Proper cultivation of cucumber in the garden

Proper cultivation of cucumber in the garden

Warmth for cucumbers is an important and necessary ingredient to guarantee good yields. The spring whims of the weather and the peculiarities of the climate in some regions complicate the process of growing cucumber, despite its unpretentiousness. There are several ways to arrange beds that provide favorable cultivation conditions.

As an alternative to the greenhouse, you can prepare a wooden fixture with your own hands in the open ground, and fill it with a layer with a manure component, which, when interacting with water, will form a gas of a certain acidity with heat, which will heat the soil.

What is a warm open field for cucumbers

A warm bed is multi-layer cake with organic composition (manure, compost) and wood waste (sawdust, shredded branches), arranged in a dug trench on the site or installed directly on the ground.

There is also a mobile version, involving the use of a tall wooden box with a filler. Fertile soil is poured over the diverse organic matter.

The principle of operation of such a smart greenhouse bed is to accumulate heat generated as a result of organic decomposition through the release of methane.

The process takes place due to the combination of manure or humus with waste from economic activities:

  • sawdust, scraps;
  • eggshell;
  • vegetable peelings, etc.

And the starting mechanism is boiling water, which is poured over the prepared cake. When two components of the interlayer combine, microorganisms oxidize methane, which ultimately forms carbon dioxide.

With proper arrangement of the heat storage layer, it will be possible to operate the bed about 10 years, there are enough nutrients for the growth and development of vegetable crops.

Advantages and disadvantages of the device

The arrangement of such beds has a number of advantages:

  • sow cucumber seeds or plant tomato seedlingspossible earlier than usual;
  • heat stimulates young shoots for rapid development, strengthens the immune system;
  • acceleration is also facilitated by nitrogen, of which there is a large amount in the interlayer;
  • caring for the crop is facilitated, because there is no need for feeding;
  • it is easier to service a limited area;
  • layer of mulch prevents intensive weed growth;
  • the root system is constantly warm, so you can harvest until the very cold.

A warm bed has no drawbacks, if you do not take into account the labor costs for its arrangement. The process is actually not easy, it requires not only strength, but also knowledge.

You can achieve the desired result only subject to technology, therefore, you should first familiarize yourself with it and prepare an accumulating pie scheme. This will eliminate errors in the execution of work.

When to prepare a warm bed for growing cucumbers

You can start preparing a warm bed in the fall, but many gardeners prefer spring. This is due to the active decay process after the combination of all components.

During the winter period, the initiated reaction is lulled under the influence of subzero temperatures, so in the spring it is necessary to start fermentation, repeating the autumn stages again. You don't have to do extra work in the spring.

A place is chosen for a warm ridge on a hill with good illumination... The sun's rays will maintain the desired temperature in the soil. You should not choose a site that is well blown by the wind, drafts are considered the enemies of cucumbers.

The best location for a warm ridge is from east to west. In this case, access to the sun's rays will be maximized.

Arrangement work can begin late March - early April... But in any case, it is worth waiting for the snow to completely melt.

Views

Warm ridges are of several types.

Deep bookmark

This option involves digging a trench depth for 2 shovels, up to one and a half meters wide. The length is selected individually.

The first layer consists of shredded wood waste... Here you can use everything that is left after trimming the garden, sawing boards and other chores.

Next, a layer of vegetable waste: straw, leaves, grass cuttings. The next layer is laid out manure mixed with soil. The process ends with watering with hot water (almost boiling water).

To start the accumulation of heat, cover the top of the bed with a dark film, the edges of which must be carefully secured to prevent warm air from escaping. After warming up the soil, you can start planting.

On the surface of the earth

Work begins with marking the beds.

The parameters of this option are limited: length - within 3-3.5 m, width - no more than 1 m... The surface of the earth is cleared of weeds and covered first with a bucket of manure, then with 2 buckets of compost.

Fertilizers are leveled in the selected area with a rake, in this case there is no need to dig. To warm up and start the decay process, the top of the bed is poured with hot water and covered with a dark film.

