Read the previous part.←Apple tree and pear - similarities and differences
For the successful cultivation of fruit seed crops, it is important to know the acidity of the soil of your backyard. It is denoted by the sign "pH" (concentration of hydrogen ions). Experts recommend evaluating the acidity of the soil by its external features, by the thickness of the arable layer and the podzolic horizon.
A thin arable layer (undeveloped sod), with a thick whitish podzolic horizon under it, indicates an acidic soil. The soil with a weak podzolic horizon and a thick dark-colored arable layer has low acidity. Optimal pH values for orchards are in the range of 5.5 ... 6.5.
At lower values, lime is applied to regulate it (on average 3.5-5 kg / 10 m2) before digging the soil to a depth of 20 cm. Liming is combined with the simultaneous use of organic matter. Ground limestone, dolomite flour, limestone tuff and other substances are used as limestone materials. When laying a garden, its entire area is lime.
It should be noted that on all soils suitable for gardens, the best predecessors are tilled and vegetable crops, after which the soil becomes loose, weed-free and more fertile.
Illumination, humidity, relief
When planting single purchased seedlings in a small (already developed) plot, it is rather difficult to choose the optimal place according to the soil composition, so you need to focus on the one that you have already outlined. You just need to diligently ennoble it if the quality of fertility there does not meet the optimal indicators. ...
I want to remind you that it is categorically unacceptable to plant a seed crop in the same place where its predecessor was recently uprooted, for example, an old sick apple tree. After all, a remote tree during its life cycle poisons a significant amount of land around the secretions of its root system.
The apple tree is a fairly moisture-loving culture. However, at the same time, it also copes with minor droughts, and also successfully tolerates severe frosts. It is thanks to these properties that she managed to go so far into the northern latitudes, in contrast to the "sissy" pear.
A pear is more demanding on light and heat than an apple tree. With a lack of light, pear trees develop slowly, a lack of illumination even affects the nature of its growth and the shape of the crown. Poorly lit pear plants are characterized by a low yield, since this culture makes especially high demands on light during flowering and fruit formation. For better growth of pear trees, permeable to water, air, and at the same time able to retain a sufficient supply of moisture in the root layer.
It is important for both crops to grow in a well-lit area. Although the apple tree is able to put up with partial shade, but in the excessively humid North-West region, and so suffering from a lack of light, low illumination leads to its rapid defeat by lichen, moss, diseases and pests.
When planting a more whimsical pear, you should also take into account the relief conditions of the terrain; slopes of any direction are suitable for it, although southwestern, western and southern (with a steepness of no more than 1-3º) are preferable. Every gardener understands that the slopes of the southern direction have more heat than the northern ones, which contributes to an earlier ripening of the crop and less damage to it with scab. On such slopes, the bark and wood of pears ripen better.
Both the apple tree and the pear prefer a soil with a neutral, in extreme cases, with a slightly acidic reaction, rich in organic matter and a set of mineral elements. These crops are very potassium-loving, but the pear needs a little more phosphorus and less potassium than the apple tree. Carbonate, acidic and saline soils are not suitable for them. Actually, an apple tree can grow and bear fruit on clay and peat, even on sparse sandy and stony soils, but this seriously affects its yield.
Both of these plants do not suit too arid places, but most importantly, they do not like the proximity of groundwater. Their roots, getting into an overly moist layer, begin to rot. As a result, trees die after a long illness.
How to arrange seedlings
Planting scheme for apple and pear
a - the distance between the rows:
4-5 m for trees on vigorous rootstocks
3-4 m - on weak rootstocks
b - the distance between trees in a row:
on vigorous rootstocks - 3-4 m from each other
on low-growing rootstocks - 2-3 m.
Preparing the soil for a large garden should be started 1-3 years before planting trees. When laying a garden, it is most optimal to use two-year-old seedlings.
When you develop a tree planting scheme in a large garden (and on a six-hundredth site too), you should always be guided by the following rule: “Measure seven times, cut one”, Because the tree will suffer from the wrong location and the gardener will feel inconvenience. Trees should be placed at least 3 m from various buildings. This distance must be maintained so that tall buildings do not give shade on the trees during daylight hours.
