Actinidia is a thermophilic fruiting vine. Few people know that this plant is capable of developing not only in warm climates. Actinidia grows superbly in the windy expanses of the Urals and the cold territories of Siberia. Our country got acquainted with these vines in the 19th century, at least, historical sources date back to this century. In those days, actinidia was bred mainly in the south of Russia and in the Moscow region. Now actinidia are successfully grown in various climatic zones both for garden decoration and for harvesting fruits.
Is it possible to grow actinidia in Siberia
Actinidia (some varieties) is familiar to us for its juicy kiwi-like fruits. Now these berries can be found in any store, supermarket or market. But few know it as a liana that adorns the facades of houses and pergolas in gardens. For some reason, it is believed that actinidia, which is a native of Southeast Asia, can grow and bear fruit only in warm climates. In fact, this is nothing more than a myth. Actinidia is a self-fertile plant, the flowers of which are subdivided into female and male. It is quite easy to distinguish between them. Female flowers grow singly, male flowers form groups of 3-4 inflorescences.
Video: how to recognize female and male flowers
Despite the fact that the summer temperature in Siberia reaches +25 degrees, the sun is more active than, for example, in Sochi. Therefore, actinidia is planted mainly in shaded areas. The plant is less prone to frost in this region than other crops. It depends on the fact that foliage appears late enough on the vine. If some branches still freeze, instead of them the plant releases several new shoots.
It goes without saying that in Siberia, as in every single region, cultivation of horticultural crops requires a special approach to planting, cultivation and care, taking into account the peculiarities of the climate.
Actinidia varieties for cultivation in Siberia
The heat-loving actinidia prefers a mild climate. But there are hardy varieties of various selections of actinidia kolomikta, which can grow and bear fruit in Siberia. Currently, more than 30 varieties of actinidia kolomikta are registered in the state register. Since 1908, scientists have been working on breeding species that can grow and bear fruit in difficult climatic conditions.
Actinidia of I.V. Michurina
- Pineapple Michurina actinidia. This is a winter-hardy liana belonging to the early ripening varieties. Begins to bear fruit in early August. Fruiting is extended. Up to 5 kg of berries can be harvested from one bush. It is considered a high-yielding type. The fruits of the Pineapple actinidia are cylindrical in shape, slightly flattened on the sides, weighing from 2.3 to 3.5 g.
- Actinidia Clara Zetkin. It is moderately hardy. The fruits ripen late. The weight of one berry varies from 1.5 to 3.5 g. The shape of the fruit is cylindrical, the color is yellowish-green. Up to 2.6 kg can be harvested from one bush.
The fruits of the actinidia variety Klara Zetkin are yellow-green in color.
Selection of the Moscow branch of VNIIR
- Sakhalin-23. This is a winter-hardy variety of actinidia. Liana is considered to be undersized. Refers to varieties of early ripening. Begins to bear fruit in early August. Fruits are green in color with longitudinal light stripes. The weight of one berry varies from 1 to 1.5 g. Light astringency gives the berries a unique taste, especially in combination with honey aroma.
- University. Winter-hardy vine of average fruit ripening. Deep green berries with longitudinal stripes, slightly ribbed, with a unique shine of the skin. The appearance vaguely resembles gooseberry berries. Sweet, almost sugary fruits with a light citrus aroma. The yield of this variety cannot be called high - 0.7–0.8 kg per bush.
The fruits of the Universitetskaya actinidia are similar in color to gooseberries.
- GF 17/9 is a short liana. It is winter-hardy, fruiting period is late. Like Universitetskaya, it has a green color with light stripes. The weight of one fruit varies from 1.5 g to 2.4 g. The berry has a slight strawberry flavor. Up to 1800 grams can be harvested from one bush.
- Home garden actinidia. It is considered a relatively winter-hardy variety. Pleases gardeners with the early ripening of fruits. The elongated cylindrical shape of the berries can reach 3.5 g. The taste of the fruit is sweet and sour. When overripe, the berries tend to crumble. The yield of this variety is average, up to 2 kg per bush.