Above the surface of the earth

The principle of arrangement is similar to the option with a trench, only the laying of interlayers should be done in over-ground box... You can knock it down from boards, slate and other scrap materials. After filling the fillers, the surface is poured with hot water and covered with a film for heating.

How to do it yourself

After determining the type of warm beds, you can start preparatory work.

Layer composition

When using the method of deep laying or arranging beds above the ground surface, multilayer soil cake... The sequence of the layers is as follows:

  • metal mesh laid along the edges of the trench (for the above-ground version, a box made of wood or other material is installed);
  • the first to be laid is a layer of coarse household waste (branches, wood scraps, knots);
  • then shredded cardboard, paper, shavings are poured;
  • after wood comes the turn of organic matter (kitchen waste);
  • the next layer is the leaves, tops of garden plants;
  • compost is lined on top;
  • the top layer of the cake is formed from fertile soil (25-30 cm).

The process ends with a light rammer, which will compact the layers.

The wood from which the box is made must be treated with an antiseptic before use. The height of the sides is 40 cm.

Proper preparation of the required soil

The top layer of the cake of warm beds is garden or vegetable garden soil. It should be sprinkled with hot water and covered with plastic wrap, securing the edges securely.

To warm up the soil and start the decay process, you will need from several hours to 2 days.

Preparation scheme and width for planting

According to the reviews of experienced gardeners, you need to build warm beds according to the following scheme:

  • the length is selected at will, restrictions exist only for the land method (up to 3.5 m);
  • width, allowing comfortable plant care, is selected within 0.8-1 m (with a deep bookmark, it can be increased up to 1.5 m);
  • total cake thickness - 1.2-1.4 m (the greatest thickness falls on the first layer 35-40 cm and soil 30 cm).

After laying out each layer, it is necessary to water it so that the beddings between themselves are better compacted, forming a single environment.

When operating a warm bed, you should water it in a timely manner, preventing it from drying out... In dry soil, the decay process stops.

A properly made bed with a heat accumulator is suitable for growing many vegetables and ornamental plants. After spending several hours on the formation of a multilayer cake, you can take record harvests from a small area for more than 5 years.


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Home »Vegetable garden» Cucumbers »How to form cucumbers correctly


Correct cultivation of cucumbers + photo

For better pollination and increase yields, 3-4 varieties are planted on one bed.

Only large seeds are selected for planting, they are stronger and more resistant to adverse conditions.

In order to have time to harvest most of the harvest before the onset of cold nights, seedlings are preferred. They grow it at home for no more than two weeks, so it does not outgrow.

Plants are planted in the ground less often, no more than four plants per 1 sq. m for open ground and two or three - for closed ground. The cups in which the seedlings are grown are not deeply buried in the ground, they should rise 2-3 cm above the soil.

In greenhouses, plants must be formed. Lateral shoots, female ovaries in the axils of the lower 3-4 leaves of the main lash are removed. In the next 3-4 nodes, one ovary with one leaf is left on the lateral shoots. In the next 3-4 nodes, the lateral shoots are pinched into 2-3 leaves, in the upper part of the stem, the lateral shoots can be pinched into 3 leaves. If the greenhouse is low, then 2 leaves are left on the upper side shoots. The top of the plant is twisted 2-3 times around the wire and immediately pinched, in high greenhouses, the whips are thrown over and removed at a distance of 80-100 cm from the soil. All these operations are carried out only in the first half of the day.

Plants do not form outdoors. In order to turn over the whips less, from the middle of June the film is removed and the plants are lifted onto the trellis (see fig.). During rains, strong dews, cucumbers must be covered with a film or a film roof is arranged over the garden bed.

