Raspberries are a unique berry. It is appreciated not only for its sweet taste and bright aroma. Due to its healing properties, it is used in medicine for colds. Such a delicious medicine promotes a speedy recovery and saturates the body with vitamins. A handful of raspberries is an excellent antidepressant: the copper contained in it strengthens the nervous system and improves mood. Raspberries are a favorite of gardeners and farmers. But not every variety will withstand the harsh conditions of Siberia, where there are bitter frosts in winter, and return frosts are observed in spring and even in June. For a harsh continental climate, only raspberries with increased resistance to adverse environmental factors, such as Shiny, are suitable.
The history of the brilliant raspberry variety
The variety was obtained by domestic breeders at the N.N. M.A. Lisavenko from crossing the varieties Cumberland and Molling Landmark. From the famous American black raspberry, the hybrid inherited a sweet taste, good transportability, from the British parent variety - bright, beautiful fruits and the ability to harvest without fear of thorns. Since 1989, Brilliant has been under strain testing, and in 1993 it was entered into the State Register for the West Siberian, East Siberian, Volgo-Vyatka and Ural regions (Altai Territory and the Altai Republic, Krasnoyarsk Territory and the Republic of Khakassia, Novosibirsk and Omsk Regions).
Raspberry Brilliant - a hybrid obtained by Russian breeders at the end of the last century
Description of the variety
A perennial shrub is highly winter-hardy, tolerates severe frosts well. Even young seedlings are extremely rarely frozen - only in those years when other plantings also perish in conditions of severe icing of the soil in the absence of snow cover.
The variety is endowed with persistent immunity - it is not afraid of drying out in extreme heat, it is resistant to damping off during prolonged rains, it rarely gets sick and is practically not affected by the raspberry gnat and spider mite.
Raspberry Brilliant berries ripen in the tenth of July
Raspberry Brilliant, medium early ripening. Ripe berries appear on the branches in the tenths of July. Fruiting continues until the end of July, which makes it possible to feast on fresh raspberries for a long time. The berries are harvested in 5–6 receptions; when overripe, they do not crumble. The farmers appreciated the beautiful presentation of large berries with a pleasant taste.
Characteristics of the brilliant raspberry variety
Medium bush 1.3–1.5 m high with medium branches. Biennial stems are straight, light brown, annuals are green with a bluish bloom. Elastic shoots with a drooping top under the weight of the berries tend to the ground, so it is necessary to use a support when growing raspberries. Thorns are located only at the bottom of the shoots, which greatly facilitates harvesting. Leaves are oval, medium size, dark green, shiny. Raspberries do not litter the area, since the bush gives a small number of shoots. It blooms with small white flowers, collected in racemose inflorescences.
Raspberry Shiny forms a medium-sized shrub with flexible shoots
Productivity - 35 kg / ha. The berries are large, with an average weight of 2.6 g, with a maximum weight of 5.6 g, spherical in shape. The raspberry got its name due to the glossy surface of the fruit of a dark red color. The pulp is dense, juicy, aromatic, with a pleasant sweet and sour taste. They contain sugars - 5.5%, acids - 1.3%. The berries do not lose their shape even during heat treatment: during the cooking process they do not stick together and do not boil.
Dense berries do not boil into jam
Red raspberries are healthier than yellow ones. But the most useful for health is black raspberry, it contains 3 times more antioxidants than other berries.
The variety is self-fertile, does not need additional pollinators. Even when growing a single bush, ovaries will form. But the crop yield will be much higher if 2-3 other species are planted nearby.
High adaptive abilities, resistance to diseases and pests, large fruit size and good taste distinguish the variety favorably from other varieties of raspberries.
Large-fruited and excellent taste distinguish brilliant raspberries among other varieties.
The yield of the variety depends not only on weather conditions, but also on the location of the raspberry tree, the quality of the planting material and compliance with the planting rules.
The best place for a berry grower
For the raspberry tree, an open sunny area should be allocated, protected on the north side by a fence or buildings. Culture will accept a light partial shade, but it grows poorly in the shade: the shoots stretch out, the berries become smaller.