Planting fruit trees on the slope
In a row of plantings, apple and pear trees with voluminous crowns on vigorous rootstocks are placed at a distance of 3-4 m from each other, and plants on low-growing rootstocks - after 2-3 m.
The distance between the rows is left at 4-5 m for trees on vigorous rootstocks and 3-4 m for seedlings on low-growing rootstocks. If a mixed placement of fruit and berry crops is necessary, the distances between trees are increased in a row by 1-2 m, and between rows - by 1-1.5 m.
When laying a garden on steep slopes (more than 8-10 °), the seedlings are placed across the slope (3-4 m from each other). After that, sodding is carried out around the trees. This will subsequently prevent soil washout and nutrient compounds from being washed away from the slope. Rows of fruit trees can also be alternated with the planting of berry bushes, increasing their feeding area as described above.
Selection of seedlings and planting time
a - "excellent"
b - "C grade"
c - "fail!"
1 - root collar
2 - vaccination site
Apple and pear seedlings are planted in autumn (in September before the onset of cold weather) and in spring (late April-early May; preferably before the buds swell and no later than leafing, but better immediately after the soil thaws). If it is necessary to plant at other times, the roots of the seedling should be with a lump of earth. However, when buying in spring and autumn, plants with a closed root system should be preferred.
And the autumn purchase of seedlings without a clod of earth, and even leafy, is completely unacceptable, since the leaves indicate that these plants have not entered a state of dormancy, have not completed the ripening period of their wood. As a last resort, if this nevertheless happened, and you bought such a seedling, you must cut off the foliage immediately after purchase and keep the plant in a cool place until planting, wrapping the root system with a damp cloth to avoid drying out the roots.
By the way, when buying, the gardener does not hurt to check with the seller where the seedling is grafted, as this may come in handy in the future. Some experts sometimes practice grafting into the root or close to the root collar (the place where the root system transitions to the aerial part of the trunk). And if the grafting was carried out low enough, then in case of damage or freezing of the upper part of the plant, the gardener can hope to awaken the buds of the seedling in the lower part of the scion.
Bacterial root cancer
Before planting, the seedling is carefully inspected. There should be no outgrowths-tumors and even traces of neoplasms on the root system (bacterial cancer). If even minor cracks are found on the trunk, they are covered with garden varnish, all broken or rotted ends of the roots are cut off to healthy tissue.
The rest of the root system is carefully preserved: the better it is developed (the longer and more branchy the roots), the faster the seedling will take root after planting. All work with plants is carried out at an air temperature above 0 ° C.
The most dangerous thing for a seedling before planting is excessive drying of the root system, so it must be protected from the action of the sun and wind. It is useful to soak the roots in water for at least a few hours before planting. By the way, the survival and development of seedlings with an open root system significantly improves the treatment of their roots by dipping before planting in a soil mash, diluted on the basis of heteroauxin (0.002%, i.e. 1 g / 50 l) or on the basis of mullein.
According to the ingrained opinion, for spring planting, it is recommended to prepare a planting pit (approximately 1x0.6x0.6 m in size) in the fall. And at the same time (before the onset of frost) fill it with soil with the addition of fertilizers. In the spring, during planting, in a hole prepared in the fall and filled with soil, only a small depression is dug in it - of such a size that the roots of the seedlings can freely fit in it.
In my opinion, the need for such an early preparation of the landing pit is not very clear. If it is necessary to compact the bottom of the pit (say, to maintain the water balance), then after digging the pit in the spring, it is enough to simply trample the bottom well and compact the walls. Fertilizers applied to the soil in autumn can be partially washed out either during early winter rains, which are not uncommon in recent years, or in April bad weather. But the main purpose of pre-planting soil filling is precisely the accumulation in it for the longest possible period of the most important nutrients in a form accessible to plants.