Before fruiting, cucumbers are fed twice with an interval of 8-10 days, preferably with a mullein in a ratio of 1:10 at the rate of 0.5-1 liters per plant. Of the mineral fertilizers, superphosphate (20-25 g), potash fertilizer (20-25 g) or ash (1.5 cups per 10 liters of water) are used. After 10-15 days, feeding is repeated with the addition of micronutrient fertilizers. With the beginning of fruiting, nitrogen fertilizers are included, preferably in the form of an extract from organic matter (mullein 1:10, chicken manure 1:20, "green" fertilizer). They are fed every two weeks. It is important not to overfeed the cucumbers. Plants do not tolerate a high concentration of fertilizers, so it is better to feed them more often, but in smaller doses. Before fertilizing, the soil is watered with water.

As a foliar top dressing in the greenhouse, it is imperative to put "fermenting" manure, thereby increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide.

For better pollination and enlargement of the ovaries, plants are sprayed on flowers with the following composition: 2 g of zinc sulfate and manganese sulfate per 10 liters of water, you can add 2 g of boric acid. Spray no more than two to three times per season with an interval of 2-3 weeks.

To prevent diseases, preventive treatments are carried out. Suspended powdery mildew - 1% Bordeaux liquid in the phase of 1-2 leaves and again after 7-10 days with skim milk with iodine - for nine liters of water a liter of skim milk and 10-20 drops of 5- or 10% tincture of iodine.

At the first signs of downy mildew damage - two or three sprays with a weak solution of nitrogen fertilizers with an interval of 4-6 days (1 tablespoon of urea without top and 0.5 liters of skim milk per 10 liters of water).

From powdery mildew - with ash lye (a half-liter can of ash is brewed with two to three liters of boiling water and water is added to 10 liters).


Planting cucumbers according to the classic scheme

All the advice of agronomists comes down to the general opinion: there should be from 2 to 4 bushes per 1 m² of the garden (depending on the variety and method of plant formation).

There are various techniques for arranging cucumber beds. A classic landing in a row with the placement of vines on a support is taken as a starting point:

  • planting depth - 4-5 cm
  • distance between plants in a row - 40-50 cm
  • the distance between the rows is 80-100 cm.

The approach to planting density is somewhat different in the case of direct seeding into the ground. The general recommendations of experienced summer residents boil down to one thing: non-germinated seeds must be planted with a margin for poor germination and other unforeseen circumstances.

After the appearance of 1 true leaf, weak plants are removed.


Unusual methods

Cucumber lovers from all over the world continue to modernize old and well-known garter methods and along the way are developing new, original ways of forming a cucumber bush.

Cucumbers in a barrel

The barrel serves as the basis for the construction. Plants are planted in a container filled with soil. Due to the force of gravity, growing, the shoots begin to hang over the edges and grow vertically downward. This method saves space on the site.

Cucumber tree

The basis of tying in the formation of a bush in several shoots in such a way that it becomes like a tree... For this, a structure with horizontal bars is built. A rope is fixed on it, which will connect the main stem and the crossbar. Ropes are also attached to the side lashes and spread on the sides. After the formation of female ovaries, the lateral stems are carefully brought to the main one. The angle between the central and lateral shoots is left at 60 °, so the plant is not injured. The mustache from the central shoot is twisted around the lateral one, and the remaining processes are removed.

Plastic bottles

In this method, a plastic bottle is used as a fixation of the cucumber stem to the structure. The bottle is cut into strips of the desired size. A strip is wrapped around the stem and the structure at the attachment point, the ends of the plastic are connected with a stapler.

Natural trellis

The fence acts as a basis for tying. Plants are planted along the structure, and if it is a chain-link, it is enough to direct the cucumber, and he himself will begin to braid the net. And if the fence is wooden or metal, they stretch the ropes from the upper edge to the bases of the bushes, and the cucumbers begin to braid them.


Correct cultivation of cucumbers

For better pollination and increase yields, 3-4 varieties are planted on one bed. Only large seeds are selected for planting - they are stronger and more resistant to adverse conditions.

In order to have time to harvest most of the crop before the onset of cold nights, seedlings must be grown. If you plan to do this at home, then I recommend sowing seeds no more than 3 weeks before planting seedlings. In this case, it will take a week for the seeds to germinate and about two weeks to develop the seedlings - then the cucumber plants will not outgrow.