For a raspberry tree, you should choose a sunny place protected from the wind by a hedge
The soil should be enriched with humus and have good moisture and air permeability. On sandstones, high yields can be achieved subject to the application of significant doses of fertilizers and regular abundant watering. It is best not to plant raspberries on heavy clay soil, in damp low-lying areas, where groundwater comes out close to the surface. The elevated areas are also unsuitable for the raspberry tree, where the snow is blown away by the wind in winter and the shoots freeze slightly, and in the warm season, rainwater does not linger, leading to a rapid drying out of the soil.
Raspberries will generously endow with the harvest if they grow on loose fertile soil
When choosing a location, it is necessary to take into account the acidity level of the soil. On acidic soils, raspberries, especially in wet rainy weather with a cold snap, quickly begin to show signs of nitrogen starvation - chlorosis, root growth worsens, as a result, the absorption of nutrients and water by plants decreases. To deoxidize the soil, lime is introduced for digging (500 g / m22).
Experienced summer residents must follow the crop rotation and try not to place the berry field in the corner of the garden where strawberries, tomatoes and potatoes were previously grown. Good predecessors of raspberries are green manure, zucchini, pumpkin, beans. After 7–8 years, the raspberry tree should be transplanted to another place.
Raspberries will feel great on the site where green manure used to grow
The author of these lines noticed that raspberries feel good next to red currants, cucumbers and carrots, cherries and apple trees. But at the same time, fruit trees should not shade berry plantings. But I try to plant sea buckthorn away from raspberries - these competing plants will fight for moisture and nutrition, as a result, the yield of both crops suffers.
Raspberries can be planted in both spring and fall. The period of spring planting of bushes with an open root system is limited - it should be done before bud break. In this case, the plants have time to take root and go through all the phases of development during the season. But fruiting will not be too plentiful, since all forces are aimed at strengthening the root system and growing shoots. Autumn planting is carried out 3 weeks before the onset of cold weather, so that the seedlings adapt to a new place, take root and get stronger. The specific dates of planting depend on the weather and climatic conditions of the region. Seedlings grown in containers can be planted throughout the season.
Container seedlings can be planted all season
Selection of seedlings
It is not worth taking the risk and taking a plant on the market, it is better to make a purchase in large nurseries or garden centers. Only a company with a good reputation will guarantee the survival rate of the bush and the conformity of the fruits to the declared variety. When choosing a seedling, you should take a good look at it. The plant should have a branched root system, without outgrowths and signs of decay, and flexible branches 8-10 mm thick. The container seedling must be removed from the packaging: the earthen lump must be intact, not crumble and all entangled in thin roots.
In raspberry seedlings, the root system should be well developed.
A large selection of planting material usually occurs after the completion of garden work, in late autumn. To preserve the seedlings until the spring planting, they are buried in the garden. Dig a trench to a depth of 15 cm, making one side sloped. Plants are laid out on it, the roots and branches are sprinkled 2/3 of the length with earth and, having well compacted the mound, cover it with spruce legs. In winter, the seedlings covered with snow will not freeze, and the thorny branches will protect them from hares.
Seedlings in a ditch will winter well
The site should be prepared in advance: dig it up, free from weeds, fertilize with humus (20 kg / m2) with the addition of superphosphate (60 g) and potassium salt (30 g) or ash (300 g). With strong acidification, lime is added to the soil (500 g / m22).
The area for raspberries is dug up and fertilized
In areas of risky farming, it is especially effective when planting to use biohumus AgroProstrost (12 kg / m2). Organic fertilization, due to the high content of humic acids, potassium and phosphorus, increases soil fertility immediately after application. A sparingly soluble form of nitrogen excludes nitrogen shock during autumn planting of shrubs.
When applied to the soil, AgroProst fertilizer sharply increases the biological activity and fertility of the land
Planting raspberries is carried out in a bush or linear way. Single bushes are planted in pits 60x45 in size, leaving a distance of 1 m between them.On raspberry plantations, it is more advisable to use planting in rows in trenches 50 cm wide, 45 cm deep, leaving row spacings 1.5 m wide.Plants are placed in a row with an interval of 70 cm between them.