Actinidia variety Priusadebnaya has an average yield
The Novosibirsk selection includes hybrid varieties. They have high winter hardiness properties. They are distinguished by excellent decorativeness. They are characterized by early ripening of fruits. All hybrids of this selection belong to the elite form.
- Snowball. Actinidia pollinator. Medium-sized, profusely flowering liana.
- Compact actinidia. The bush is medium-sized. Fruits are dark green, cylindrical in shape. But among them there are also flat specimens. The weight of one berry is from 2 to 3.9 g. Fruits are sweet, with a light banana aroma. The variety is considered to be high yielding. Up to 4 kg of berries can be harvested from one bush.
- Borisovskaya. A vigorous bush. The flowers are female. Fruits of olive color, when overripe, crumble strongly. Differs in excellent yield - up to 4.5 kg from one bush.
- Novosibirsk early. Multi-stemmed bush with dense foliage. Actinidia flowers of both sexes. The fruits are yellow-green. The shape can be either cylindrical or pear-shaped. The mass of one berry ranges from 1.7 to 2.4 g. The yield of this variety is very high - up to 7 kg from one bush.
Among gardeners, actinidia of the Novosibirskaya early variety is also called polygamous
Planting actinidia in Siberia
Actinidia is bought as seedlings in markets, horticultural centers or garden shops. When buying, you need to check with the seller for the sex of the plant so as not to purchase a pollinator instead of a fruiting vine. It is also important to pay attention to the roots. A seedling with dried or damaged roots is unlikely to take root. It is easier to plant plants planted in containers.
Gardeners prefer seedlings, since planting and growing actinidia from seeds takes a long time. It will be possible to harvest the first crop from a vine planted with seeds only in the 5-6th year.
In Southeast Asia, liana grows in forests. But this does not mean that it needs to be planted among the thickets of trees on the personal plot. Actinidia does not like the absence of light, but an excess of sunlight can be destructive for her. The landing site must be protected from drafts.
The plant prefers fertile soil with a layer of humus. Actinidia will be able to grow in areas depleted in vitamins, but such a soil will reduce the yield of the vine.
To plant vines, it is necessary to dig a planting hole 50–60 cm deep. Initially, a mixture of humus and turf (or black soil) is poured. You can add 1 tbsp to humus. l. superphosphate. When applying phosphate fertilizer, it must be mixed with the soil so as not to burn the roots. Then a plant is lowered into the hole. Sprinkled with fertile soil. After planting, actinidia must be watered abundantly. The ground around actinidia should be moist, but not damp, as the vine does not like excess moisture. After that, the soil around the plant is mulched with peat, straw, chips or sawdust. Fertilizers are applied to the soil in autumn and spring.
Video: how to plant actinidia correctly
Features of growing and care
Actinidia, although unpretentious, requires some care. For example, in the first 2-3 years after planting, the plant must be removed from the trellis, covered for the winter with straw, leaves, hay, garden film. Agricultural bags can be used instead of film. This is done in order to protect the vine from freezing.
But it's not just frosts that harm plants. Pets are not averse to feasting on young shoots. Therefore, it is worth taking care in advance that cats and dogs do not have access to seedlings. You can fence the actinidia with a plastic or metal mesh.
When weeding actinidia, it should be borne in mind that the root system of the plant does not go deep into the ground. In view of this, you need to carefully loosen the soil on the surface. This will provide air for the roots and prevent cracking of the soil.
Cuttings of actinidia
In mid-July, cuttings can be carried out. A non-lignified stem is selected. Cut into 2-3 buds. Of the leaves, only the upper ones remain. The lower leaves must be cut off. Cuttings are planted at an angle in sandy soil. In order for the plants to take root and begin to develop actively, you need to water the actinidia abundantly and cover the beds with a garden film. This creates a greenhouse effect. Within 2-3 weeks, the vine takes root in a new place. After this time, the greenhouses can be opened in cloudy weather, so that the plants gradually adapt. After planting, the cuttings are sprayed 3-4 times a day so that moisture remains inside the greenhouse. As the vines grow, watering should gradually decrease.