Seedlings are planted in the ground less often, no more than 4 plants per 1 square meter in open ground and 2-3 plants in a greenhouse. The cups in which the seedlings were grown are not buried in the ground, they should rise slightly above the soil.

Plants do not form outdoors. In order to turn over the lashes less, from the middle of June the film is removed and the plants are lifted onto the trellis.During rains, strong growths, cucumbers must be covered with a film or a film roof is arranged over the garden bed.

In greenhouses, plants must be formed. Lateral shoots and ovaries in the axils of the lower 3-4 leaves are removed. In the next 3-4 nodes, one ovary with one leaf is left on the lateral shoots. In the next 3-4 nodes, the lateral shoots are pinched into 2-3 leaves, in the upper part of the stem, the lateral shoots can be pinched into 3 leaves. If the greenhouse is low, then 2 leaves are left on the upper side shoots. The top of the plant is twisted 2-3 times around the wire and immediately pinched, in high greenhouses, the whips are thrown over the top wire and the hanging tops are removed at a distance of 80-100 cm from the soil. All these operations are carried out only in the first half of the day.

For better pollination and enlargement of ovaries, plants are sprayed during flowering with the following composition: 2 g of zinc sulfate and manganese sulfate - per 10 liters of water, you can add 2 g of boric acid. Spray no more than two to three times per season with an interval of 2-3 weeks.

To prevent diseases, preventive treatments are carried out. Downy mildew is treated with 1% Bordeaux liquid in the phase of 1-2 leaves and again - after 7-10 days, as well as skim milk with iodine (for nine liters of water - a liter of skim milk and 10-20 drops of 5 or 10 % tincture of iodine).

At the first sign of downy mildew, you need two

treat the plants three times with a weak solution of nitrogen fertilizers with an interval of 4-6 days (1 tablespoon of urea without top and 0.5 l of skim milk per 10 l of water).

For powdery mildew, it is good to use ash lye - a half-liter can of ash is brewed with two to three liters of boiling water and topped up with water to 10 liters.

BASIC ATTENTION - FEEDING

Before fruiting, cucumbers are fed twice (with an interval of 8-10 days), preferably with a mullein in a ratio of 1:10 at the rate of 0.5-1 liters per plant. From mineral fertilizers, superphosphate (20-25 g), potash fertilizer (20-25 g) or ash (1.5 cups per 10 liters of water) are used. After 10-15 days, feeding is repeated with the addition of micronutrient fertilizers. With the onset of fruiting, they are fed every two weeks, alternating organic and mineral fertilizers.

It is important not to overfeed the cucumbers. Plants do not tolerate a high concentration of fertilizers, so it is better to feed them more often, but in smaller doses. Before fertilizing, the soil is watered with water.

As a foliar top dressing in the greenhouse, it is imperative to put "fermenting" manure, thereby increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide.


Harvesting

Harvesting the fruits of a mad cucumber should be carried out when the “cucumbers” are not yet fully ripe: approximately on the eighth, maximum - the tenth day from the moment the ovary appears. Delicious momordica is always sunny yellow. If the fruits have managed to turn orange, then they are already overripe and not nearly as tasty as they could be.

The slightly unripe Momordica has a breathtaking scent. But the taste is bitter. Therefore, before eating mad cucumbers for food, it is recommended to either slightly boil them in boiling water - literally 30 seconds, or soak them in a saline solution. Then you can do whatever your heart desires with these cucumbers: salt, soak, pickle, add to salads, side dishes and soups.

If momordica for you is, first of all, a medicinal raw material, then the collection must be done at different times:

  • leaves harvested in May, when the formation of the vine is completed
  • sunflower seeds harvested in the summer - after self-rupture of fruits
  • roots harvested in early or mid-October.

Raw materials of momordica must be dried in the fresh air, organized shelter from the rain and shaded, so that the direct rays of the sun do not fall on it. And after the medicinal raw material dries well, it should be packaged in glass jars and put away in a cool room - away from sunlight.


Watch the video: 7 Tips to Grow Cucumbers in Containers