On raspberry plantations, planting is carried out in rows in trenches
The acquired seedlings are dipped into the water by the roots 2 hours before planting, adding a growth stimulator (Kornevin, Heteroauxin) to it, and Fitosporin to prevent the development of root rot.
Step by step process
- The bottom of the trench or pit is covered by a third of earth with an elevation in the center.
- A seedling is placed vertically on a mound, spreading the roots in different directions. The container seedling is transferred together with the earthen clod.
A raspberry seedling is lowered into a hole and the roots are properly spread
- Sprinkle the earth up to the root collar, leaving it open.
- The soil is compacted so that air voids do not form around the roots.
- 5 liters of water are poured into the formed circular irrigation groove.
After planting, the seedlings must be watered
- The planted plant is cut at a height of 30 cm from the ground.
- The root zone is mulched with straw, hay or humus.
The soil around the seedling is mulched with humus
When planting in spring, protecting the seedlings from the bright rays of the sun, the first 2-3 days they are shaded with agrofibre.
Video: planting raspberry seedlings in the fall
The entire growing season, raspberries need care, and after the end of the season, it is necessary to prepare them for wintering.
Watering and loosening
A drought-resistant variety tolerates the sun and short-term lack of moisture. But the berries will be juicier and sweeter if you water them regularly. However, watering the raspberry tree should be dosed, since the stagnation of moisture in the soil leads to poor aeration, which can cause the development of rotten roots, freezing of plants in winter and even their death.
With regular watering of the raspberry berry, the berries will be juicy and tasty.
The bushes are watered 1-2 times a week so that the water saturates the soil to a depth of 30-40 cm - it is in this layer that the raspberry root system is located. The norm is 10 liters per plant. In a rainy summer, watering is stopped, and in the fall, if the weather is dry, pre-winter watering is required, increasing the volume of water to 20 liters per bush.
Sprinkler irrigation, furrow irrigation and drip irrigation are used to moisten the raspberry tree. Sprinkling is carried out using a hose or a sprinkler, while water is sprayed onto the soil and plants. This type of irrigation allows you to create the most favorable conditions for crop growth, especially during dry periods. But when the berries ripen, sprinkling is not used so that the berries do not become limp.
When sprinkling, not only the soil is well watered, but the entire bush
During this period, irrigation is used along the grooves, excluding contact of water with the crown. Watering grooves are made on both sides of the row, stepping back from the plants by 40 cm, to a depth of 10 cm. Water is allowed through them, and after absorbing moisture, they are covered with earth. Furrow irrigation is usually used in small suburban areas; on large raspberry plantations, it is more effective to use drip irrigation. The water supply system along the belts laid along the rows of plants is fully automated and allows you to maintain the necessary soil moisture.
With drip irrigation, water flows to the plants through pipes laid along the rows of bushes
After precipitation or watering, the root zone is loosened, thereby improving the water and air permeability of the soil. Loosening in the root zone is carried out at a shallow depth (no more than 7 cm), trying not to damage the superficially located root system, in the aisles deeper, by 10–12 cm. Then a thick layer of mulch from hay, straw, humus is laid. Mulching helps to retain moisture, improve the structure of the soil, protects the roots from overheating in the summer heat and hypothermia in the winter cold.
The root zone must be mulched with straw or other organic material
Feeding raspberries is key to getting sweet, large berries. In early spring, stimulating the intensive growth of young bushes, they are fed with nitrogen fertilizers. A mullein diluted in water (1:10) or chicken droppings (1:20) is applied under the bushes (the norm is 200 ml / plant). Instead of organic, you can use urea (30 g / m22), ammonium nitrate (40 g / m2). Dry fertilizer is scattered over the root zone and irrigated without fail. After the introduction of nitrogen-containing compounds that increase the acidity level, the soil around the bushes is sprinkled with wood ash (1 glass).