Video: cuttings of actinidia, features of care
Plant feeding and pruning
Liana is fed 2 times a year: in spring and autumn. Before the onset of cold weather, organic fertilizers and potash salt are applied to the soil. Since actinidia is sensitive to chlorine contained in potassium fertilizer, the dosage should be reduced. Instead of those indicated in the instructions 30-40 g per 1 m2 entered 10–20 g.
Complex types of fertilizers containing phosphorus and nitrogen are applied to the soil in spring. Such fertilizers include: Ammophos, Good Strength, Slox-Eco, Flower Happiness and others. You can buy them in garden centers, markets and online. The cost varies from 75 to 390 rubles.
Complex fertilizer Diammofosk with nitrogen and phosphorus is suitable for feeding actinidia in spring
Actinidia pruning is best done in September, October. The old branches of the vine are removed with a pruner. It is better to cut them off in parts - this way it will be easier to pull them out of the trellis. It is worth carefully examining actinidia for damaged stems. Crossed branches are also cut to provide adequate ventilation between the stems. The cut branches are removed immediately.
Video: how to trim actinidia
Diseases of actinidia in Siberia
This vine rarely gets sick. With proper care, actinidia actively develops and bears fruit. Nevertheless, sometimes these plants are subject to such diseases:
- powdery mildew;
- plant damage by fungi;
- fruit rot.
Experts advise removing branches damaged by diseases and burning them to prevent the spread of the disease. For the prevention of diseases, it is necessary to spray the plants with 1% Bordeaux liquid after the buds appear on the vine. To destroy powdery mildew, you need to spray actinidia with a 0.5% solution of soda ash. After 8-10 days, you must repeat the procedure.
Reviews of gardeners about growing actinidia
Actinidia is one of those plants that delight with both decorativeness and delicious fruits. With proper care and adherence to simple rules, this vine can grow in different regions of the country. And Siberia is no exception. More and more gardeners and gardeners are exploring new crops with interest and perseverance. We hope that our tips will help you in this difficult, but extremely entertaining business.
Photographer, copywriter. Work experience 8 years. Knowledge of English, German.
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Actinidia: successful cultivation in Siberia
Actinidia is the closest relative of the kiwi, which can be cultivated even in Siberia. Many Siberian gardeners were convinced that this is not only a beautifully ornamental plant that adorns the courtyard with its appearance, but also a liana capable of producing harvests of useful fruits. Growing actinidia in Siberia may seem like a hassle, but not everything is as difficult as it seems.
Features of growing a plant in this region
The Siberian region is distinguished by its climate and soil, therefore, when growing, it is necessary to observe certain features for the development of the plant and obtaining the necessary yield.
Site selection and soil composition
The plant is perennial, therefore, when choosing a soil, it is necessary to take into account all the features, otherwise the actinidia may die.
The soil must meet the following requirements:
- neutral acidity
- preference is given to loamy fertile soils
- the amount of moisture is moderate, the accumulation of liquid can lead to rot in the root area.
When choosing a place, it is necessary to give preference to a sunny area, mainly on a hill. Since the shoots of the bush are in the form of vines, it is necessary to provide a fence along which the branches will curl in the future. The bush should have a large amount of space, an area with large quantities of trees is not suitable for planting.
When to plant
Actinidia is planted in the Urals in the spring season. In autumn, the culture may not have time to get stronger before the first frosts. In the spring, planting material is planted in early May, when the air warms up.
If, nevertheless, there are slight frosts, the plant can cope on its own without harm to the roots and shoots.
Important. To protect the seedling from possible low temperatures, it is necessary to use a plastic bag in the first few weeks after planting, which covers the culture at night.
How to choose the right seedling
When choosing planting material, the following features must be taken into account:
- The roots of the culture should be closed, as they can very often be damaged during transportation.
- The cuttings should be free of seals and damage.
- The cutting should be no more than 1 year old. Such planting material quickly adapts to a new growth site.
- It is necessary to purchase seedlings in specialized places. When buying, it is necessary to clarify the presence of both male and female seedlings.