Read the next part. Apple and pear planting technique →
candidate of biological sciences,
Senior Researcher, All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Pushkin
• What fertilizers should be applied when planting an apple tree
• Forming apple trees is an art
• Golden rules for pruning apple trees
• How to increase fruit set on an apple tree
• Choosing the best pear varieties
How to choose a pear for planting?
One of the rules for buying good planting material is not to trust "spontaneous" markets, where instead of a healthy seedling of the desired variety, you risk buying a low-quality product. It is much wiser to contact a specialized nursery. Even if the seedling turns out to be of poor quality, you can return it to the seller.
Selecting seedlings for most plants, including pears, is much more attractive in the fall. But spring is a good time to save good money on buying planting material, because at the beginning of the season the market is traditionally filled with "leftovers": sellers, trying to get rid of slow-moving goods, sell them at a discount.
It is best to choose annual seedlings as they take root better. Unlike an apple tree, a pear seedling can have branches even at such a "young" age: usually they are 1-2 branches up to 12 cm long. Pay attention to the appearance of the planting material: a healthy seedling has a smooth bark, elastic moist roots, there is no damage, and if the bark is pry a little, you will see bright green wood under it.
It is recommended to prune the pear when planting, shortening the long roots by 10-12 cm. Also, the leaves of the seedling need to be cut off, if any.
For a pear, it is better to choose loose soil, it should allow air and moisture to pass through well, but with a small amount of clay to retain moisture at the roots. In the garden, choose a south, southwest, or west side for it. The place should be sunny, but not sultry.
Due to the peculiarity of the root system, the pear loves moisture, but if the air is constantly saturated with water vapor, the tree begins to wither.
It is better to plant a pear in the fall, but you can also plant it in the spring.
Our market will help you find proven varieties and new selection on sale. Compare prices of online stores and choose pear seedlings.
For spring planting planting pits are prepared in autumn.
- The top fertile layer removed from the pit is mixed with organic fertilizers (rotted manure, compost or peat) and mineral potash-phosphorus fertilizers, wood ash or lime if you have acidic soil. The soil mixture is poured into the pit to the brim.
- Pour the soil into the bottom of the hole with a mound, drive a peg into the center. Place the tree in the hole, spread the roots over the mound. The root collar should be 3 cm above ground level. Cover with earth and tamp it with your foot or hand.
- After planting, mark the near-trunk circle with a roller made of earth and pour well with two buckets of water. After the water has been absorbed, mulch the soil around the plant. Without overtightening, tie the tree to the stake.
Important! Try not to put fresh manure in the planting hole, as long decomposition can damage the roots.
In the next video, the author of our Youtube channel, Tatiana, will show how to plant pears and apple trees in the fall:
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Site preparation for sowing
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Site preparation for foundation construction
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Site and soil preparation
Site and soil preparation Strawberries are best planted in light, well-cultivated areas.The physico-mechanical and chemical composition of the soil affects the survival rate of strawberries, as directly, when the soil has a certain resistance to growing
Development of the garden plot
Development of the garden plot Where to start the development of the plot? Do not try to plant the first seedlings that come across as soon as possible. First of all, you need to make a pre-planting layout of the future garden: fill up holes, cut off mounds, remove debris, stumps, stones.
Site preparation For planting garden strawberries, well-protected plantings of other crops, but illuminated areas with loose and air-permeable soil, free from weeds, especially from rhizome perennials, are allocated. The area of the future strawberry plantation
Rules and scheme for planting fruit trees and shrubs
How to plant a garden correctly? First of all, they start by loosening the soil, after which the planting pits are prepared. To do this, they begin to mark a rectangular zone on the site, which has a direction from north to south. In this zone, triangular areas with a right angle are marked and a hole is dug in each of them. Thanks to this placement leaves of garden plants will have better illumination throughout the summer.
When planting fruit trees, the required distance between seedlings plays an important role. If you observe the correct spacing, then during growth the plants will not interfere with each other with branches, forming too shaded areas. Also, there won't be too many empty areas. At the same time, there is no universal scheme for calculating the distance between fruit trees.