Dry fertilizer is scattered around the bushes and irrigated
When ovaries appear, raspberries must be fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. A dry mixture of potassium sulfate (30 g / m2) with superphosphate (60 g), Berry (50 g / m22). Or they carry out fertilizing watering with the addition of Ideal (30 ml 10 l) to the water. Provides an increase in productivity and the introduction of Biohumus (60 ml 10 l) under the root or foliage. Biofertilizer increases the amount of nutrients and also helps to increase beneficial microorganisms. In order for the plants to winter better, at the end of the season they are fed with superphosphate (60 g) and potassium salt (30 g / m22), AgroProstom (800 g per bush).
The culture is sensitive to the lack of microelements, it loses its inherent taste and aroma. Poor shoot growth, yellowing of leaves can be caused by nitrogen starvation. With iron deficiency, the veins of the leaf plate remain dark green, and the rest of the leaf brightens. Deformation and curling of leaves, the appearance of a dark edging is a sign of a lack of potassium. With a lack of phosphorus, the leaf plate acquires a bluish or purple tint.
Nitrogen deficiency can be judged by yellowed raspberry leaves
A good effect is given by feeding raspberries with yeast infusion, which is a growth stimulator and a source of necessary bacteria. I dissolve 10 g of dry or 500 g of fresh yeast in 10 liters of warm water, add 5 tbsp. tablespoons of sugar and leave for 2 hours. Then I dilute the yeast starter with water 1: 5 and add a handful of ash.Twice a season - in May and summer, when the ovaries are formed in warm weather, after moistening the root zone, I pour 500 ml of nutrient solution under the bush.
Fertilizer made from yeast stimulates the growth of raspberry shoots
As an organic feed, summer residents use herbal remedies: infusions of nettle, onion peels, banana skins. The nutrient liquid diluted with water 1:10 is applied under the raspberry bushes once a month.
Video: what is important to do for raspberries in spring
Support for berry bushes
Elastic branches with a drooping top can lie on the ground when the crop is loaded. As a result, the berries, especially in damp weather, become soaked and rotted. Strong gusts of wind can even break weak young shoots. Therefore, experienced gardeners prefer to grow raspberries using a support, which makes maintenance much easier. Several methods of garter are used - stake, fan and trellis. A single bush is simply fixed to a peg, which is driven in from the side. With a linear planting, it is more convenient to have a trellis support made of several pillars installed along the row at a distance of 3-5 m from each other. Twine or wire is fixed on them at a height of 50 cm and 1 m 20 cm from the ground and shoots are tied to them in an inclined position.
The trellis support for raspberry bushes is constructed from support pillars and several rows of wire
With a fan garter, the support is installed on both sides of the bush. Two neighboring bushes are tied to each stake at different heights: part of the branches of one and part of the other.
By placing the pegs on both sides of the plant, you can form a bush in the form of a fan.
The experience of growing raspberries at the Moscow Fruit and Berry Station has shown that the tapestry method is the most effective: the yield is 25% higher, the size of the berries increases by 4%. Bushes, fixed on a trellis, are well warmed up by the sun and ventilated, it is easy to approach and harvest them.
Correct and timely pruning of the bush increases productivity. In early spring, as soon as the snow melts, they remove completely frozen shoots or cut off the frozen parts of the branches and dust the places of the cuts with ash. 5 shoots are left on the bush, the rest are disposed of. The branches are not broken, but cut off with a sharp secateurs.
Experienced gardeners at the beginning of the season must pinch the tops of young branches, shortening them by 15 cm. As a result, the growth rate of shoots is somewhat reduced, nutrients are supplied to the buds, stimulating the development of lateral shoots and the formation of ovaries.
The tops of young raspberry branches are pinched to increase the ovaries
After picking the berries, the branches that bear fruit are cut off. They are cut off at the very base, because pests can settle under the bark for wintering. At the same time, normalization of annual shoots is carried out, removing weak, broken ones so that the berry plant does not waste nutrients and moisture on them. All cut dead wood is removed from the site and burned.