Seedlings cannot be stored for a long time. Therefore, after purchase, it is recommended to immediately plant the plant in the soil, otherwise the cutting will weaken.
During the planting process, the following rules must be observed:
- Clean the planting site of vegetation. Dig a hole 40 cm deep.
- A drainage layer is laid at the bottom of the hole.
- The soil that was removed from the hole must be mixed in equal proportions with humus, a glass of superphosphate and 50 grams of potash fertilizer.
- A quarter of the hole is filled with a nutrient composition, forming a mound.
- The stalk is freed from the film, which preserves the integrity of the lump on the roots, the free root processes on the mound are carefully straightened. The remaining nutrient mixture is poured into the hole and tamped.
- A pole is installed near the cutting to support the plant during growth.
- The well is watered with plenty of warm water.
When planting a culture, it is necessary to maintain a distance between the holes of at least 60 cm.
Varieties and varieties of actinidia for the Urals
- By its nature, actinidia is considered a heat-loving culture, therefore, if you want to plant a plant in the harsh Siberian conditions, pay attention to suitable varieties with good cold-resistant characteristics and endurance to any weather changes.Experienced growers are sure that the best solution for growing in the Urals is the actinidia Kolomikta. By the way, this species is represented by many popular varieties and hybrids, which expands its decorative and practical properties. Let's highlight the most popular varieties: -"Doctor Shimanovsky"... They are a very interesting hybridization that has an excellent appearance in the form of whitish-green leaves and a slightly pinkish color in summer. Ripe fruits turn yellow and fall off immediately after ripening. Liana is characterized by a very rapid annual growth, up to 1.5 meters. In most cases, the height of the culture reaches 4 meters.
- grade "Adam". It is very popular among the flower growers of the Urals, which is explained by the unusual color of the foliage, which can change annually. With proper care, the variety grows up to four meters in height. Can be planted both in a pot and in open soil
- "Queen of the garden"... The variety is characterized by an early ripeness of fruits, which reach 3.5 grams of weight. The fruits have an oval shape and a characteristic greenish color. Representatives of the variety belong to the group of medium-sized vines.
- "Wafer"... The variety conquered the hearts of flower growers from the Urals with sweet fruits reaching 3.2 grams of mass. Differs in an average degree of ripening and relatively short growth - up to 2.3 meters. Crohn of Waffle actinidia is not very thickened
- "Narodnaya"... The fruits of this variety have a wonderful strawberry aroma and a compressed cylindrical shape. The shoots are characterized by a beautiful brown color, which emphasizes the contrasting color of the crown.
- "Hope"... The variety is represented by a beautiful bush form and belongs to the group of tall ones, because the maximum height of an adult reaches 6 meters. Due to its unpretentious nature, it is considered an invaluable find for novice gardeners. A good advantage of the variety is the early ripening of fruits and high taste properties of ripe berries.
How to properly grow this plant
Growing actinidia is not difficult. It is a grateful and useful plant. It has a number of undeniable advantages:
- good frost resistance,
- fast growth,
- decorativeness of shoots. Actinidia blooms very beautifully, but its intertwining vines with heart-shaped leaves also adorn the landscape,
- tasty and healthy fruits. In terms of vitamin C content, they surpass black currants, lemons and oranges. In addition to fruits, flowers, bark and leaves of the plant are used for medicinal purposes.
All the listed properties of actinidia make this type of lianas promising for cultivation in the climate of Russia.
Growing actinidia is not difficult. The correct choice of planting material, planting site, variety and type of plant will contribute to successful growth and fruiting. Basic care is pruning, pest and disease control, weeding, watering, loosening and fertilizing. All these methods do not differ from the standard care of other fruit plants.
Mistakes, problems of novice gardeners
When growing actinidia in Siberia, inexperienced gardeners make common mistakes:
- choose the wrong variety
- plant a plant in autumn
- untimely watering the culture
- neglect fertilization
- loosens the soil too deeply.
Actinidia is a popular plant that can be grown in Siberia. To achieve good results in this, it is necessary to correctly select a variety and provide it with high-quality and complete care.