubskaya cherry suggest that the life and fruiting period in the Middle Lane is about 15 years, while for the center or south this figure increases to 20-25 years. This is due to the fact that in cool climates at low winter temperatures, the bole or branches can freeze out. The older the tree, the more difficult it is for it to move back in the spring.
Pollination, flowering period and ripening times
Cherry Lyubskaya blooms in the last days of May, for 5-8 days. The fruits ripen at the same time, depending on the region, from late July to mid-August. The variety is distinguished by high self-fertility, even without the presence of pollinators, it gives more than 50% of the possible yield.
In the literature, you can find the remark that Lyubskaya is a potentially highly productive cherry. What does it mean? If she is provided with good care, plus other varieties are placed nearby, then the yield can be very large. The best pollinators for Lyubskaya cherries are Vladimirskaya, Zhukovskaya, Anadolskaya, Shpanka Rannyaya, Lotovaya, Fertile Michurina.
Cherry variety Lyubskaya 2 after planting begins to bear fruit. It increases productivity quickly and yields good yields. This cherry is prone to arbitrary mutations, its fertility depends on its care and place of growth. Lyubskaya can give from 10-12 to 25 kg of berries, the maximum yield from an adult tree was 53 kg.
This is a technical grade. Reviews of summer residents about Lyubskaya cherry necessarily mention sour berries. It should be noted that the content of vitamin C per 100 g of pulp differs depending on the region. For the Middle band, this figure is about 20 mg, in the Krasnodar Territory - 11.7 mg. As you can see, in the south, Lyubskaya is much sweeter.
Important! Care is of great importance for the variety, including feeding, processing from pests and diseases. The better the agricultural technology of Lyubskaya, the greater the yield it gives.
The berries ripen together, do not crumble, the separation is dry, transportability is good.
Scope of berries
Lyubskaya is a technical variety, this cherry is good for making jams, juices, and wine. It can be dried or frozen. Fresh berry taste will please not everyone - it is too sour.
Disease and pest resistance
Cherry Lyubskaya has low resistance to fungal diseases, including coccomycosis. It will not be possible to do without processing when growing it. Among the pests, it is worth highlighting aphids and cherry sawfly.
Advantages and disadvantages
Lyubskaya is one of the best technical varieties of cherries for the Middle Strip. The advantages include:
- High self-fertility.
- Late flowering - ovaries are not threatened by recurrent frosts.
- With good care, the yield of Lyubskaya cherry is very high.
- With low agricultural technology, the variety still yields a decent amount of fruit.
- Harvesting is easy thanks to the sparse branches and compact size.
- The seed is easily separated from the berry, which simplifies the preparation for processing.
- The berries do not crumble, but they are cleanly detached from the stalk.
- Keeping quality and transportability of fruits are good.
- The berries of the Lyubskaya cherry are above average in size and large.
Among the disadvantages of the variety, we note:
- Low resistance to fungal diseases.
- Insufficient frost resistance for growing in cold regions without shelter.
- Sour fruits.
- Shtamb Lyubskoy may suffer from sunburn.
Cherry variety Lyubskaya gives high yields with good care. If a tree is planted and left unattended, there will be few berries.
Recommended timing and selection of a suitable location
Favorable days for planting Lyubskaya cherries come in early spring. It is necessary to "settle" the tree on the site before budding, otherwise it may not take root. If the planting material was purchased in the fall, the cherries need to be dug in, a planting pit prepared, and planted in the spring as early as possible.
Choose a sunny place, on the western part of a gentle slope. Water to the surface of the soil should come no closer than 2 meters. The soil needs neutral, manured, ideally light loam.
What crops can and cannot be planted next to cherries
Of course, pollinating varieties should be planted next to any cherry. Even Lyubskaya will yield twice as much if you choose the right neighbors. Just do not forget that cherries should be well lit.
And the Lyubskaya variety has a very modest size, it is impossible to be shaded by tall trees with a dense crown. Any stone fruit can be planted in the immediate vicinity.
It is not recommended to grow together with such trees:
- The roots of currants, raspberries, gooseberries, sea buckthorn tend to grow in breadth, with close planting they will certainly compete with cherries for water and nutrients.
- To cover the near-trunk circle from the heat and retain moisture, you can plant under a tree:
You just need to choose the plant that does well in your area.