According to the rules for planting fruit plants of dwarf breeds, holes should be dug so that there is a gap of 2 meters in the row and 3 between the rows, for semi-dwarf breeds there should be 1 meter more free space both in the row and between them. But for plums, apple trees, pears and apricots, even more space will be required (4 and 5 m, respectively), which is explained by their natural characteristics.
After the pits are marked, it is necessary to determine their depth and diameter. These indicators are affected by the type of soil on the site. For fertile soil, the standard dimensions are 50x50 cm, and on sandy and clayey soil, you will have to dig a hole 1x1 m in size.
Planting apple trees
Apple tree seedlings must be planted to such a depth that their root collar is 7 cm above the soil level. Plunging into a hole the roots should be straightened and carefully covered with earth in such a way that there is not a single gap. In order for the soil to be in tight enough contact with the root system, the soil must be compacted all the time with your foot.
Placing apple trees apart depends not only on the type of wood, but also of what the supply was made. If the plants are semi-dwarf species, then the distance between the holes in the row is 3 m and 4 m between the rows themselves. But if the apple trees are columnar, then the distance between the plants is much less and can be 0.7 - 0.8 m from each other. As a result, about 15 pieces are placed on a plot of 5 m2.
It is best to plant pears in the southern, western or southwestern part of the garden, since the root system of this fruit plant constantly needs moisture, and the crown does not like excessive heat.
Pear seedlings are planted in the fall in holes, which must be dug in the spring. However, if the site is located in a climatic zone where frosts in winter reach 30 degrees, then young stands may die. That's why planting pears in the spring is considered a more reliable solution, because by winter the tree manages to grow up and get stronger enough, and the roots go deep into the ground.
The seedling pit must be made up to 0.5 m deep and up to 1 m wide, carefully loosening its bottom. The soil that is raked out of the pit should be mixed with peat and then put back into it.
This garden plant is usually planted in spring or fall. In central Russia planting plums is best done in springbecause early frosts can cause it to freeze. The area of the garden where it will grow must be properly selected. Plum does not like it when groundwater is located close to the surface of the soil, it also has a negative attitude towards shaded areas and acidic soil. Pits for seedlings are prepared in advance, and the distance between them should be 3 m.The depth and width of these pits should be 60 cm.
The most favorable time for planting this plant is spring. In order for the seedlings to take root well, you should choose a site with sandy, sandy loam or acidic loamy drained soil, which is well lit from all sides.
The spacing between planted trees of self-pollinated varieties is 3 m. If the cherry variety is cross-pollinated, then more than four different varieties should be planted in the garden. The depth of the planting holes should be no more than 60 cm, and the diameter - 80 cm. A peg is driven into the center, to which the plant is then tied up after dropping it. You need to watch so that the root collar is or at ground level or rose 4 cm above it. Deeper planting can lead to decay of the tree.
The plant is planted in the garden in late August - early September. Planting shrubs has its own characteristics. Currant should be planted obliquely, deepening in such a way that above and below the soil there are three buds. The rest is removed with a secateurs. If this is not done, then after the buds open and the leaves open, the bush begins to age prematurely. This is explained by the fact that the apical bud begins to draw out all the nutrients, as a result of which, due to a lack of nutrition, fruit twigs cannot form on the lateral branches, and the leaves will be located only at the ends of the branches.
Thus, in order to plant fruit trees and shrubs on a garden plot, you need to know certain nuances. It is possible to harvest a rich harvest only if all the positive and negative factors that can influence this are studied.
Garden tools are used for excavation work, pruning plants and for treating plants from diseases and parasites. Every gardener should have the following set of inventory:
- shovel, rake, pitchfork
- pruning shears, hacksaws, garden knife
- wheelbarrow, stepladder, spray.
Garden plantings include both natural plantings, directly on the ground, and auxiliary structures, which include arches, trellises and other elements. Lianas are often used as ornamental plants, which, rising along vertical walls, create real green curtains. Garden arches are used to frame paths or to decorate the entrance to the garden. Climbing roses and other climbing plants grow well on them. A trellis is called a trellis structure that serves as a support for green spaces. All garden structures can be made of wood, metal or plastic.