Raspberry pruning is carried out with a sharp secateurs, removing the sprouted shoots
Video: how to trim raspberries (instructions for dummies)
Reproduction of raspberries
Raspberries reproduce by seeds and vegetatively. The seed method is rarely used: it is quite time consuming and does not guarantee the preservation of varietal traits.
It is much easier to breed your favorite variety with the help of shoots or cuttings. Root offspring are dug up together with a clod of earth and transplanted to a new place. It is advisable to do this in cloudy or rainy weather, so that the bright sun does not dry out young shoots. The survival rate of offspring is almost 100%.
Root offspring are chopped off from the root and planted in the garden
Easy to propagate with raspberries and root cuttings. In autumn, pieces of rhizome 15 cm long are planted in the garden, after watering and mulching, they are covered with spruce branches and left to winter. In spring warming, after the snow melts, the area is freed from spruce branches and covered with plastic wrap. With the appearance of sprouts, the shelter is removed and cared for, as for an ordinary raspberry tree, consuming less water and fertilizers. At the end of the season, root cuttings are planted horizontally in prepared trenches. The survival rate in this case is up to 80%.
Root cuttings 15 cm long are kept in a greenhouse until sprouts appear
When grafting, use green or lignified cuttings. Green cuttings are harvested in June from annual shoots, cutting them into 5-centimeter pieces. The cuttings are lowered with a lower oblique cut for 2 hours in a solution with a biostimulator Kornevin. Then they are planted on a seedbed at an angle of 45 degrees and a temporary greenhouse is built to create a greenhouse effect. With regular watering and airing, rooting takes place in 2 weeks. Three times a season, young shoots are fed and watered. In the fall, they are transplanted to a permanent place.
Rooted lignified cuttings are planted in a permanent place in the fall
Lignified cuttings are cut after the end of the season and stored in the basement in moist sawdust. In the spring, after the establishment of warm weather, they are planted in open ground, covered with a film and subsequently looked after, as well as green cuttings.
How to protect raspberries from frost
Frost-resistant raspberry Brilliant winters well in continental and temperate continental climates, young shoots do not freeze out. With high snow cover, the variety can withstand frosts down to -34aboutC and even more. Lunges happen quite rarely in severe winters with little snow. Therefore, in regions with mild winters, it is enough to carry out moisture-charging irrigation and mulching of the root zone after autumn pruning.
In regions with mild winters, it is enough to mulch the soil, and to tie and bend the bushes so that the strong wind does not damage the branches.
In areas with a cold climate, it will be necessary to tie the shoots into bunches and tilt them to the ground so that they are completely covered with snow in the cold. For additional insulation, you can sprinkle the branches with a small (5–10 cm) layer of soil or cover them with agrofibre. The shoots are covered with non-woven material no earlier than a week before frost to avoid damping off. In winter, it is necessary to throw snow to the berry bushes - under a snow coat, they can easily endure the cold and piercing wind. In the spring, after the snow thaws, the shoots are freed from the shelter and tied to the trellis.
Raspberry bushes are tied in bunches, bent to the ground and covered with non-woven material
Video: how to help raspberries winter successfully
No matter how resistant the Brilliant variety is to pathogens and pests, unfavorable environmental factors can lead to outbreaks of diseases and massive accumulations of parasitic insects on raspberries. Therefore, during the season, it is necessary to carry out preventive treatment of shrubs.
Table: common raspberry diseases
Photo gallery: signs of raspberry disease
Table: the main pests of raspberries
Photo gallery: pests damaging raspberries
Its natural enemies - insects-entomophages - will help to cope with aphids: lacewings, hover flies, ladybugs. Planting calendula, mint, legumes and spicy crops in the garden contributes to an increase in their number. For 3 weeks, each ladybug eats from 7 to 10 thousand aphids and other insects.
Ladybugs are natural enemies of aphids, which are very harmful to raspberries
Raspberry Shiny is a real find for domestic gardeners. She is not afraid of either the winter cold, or spring return frosts, or summer droughts or torrential rains. She rarely gets sick, is resistant to pests. But a generous harvest of fragrant berries can only be counted on when growing crops on fertile land and with proper care.
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