Selection and preparation of planting material
Cherries should be purchased from a nursery or a trusted garden center. The central shoot of a one-year-old seedling should be about 80 cm in height, a two-year-old should not exceed 1.1 m. Make sure that the bark is ripe, in the Lyubskaya variety it is grayish-brown in color, and the root is well developed.
Important! A sapling one and a half meters tall with a greenish stem should not be bought - it is clearly overfed with stimulants.
Preparing cherries for planting involves soaking the root in water for 3 hours or more.
To plant a bush correctly, follow the instructions:
- Dig a hole 40-60 cm deep, 60-80 cm in diameter.
- Prepare fertile soil by adding a bucket of humus to the top layer of the soil, 50 g each of potassium and phosphorus fertilizers. Add lime to acidic soil, add sand to excessively dense clayey soil.
- Drive in a garter peg just off center.
- Place a cherry in the middle of the planting hole. Fill in the root, constantly compacting the soil. The neck should remain above the surface (5-7 cm).
- Ring the hole with a roller made of earth. Pour 2-3 buckets of water into the resulting circle.
- Mulch the soil.
Follow-up care of the culture
The cherry seedling must be constantly watered for the first year after planting, and when the soil dries out a little, loosen it. This will increase the air flow to the root system and retain moisture. Mature trees are less hydrated. Watering is increased when the Lyubskaya cherry blossoms, and 3 weeks before harvesting, they stop. In dry autumn, moisture charging is required.
The harvest of Lyubskaya is highly dependent on fertilizers. It is best to mulch the soil with a thick layer of mullein, and use wood ash as an additive. This will provide the cherries with the necessary amount of potassium and nitrogen. Phosphorus, which is needed less, is also found in organics.
Sanitary and formative cuttings of the Lyubskaya variety are carried out from the moment of planting. Dry, broken and thickening shoots are removed, the rest are thinned and shortened. This stimulates the growth of young branches, on which the main fruiting occurs.
In winter, the trunk circle is mulched with humus, in the northern regions the bush is tied with burlap, spruce branches or other covering material. This will also protect the bark from hares and other rodents.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
Cherry Lyubskaya is affected by pests, it suffers greatly from fungal diseases. If you do not carry out treatments, the bush will give a low yield, it may even die. The table lists the problems that most often affect the Lyubskaya variety, and methods for their solution.
|Coccomycosis||First, dark spots appear on the leaves, then the affected tissue falls out, forming holes. A gray coating appears on the reverse side. In the summer, infected leaves fall off||Spraying with copper-containing preparations is carried out along the green cone, after leaf fall - with iron vitriol||Remove leaves, do not thicken plantings, carry out preventive treatments|
|Moliniasis||The bush looks burnt. First, flowers and young shoots wither. Then the whole branches dry out, the fruits rot and crumble||Cut the affected branches to living tissue, cover the wound surface with garden varnish. Treat cherries twice with a copper-containing preparation||Removal of fallen leaves, thinning of the crown, whitewashing of the trunk and skeletal branches. Preventive treatment of cherries in spring and autumn with preparations containing metal oxides|
|Aphid||Colonies of black or green insects appear on young leaves and shoots, sucking out cell sap. The affected area curls up and becomes sticky||Treat cherries with aphid preparation, there are many of them. Products containing bifenthrin help well||Fight anthills, do not thicken the planting, lighten the crown|
|Cherry Sawer||Larvae, similar to leeches, covered with mucus, gnaw holes in the leaves in summer.||Treat the bush with an insecticide, for example, Aktelik||Carry out preventive treatments, make sure that the crown is ventilated|
Cherry Lyubskaya has been the queen of technical varieties for more than a hundred years. With proper care, even one bush will yield a rich harvest. The best jam can be made from this variety.
Lyudmila Valerievna Prokhorova, 55 years old, Kolomna
Cherry Lyubskaya grows well with us, bears fruit every year. True, we wrap the branches with jute for the winter - so the hares do not touch, and the frost is better tolerated. Pollinators were not specially planted - it is self-fertile, and all neighbors have at least one cherry growing. And the plots are small. Of course, it is sour, but it makes excellent jam.
Georgy Pavlovich Bunich, 61 years old, Krasnodar Territory
Cherry variety Lyubskaya grows well in our country, the berries are large, sweet and sour. Everywhere they write that it is tasteless, but I think our sun has slightly improved the situation. Yes, cherries should be sour, we have a lot of sweet cherries. There is nothing better than the Lyubskaya variety for jam. And what kind of wine comes out of it!